O'Reilly, Tim

the founder of O'Reilly & Associates, which has the reputation of publishing the best Linux/UNIX books. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

OEone HomeBase

OEone provides complete Internet computer systems, with hardware and Linux based software. OEone HomeBase Software 1.2 provides powerful computing, entertainment, television, personal productivity, backup services, automatic updates, software upgrades, and more for an Internet computer. From LWN Distribution List


On-Line Analytical Processing. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


Object Oriented, any programming language or other system which is based on the concept of grouping related routines and data structures together in 'objects'. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


The value of the last option argument processed by the getopts builtin command. From Rute-Users-Guide


If set to the value 1, bash displays error messages generated by the getopts builtin command (see SHELL BUILTIN COMMANDS below). OPTERR is initialized to 1 each time the shell is invoked or a shell script is executed. From Rute-Users-Guide


The index of the next argument to be processed by the getopts builtin command. From Rute-Users-Guide


ORBit is a high-performance CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) ORB (object request broker). It allows programs to send requests and receive replies from other programs, regardless of the locations of the two programs. CORBA is an architecture that enables communication between program objects, regardless of the programming language they are written in or the operating system they run on. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


/O-S/ 1. [Operating System] n. An abbreviation heavily used in email, occasionally in speech. 2. n. obs. On ITS, an output spy. See "OS and JEDGAR" in Appendix A. From Jargon Dictionary

OS (operating system)

An operating system is software that sits between "user" programs (applications, services). From Hacking-Lexicon


/O S too/ n. The anointed successor to MS-DOS for Intel 286- and 386-based micros; proof that IBM/Microsoft couldn't get it right the second time, either. Often called `Half-an-OS'. Mentioning it is usually good for a cheap laugh among hackers -- the design was so baroque, and the implementation of 1.x so bad, that 3 years after introduction you could still count the major apps shipping for it on the fingers of two hands -- in unary. The 2.x versions are said to have improved somewhat, and informed hackers now rate them superior to Microsoft Windows (an endorsement which, however, could easily be construed as damning with faint praise). See monstrosity, cretinous, second-system effect. From Jargon Dictionary


Open Software Foundation, backers of MACH and other projects. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

OSF (Open Software Foundation)

A consortium of computer companies that promotes standards and publishes specifications for programs operating on computers that run UNIX OSF is perhaps best known for designing OSF Motif, a graphical user interface (GU1) for UNIX that provided much of the design inspiration for Microsoft Windows 95. OSF also developed the OSF Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) (a set of programs that supplement a vendor's operating system and enable cross platform network intqroperability and the OSF/I operating system, a publicly available variant of UNIX. See proprietary. From QUECID


Open Systems Interconnection - a network model including protocols developed by an ISO standards committee with the intent to standardize network communications. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


An internet routing protocol, this stands for Open Shortest Path First. This is a relatively new protocol with many enhancements over RIP and other older systems. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)

OSPF is a "routing" protocol. It is used by routers (inside an ISP or corporation) to figure out which paths packets should take when forwarded through the network. Key point: OSPF can easily be subverted by "local" hackers. This means that hacker generally has to be within network area he/she wishes to subvert. The hacker will either pretend to be a router, or spoof packets from nearby routers. The most common technique is to "advertise" false information (spoof Link State Advertisements (LSA)). From Hacking-Lexicon


Written-only acronym for "Open Source Software" (see open source. This is a rather ugly TLA, and the principals in the open-source movement don't use it, but it has (perhaps inevitably) spread through the trade press like kudzu. From Jargon Dictionary

OSS (Open Sound System)

A device driver for accessing sound cards and other audio devices under UNIX/Linux. It evolved from the Linux Sound Driver, and supports most popular audio chips and adapters. From I-gloss


A software development methodology that offers the programmer standard reusable software modules (components), rather than requiring the developer to write custom programming code each time. Using standard components reduces development time (because the writing and testing of those components has already been done by other programmers), and ensures a standard look and feel for programs using the same components. From I-gloss

Objective C

An object-oriented superset of ANSI C by Brad Cox, Productivity Products. Its additions to C are few and are mostly based on Smalltalk. Objective C is implemented as a preprocessor for C. Objective C syntax is a superset of standard C syntax, and its compiler accepts both C and Objective C source code (filename extension ".m"). From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


The Omni printer driver provides support for over 300 printers using the Ghostscript framework. In addition, it provides a model for dynamically loading printer drivers, creating new devices by editing device description files, and simplifies new printer driver development by allowing for the subclassing of previous device features. From Redhat 8.0 RPM

Omoikane GNU/Linux

This appears to be a Debian based distribution translated to Japanese. From LWN Distribution List

OnCore OS

OnCore Systems, Inc. provides the OnCore OS, a highly optimized embedded OS that dynamically allocates Memory Management Unit (MMU) protected memory, which enables fully independent address spaces. From LWN Distribution List


When you are logged onto a computer through your modem, you are said to be online. When you are using your computer but are not connected to a computer through your modem, youOre said to be working offline. On-line is also a Buzz word that indicates access to a computer network. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology

Open Sound System

a device driver for accessing sound cards and other sound devices under various UNIX operating systems. OSS has been derived from the Linux Sound Driver. The current version supports almost all popular sound cards and sound devices integrated on computer motherboards. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

Open Source

A somewhat ambiguous term that refers to software that is released with its source code. The fact that the source code is provided does not necessarily mean that users can modify and redistribute the source code. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with "free software", although they are not always the same. (Also, see Public Domain and Shareware.) From I-gloss

Open Source Software

Open Source Software is software for which the underlying programming code is available to the users so that they may read it, make changes to it, and build new versions of the software incorporating their changes. There are many types of Open Source Software, mainly differing in the licensing term under which (altered) copies of the source code may (or must be) redistributed. From Matisse

Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model

An international standard for the organization of local area networks (LANs) established by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) that improves network flexibility. Synonymous with ISO/OSI reference model. The OSI reference model separates the communication process into distinct layers insulated from each other, such as the physical, data and transport. From QUECID


The OpenClassroom Project is an initiative to develop a complete administrative system for the school. It includes tools for teachers, students and administrators. From LWN Distribution List


OpenGL is an immediate mode graphics programming API originally developed by SGI based on their previous proprietary Iris GL, and became in industry standard several years ago. It is defined and maintained by the Architectural Revision Board (ARB), an organization that includes members as SGI, IBM, and DEC, and Microsoft. OpenGL provides a complete feature set for 2D and 3D graphics operations in a pipelined hardware accelerated architecture for triangle and polygon rendering. In a broader sense, OpenGL is a powerful and generic toolset for hardware assisted computer graphics. From 3DFX-HOWTO

OpenNA Linux

The OpenNA Linux Operating System provides a highly secure and fast Linux server. Dedicated for mission critical tasks in the servers domain, the OpenNA Linux operating system provides a secure, strong, reliable and fast solution. A beta4 development version was released July 22, 2002. Release Candidate 2 was released March 24, 2003. A 'secured' distribution. From LWN Distribution List


OpenOffice.org is an Open Source, community-developed, multi-platform office productivity suite. It includes the key desktop applications, such as a word processor, spreadsheet, presentation manager, forumula editing and drawing program, with a user interface and feature set similar to other office suites. Sophisticated and flexible, OpenOffice.org also works transparently with a variety of file formats, including Microsoft Office. Languages available in OpenOffice.org-l10n-* packages include: Enligh,French, German, Spanish, Italian, Dutch, Sweddish, Finnish, Polish,Russian, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Danish, Greek, Turkish, Czech,Catalan, Arab, Slovak.Localized help files available in OpenOffice.org-help-* packagesinclude: English, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Sweddish, Russian,Finnish, Czech, Japanese, Korean, Chinese. Spell-checking and hyphenation dictionaries are available in myspell-*and myspell-hyph-* packages, respectively. Please install the onesthat better suit your language needs.Usage: Simply type "ooffice" to run OpenOffice.org or select the requested component (Writer, Calc, Draw, Impress, etc.) from your desktop menu. The ooffice wrapper script will install a few files inthe user's home, if necessary. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


The OpenZaurus project was aimed at building a kernel and filesystem for the Sharp SL-5000d and SL-5500. Version was released August 8, 2002. After that the project became a Debian based embedded distribution built from source. It is quite similar to other embedded debian-based distributions, such as Familiar for the Ipaq. This is still an open source Linux for the Sharp Zaurus, using the latest available Opie. Ports of OpenZaurus to other PDAs and/or other embedded systems are imminent (as of January 28, 2003). OpenZaurus 3.1 release candidate 2 was announced January 24, 2003. Handhelds/PDA based distribution. From LWN Distribution List

Openwall GNU/Linux

"Owl" (or "Openwall GNU/*/Linux") is a security-enhanced operating system with Linux and GNU software as its core, compatible with other major distributions of GNU/*/Linux. It is intended as a server platform. The Owl 0.1-prerelease was released on May 11, 2001. Version 1.0 was released October 14, 2002. A 'secured' distribution. From LWN Distribution List

Operating system

A master control program that manages the computer's internal functions and provides a means to control the computer's operations. The most popular operating systems for personal computers include Microsoft Windows and MacOS. From QUECID

Orange Book

n. The U.S. Government's standards document "Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria, DOD standard 5200.28-STD, December, 1985" which characterize secure computing architectures and defines levels A1 (most secure) through D (least). Modern Unixes are roughly C2. See also crayola books, book titles. From Jargon Dictionary

Orange Linux

Orange Linux is a floppy-based Linux distribution that includes a set of tools for making your own distribution, a VGA graphics library, and a small Pong game. Initial version 1.0 was released March 11, 2003. A floppy-based distribution. From LWN Distribution List


The user who has privileged access to a file; typically the user who created the file. From I-gloss


OAF (Object Activation Framework) provides the activation mechanism for GNOME components. It is a replacement for GOAD in the GNOME 2 platform. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


OAF is an object activation framework for GNOME. It uses ORBit. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


The GNOME Object Activation Framework. OAF is the new Object Activation Framework for GNOME. OAF has a similar purpose to gnorba, the GNOME 1.x CORBA activation library, and will replace it for GNOME 2.0. It allows you to do much more powerful activation queries than gnorba. Each server is described by an XML file that defines its attributes. When querying or activating, one may specify complex requirements using the OAF query language. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Objective-C compiler Portable Object Compiler (objc-poc) is an Objective-C compiler. Includes: - a modern, portable, "all C" Objective C runtime There's absolutely no assembly language needed, nor is there a dependency on stack layout, register allocation conventions etc. Most other runtimes, were derived from pre-"all C"-Stepstone runtimes, so this is an important point of difference. - "objpak", the "Object Pak" Objective C Collection Classes Simple, powerful set of classes. Very portable. Can be used to develop with different compilers, then port with 'objc'. Compatible with ICpak101, the collection class library described in Brad Cox' book, and used by existing Objective-C packages that were developed with Stepstone objc. - "cakit", the "Computer Algebra Kit" Objective C classes Small, concise, interface to a large set of classes for polynomial computing and arbitrary precision integer arithmetic. Web page: http://sf.net/projects/objc/ From Debian 3.0r0 APT


copy and translate object files From whatis


display information from object files. From whatis


A method of software development that groups related functions and data into reusable chunks. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


An interactive interpreter for the Obliq language. Obliq is a small, statically scoped, untyped language. It is object-oriented, higher-order, and distributed. State is local to an address space, while computation can migrate over the network. The distributed computation mechanism is based on Modula-3 Network Objects. This package includes several versions of Obliq: obliq: Obliq interpreter obliq-3D: Obliq interpreter with full 3D animation support obliq-anim: Obliq interpreter with full animation support obliq-min: Obliq interpreter with minimal runtime hooks obliq-std: Obliq interpreter with the standard runtime hooks obliq-ui: Obliq interpreter with ui support obliqsrv: Obliq server obliqsrv-std: Obliq server with the standard runtime hooks obliqsrv-ui: Obliq server with ui support visobliq: Prototype of an easy-to-use distributed programming environment using Obliq From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The philosophical debate of Security through obscurity, where people hope to hide rather than defend themselves from hackers. Controversy: This is a controversial topic. Non-security people will often claim that well-known security precautions are not necessary because it is unlikley that a hacker will find the obscure hole. Security professionals find this distressing because they have experience with the hacker community that regularly makes the obscure obvious. For example, buffer-overflow bugs are really obscure and hard to exploit, but once a hacker writes an automated exploit script or worm a once obscure vulnerability becomes widely known. From Hacking-Lexicon


ML language implementation with a class-based object system Objective Caml is an implementation of the ML language, based on the Caml Light dialect extended with a complete class-based object system and a powerful module system in the style of Standard ML. Objective Caml comprises two compilers. One generates bytecode which is then interpreted by a C program. This compiler runs quickly, generates compact code with moderate memory requirements, and is portable to essentially any 32 or 64 bit Unix platform. Performance of generated programs is quite good for a bytecoded implementation: almost twice as fast as Caml Light 0.7. This compiler can be used either as a standalone, batch-oriented compiler that produces standalone programs, or as an interactive, toplevel-based system. The other compiler generates high-performance native code for a number of processors. Compilation takes longer and generates bigger code, but the generated programs deliver excellent performance, while retaining the moderate memory requirements of the bytecode compiler. It is not available on all arches though. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


a library for interfacing Objective Caml with the tcl/tk CamlTk417 is a library for interfacing Objective Caml with the scripting language Tcl/Tk. In addition to the basic interface with Tcl/Tk, this package contains * the "frx" library, written by Francois Rouaix; it contains some facilities for usual idioms * the "jpf" library, written by Jun P. Furuse; it contains a "file selector" and "balloon help" support * the "jtk" library, written by Jun P. Furuse; it contains extensions for Japanese Tcl/Tk * the "tkanim" extension, written by Jun P. Furuse; it adds support for animated GIF files. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


literate programming tool for Objective Caml Literate programming, as defined by Knuth, means to combine program code and documentation into one source document from which program code and documentation can be extracted. The approach of ocamlweb is that documentation is to be included in the program code as special comments. The ocamlweb tool extracts from this the documented program code as LaTeX document, while no special preprocessing is required to compile the source files. See also http://www.lri.fr/~filliatr/ocamlweb/index.en.html. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


round X clock From whatis


The GNU Octave language for numerical computations Octave is a (mostly Matlab (R) compatible) high-level language, primarily intended for numerical computations. It provides a convenient command-line interface for solving linear and nonlinear problems numerically. Octave uses some of the best and most respected numerical libraries as balgen, dassl, eisspack, fftpack, lapack, linpack, minpack, odepack, ranlib, slatec-fn and villad. Octave can be dynamically extended with user-supplied C++ files. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The GNU Octave language for numerical computations Octave is a (mostly Matlab (R) compatible) high-level language, primarily intended for numerical computations. It provides a convenient command-line interface for solving linear and nonlinear problems numerically. This package is an emoty 'transition' package. It is needed in order to transfer smoothly from the octave packages (up to and including version octave*2.0.16-1) to the new octave2.0* packages. The new octave2.0* can coexist with the upcoming octave2.1* packages of the new development version of GNU Octave. Once you have all the octave2.0 package you want installed, you can delete this package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Contributed functions for the GNU Octave language The octave-ci package provides almost two hundred functions for GNU Octave, a (mostly Matlab (R) compatible) high-level language primarily intended for numerical computations. The files in this package are grouped by the following directories: filefun, neural-nets, listfun, timefun, general, and misc. Other parts of this package have been integrated into GNU Octave itself as of version From Debian 3.0r0 APT


GNU Octave encapsulated postscript toolkit The octave-epstk package provides, via a set of .m functions, a toolkit to create powerful encapsulated postscript (.eps) graphs. Most 2D scientific graphics functions are written. The generated .eps-files are very small and can be imported into other documents without loss of quality. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Contributed functions for GNU Octave from http://octave.sf.net The octave-forge project contains over 300 contributed functions for GNU Octave which are not in the main distribution. These functions are grouped according to the following subdirectories: audio, comm, control, general, geometry, ident, image, linear-algebra, optim, path, plot, set, signal, sparse, specfun, special-matrix, splines, statistics, strings, struct, time. While the main Octave distribution is conservative about accepting new functions and changes, octave-forge is very open. As a result, be prepared for some lower quality code and more rapidly changing interfaces to the functions in octave-forge. The octave-forge project is housed at http://sourceforge.net/projects/octave/ The Debian octave-forge package replaces (and extends) the earlier octave-matcompat package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Empty transition package for octave-forge The octave-forge package replaces the octave-matcompat package. This empty octave-matcompat forces installation of the (new) octave-forge package via an explicit dependency. Once both packages are installed, this package can be safely removed or purged. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Semidefinite Programming functions for GNU Octave The octave-sp package provides functions for semidefinite programming. It can be used to solve nonlinear, convex optimization problems. For an overview of the functionality, use 'demosp' from within Octave. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


dump files in octal and other formats From whatis


ODBC support for PostgreSQL Provides support for ODBC access to the PostgreSQL backend. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Support library and helper program for accessing odbc ini files This package contains the libodbcinst.so library from unixodbc, a library used by ODBC drivers for reading their configuration settings from /etc/odbc.ini and ~/.odbc.ini. It is useful to provide this in a stand-alone package, so that all ODBC drivers in Debian can use a consistent ini library, regardless of whether applications are built with iodbc or unixodbc. Also contained in this package is the odbcinst helper tool, which allows ODBC driver packages to install their own driver settings, and the driver setup plugins, which describe the features supported by individual ODBC drivers. COMPONENTS: libodbcinst.so (ODBC Installer/Setup) odbcinst (cmd line UI for libodbcinst.so) libodbcdrvcfg1S.so (GUI config for server based sources... basic) libodbcdrvcfg2S.so (GUI config for file based sources... basic) liboplodbcS.so (GUI config for OpenLink's opl driver) libodbcminiS.so (GUI config for MiniSQL driver) libodbcmyS.so (GUI config for MySQL driver) libtdsS.so (GUI config for MS SQL/Sybase driver) liboraodbcS.so (GUI config for Oracle driver) libodbcpsqlS.so (GUI config for PostgreSQL driver) From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Dental office management software (PHP4 + PostgreSQL) Odontolinux! is a dental office management software. It is written in PHP4. It uses PostgreSQL as DBMS. You can install this software on a server and access it from any client provided that you are connected to the server's network and you have a browser. Odontolinux! features patient's data, multiple treatment plans, ledger, payments, invoices and much more. The user can choose between english and italian language. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


produce modified copy of DVI file From whatis


convert a TeX DVI file to PostScript From whatis


translate a dvi file for humans From whatis


convert Omega and TeX font-metric files to property-list files From whatis


A secure anonymous FTP server Designed from the ground up to be as secure as an anonymous FTP server can be. It runs as non-root and uses chroot() to hide the rest of the system from the ftp daemon. It is designed to work efficiently with threads. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


/og/ v. [CMU] 1. In the multi-player space combat game Netrek, to execute kamikaze attacks against enemy ships which are carrying armies or occupying strategic positions. Named during a game in which one of the players repeatedly used the tactic while playing Orion ship G, showing up in the player list as "Og". This trick has been roundly denounced by those who would return to the good old days when the tactic of dogfighting was dominant, but as Sun Tzu wrote, "What is of supreme importance in war is to attack the enemy's strategy, not his tactics." However, the traditional answer to the newbie question "What does ogg mean?" is just "Pick up some armies and I'll show you." 2. In other games, to forcefully attack an opponent with the expectation that the resources expended will be renewed faster than the opponent will be able to regain his previous advantage. Taken more seriously as a tactic since it has gained a simple name. 3. To do anything forcefully, possibly without consideration of the drain on future resources. "I guess I'd better go ogg the problem set that's due tomorrow." "Whoops! I looked down at the map for a sec and almost ogged that oncoming car." From Jargon Dictionary


plays Ogg Vorbis files From whatis


encode audio into the Ogg Vorbis format From whatis


gives information about Ogg files. From whatis


DVD player with support for DVD menus Ogle is a DVD player with DVD menu support. This is the vanilla version, with no special CPU support. If you have a recent i386, powerpc, you will want to install the optimized package, ogle-mmx or ogle-altivec respectively. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Command line H.323 client with X, SVGA and SDL support Supports both voice and video phone calls using H.323 Voice over IP (VoIP) conferencing. Allows you to initiate and receive H.323 calls from the command line, can interoperate with any other H.323 client like GnomeMeeting or NetMeeting. It can be used interactively via a menu interface or simply via command line arguments. For more information on the OpenH323 project visit them at http://www.openh323.org/ From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Replacement ident daemon An ident (rfc1413) daemon for IPv4 and IPv6. oidentd allows users, given the proper permission, to specify the identd response that the server will output when a successful lookup is completed. Oidentd also allows for pseudo-random strings (either a prefix, such as "user," followed by a number between 0 and 99999, or 10 pseudo-random characters of the set 0-9A-Za-z) to be returned upon the completion of a successful lookup instead of a username or a UID. Oidentd supports IPv4 masqueraded connections, including netfilter. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Modified jclasses.dtx of ASCII pLaTeX. Provides jsarticle.cls, jsbook.cls and jspf.cls but jspf.cls are yet in experimental state. Also provides morisawa.sty with which one can use Morisawa Basic-5 type faces in TeX files. Morisawa Basic-5 type faces should be installed in your PS printer. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


report process status From whatis


GNU spreadsheet program Oleo is a spreadsheet program (better for you than the more expensive spreadsheet). It is an X client and also runs on character-based terminals. It can generate embedded Postscript renditions of spreadsheets. Keybindings should be familiar to Emacs users and are configurable by users. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


OpenLook virtual window manager This package contains an extended version of olwm, the original OpenLook window manager, enhanced for handling of virtual desktops. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Open Look Window Manager This package contains the traditional Open Look Window Manager. For an extended version that offers virtual desktops, have a look at the package `olvwm'. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


extended unicode TeX From whatis


A text-based roguelike game Omega is a complex rogue-style game of dungeon exploration. Unlike other such games, there are a number of ways to "win", depending on various actions taken during play. The ways you can get your name on the high score board include becoming the highest ranked head of a guild, sect, college, etc., as well as gaining the most points figured from possessions and experience. The game (via the oracle) may impose some structure on your exploration, but you need not follow all of the oracle's advice. There *is* a "total winner" status, by the way. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Markup language converter to html. OpaL Markup Language Content System is a extended html-like language defined in xml. It makes writing of content lot easier because it can fetch data from other files in a automated way. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


omniORB - idl compiler omniORB is a freely available Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) 2.3 compliant object request broker (ORB) implementation. It is based on the IIOP communications protocol and should be interoperable with any other CORBA 2.3 compliant ORB. This includes the core idl compiler. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A tool for mirroring web pages. OpaL Mirror Tool is a program written in perl to mirror web pages or download files from the web. It has the powerful ability to rewrite the content of the pages to make a fully functional mirror and the user can specify additional rewrite rules at the command line. From Debian 3.0r0 APT

one-time pad (Vernam Cipher)

In cryptography, the one-time pad encrypts data by XORing the plaintext against a stream of truely random bits. In theory, the one-time pad is the only unbreakable encryption algorithm, even with infinite resources or quantum computers. This is because if the key (aka. pad) is totally random, then the ciphertext will be random as well. Problem: While the one-time pad is perfectly secure in theory, it has problems in practice, and is rarely used. The major problem is how one distributes the one-time pads to all the receivers. This can be done in some cases, such as sending out CD-ROMs full of random bits with soldiers on the battle-fields, but it becomes unwieldy for normal uses of cryptography. Key point: The pad (secret key) can be used only once. If it is ever used twice, then much of the plaintext can be easily recovered. This means that the pad must be as long as the data being encrypted. History: The one-time pad was invented by G. S. Vernam in 1926, and saw heavy use during WWII. It is still used today in diplomatic corps, spies, the Washington-Moscow "hot-line". Rumor: There are many short-wave radio stations throughout the world broadcasting a human voice reading off long lists of numbers. These are thought to be messages sent to spies throughout the word who decode them with one-time pads. Key point: Today's encryption algorithm are based upon the theoretical underpinnings of the one-time pad. From Hacking-Lexicon

one-time password (S/Key) . . . .

A password authentication enhancement, the one-time password allows you to log on only once with a password, after which that password is no longer valid. The way this works is that instead of having a normal password you would memorize, you are given a list of passwords. You use each password sequentially. You might use a hardware device that maintains the list for you. Each time you login, you ask the hardware device for the next password. Key point: The true secret (such as the password used to encrypt the passwords) is never sent across the wire. A hacker could certainly sniff the password from the wire, but it is now useless. Example: The original OTP system was named "S/Key"; a term trademarked by Bellcore. The idea was to create a password authentication system that integrated seamlessly to existing UNIX systems. Other approaches require replacing existing protocols/software with secure password exchanges (like challenge-responses or public-key crypto). However, it should be noted that the S/Key protocol is still vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks. From Hacking-Lexicon


The program oneko creates a cute cat chasing around your mouse cursor. From whatis


a cat chases the cursor (now a mouse) around the screen A cat (neko) chases the cursor (now a mouse) around the screen while you work. Alternatively, a dog chases a bone. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Command line for X OneLiner creates a single-line command prompt at the bottom of the screen, displaying your current directory and keeping track of all the directories you've been in and commands you've run during the current session. This is a complete re-write; OneLiner has progressed from a quick Tcl/Tk hack, to an ever-so-slightly more advanced C/Tk hack, and now to C/GTK+! The interface is practically the same, but items won't get duplicated on the history menus now. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A complete, Open Source, Web-based Time-Billing solution A commercially supported, GPL'd web application to allow for the collection and approval of hours via the Web. Clients, jobs, personnel, and hours are modeled and managed by the system. Nightly reports give managers a list of their jobs and unapproved hours. A flexible backend is provided for integration with billing systems. See http://www.onshore-timesheet.org/ for more information and inquiries about commercial support, integration, or development. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


(Emacs) Object Oriented Class Browser The oo-browser is a multi-windowed, interactive object-oriented class browser similar in use to the well-known Smalltalk browsers. It is unique in a number of respects foremost of which is that it works well with a multiplicity of object-oriented languages. It provides both textual views within an editor and graphical views under the X window system and Windows. oo-browser provides support for Java, C++/C, Object-C, Python, Smalltalk, Eiffel and last but not least Lisp. More information can be found at the oo-browser web site http://sourceforge.net/projects/oo-browser/ . From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Optimizing Oberon-2 to ANSI-C Compiler Oberon-2 is an object-oriented programming language, a successor of Pascal, designed by the renowned Niklaus Wirth. It combines the popular and proven design of Pascal (strict type system, easy to read code, easy to follow program flow, possibility to naturally structure your source code) with the modularity of Modula-2 and enhances both of them with clean, simple but powerful object-oriented concepts, including inheritance, dynamic type information, virtual methods, various access rules on class and module basis and a built-in garbage collector. OO2C is the first compiler of the Optimizing Oberon-2 Compiler (OOC) project. OOC's goal is to provide optimizing native code Oberon-2 compilers for a number of popular computer architectures. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Solitaire card game for x11. Oonsoo is a solitaire card game for x11. The goal of the game is to arrange the twelve suits of cards, in order, onto the twelve playing decks. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


HTTP caching proxy server written for performance OOPS is lightweight but powerful proxy cache. It's main features are: * HTTP/1.1 (without persistent connections yet) and FTP * Fast start. It is ready to serve requests immediately after start. * On-disk storages are checked in background, while serving requests directly from network * Clean reconfiguration on SIGHUP - no broken sessions, new settings applied to new connections * Easy-to-read/understand config file and acl's * Bandwidth control * Modular structure. Several module types exist: logging, access, output, error reporting, URL filtering, ... * Objects are stored in large files: no file per object scheme. * These large files can be raw devices (like /dev/hda) From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A set of modules for the opal packages. OpaL Perl Modules is a set of perl modules used for various tasks. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The open command starts a specified command with the first available virtual console, or on a virtual console that you specify. Install the open package if you regularly use virtual consoles to run programs. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


available for modifications. not controlled by a single manufacturer. From QUECID


open and possibly create a file or device From whatis


start a program on a new virtual terminal (VT). From whatis

open architecture

A system in which all the system specifications are made public so that other companies will develop add-on products such as adapters for the system. See open bus system. From QUECID

open source

Term coined in March 1998 following the Mozilla release to describe software distributed in source under licenses guaranteeing anybody rights to freely use, modify, and redistribute, the code. The intent was to be able to sell the hackers' ways of doing software to industry and the mainstream by avoid the negative connotations (to suits) of the term "free software". From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

open source

n. [common; also adj. `open-source'] Term coined in March 1998 following the Mozilla release to describe software distributed in source under licenses guaranteeing anybody rights to freely use, modify, and redistribute, the code. The intent was to be able to sell the hackers' ways of doing software to industry and the mainstream by avoid the negative connotations (to suits) of the term "free software". For discussion of the followon tactics and their consequences, see the Open Source Initiative site. From Jargon Dictionary

open standard

A set of rules and specifications, which collectively describe the design or operating characteristics of a program or device, that is published and made freely available to the technical community. Open standards may contribute to rapid market growth if they encourage interoperability (the ability of a device made by one manufacturer to work with a device made by a different manufacturer). The opposite of an open standard is a proprietary standard which a company pushes in the hope that its standard, and no others, will come to dominate the market. From QUECID


image files for OpenAmulet, a GUI toolkit This package contains the image files needed by certain OpenAmulet programs. The OpenAmulet Toolkit is a portable toolkit designed for the creation of 2D direct manipulation graphical user interfaces. It is written in C++ and can be used with Unix systems running the X Window System (Motif look), PC's running Microsoft Windows NT or `95 (native look), or Macintosh systems running MacOS (native look). The Amulet research project in the School of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University is creating a comprehensive set of tools which make it significantly easier to create graphical, highly-interactive user interfaces. The lower levels of Amulet are called the `Amulet Toolkit,' and these provide mechanisms that allow programmers to code user interfaces much more easily. Support is provided for: object selection, save/load, undo, and constraints. As the group at Carnegie Mellon University is no longer funded for its work on Amulet, some Amulet users have founded the OpenAmulet project which has continued its development. For more information, see http://www.openip.org and http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~amulet/ From Debian 3.0r0 APT


"Open-source" describes a set of political values espoused by many on the Internet. When creating software, a programmer will write code. Code is the "source" from which the software is built. This source code is then compiled into object binaries. It is not feasable to reconstruct the source code from the binaries, which means that somebody using software cannot see the source code from which it was built. The political view is that people should be able to view the source, that is should be "open" for reading by anybody. The primary reason is that open-source increases "freedom". People are free to make changes as they like to the source-code, thereby fixing bugs or adding features to their software. There is also a level of paranoia involved: people fear that closed-source they can't read may be doing something subversive, such as secretly monitoring people for the government. Controversey: Open-source advocates believe that it is beneficial for the following reasons: security Security is founded upon the principle of peer review. This is especially true in the world of crypto, where nothing is accepted without years of vetting by members of the crypto community. In the same fashion, many paranoids will trust only peer-reviewed, open-source software. However, as of 2001, both open-source and closed-source have been the source of massive security problems (such as the many popular Linux worms). cost Open-source software licenses are usually free. However, since software licenses for many products are much smaller than operational costs, it price is not as important as other things. For example, BIND and Sendmail are popular not so much for their free licenses, but more for the fact that they have been the standard for more than 15 years. These products are well understood, and therefore cheap for companies to operate. stability and bugs The peer-review model suggests that bugs can be easily found and fixed. However, both open-source and closed-source suffer from the fact that source-code is a constantly moving target. In both cases, new code is being written faster than existing code is being fixed. There are some open-source projects (e.g. OpenBSD) where developers concentrate on stabilizing code rather than moving forward to the latest and greatest features. However, some people think that projects like Linux are too fast a moving target to ever quite stabilize. Since the source-code is open, developers can easily change it to add features. However, few people are developers, and the code is often so poorly documented, adding changes to it can often be more of a burden than starting over from scratch. Example: The following are well known open-source projects: Linux, Apache, sendmail, BIND, Samba, Perl, Mozilla, MySQL From Hacking-Lexicon


The AFS distributed filesystem- database server AFS is a distributed filesystem allowing cross-platform sharing of files among multiple computers. Facilities are provided for access control, authentication, backup and administrative management. It should be installed on the servers that will act as volume location and protection servers. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


H.323 answering machine This program does the job of a real answering machine but for H.323 Voice over IP (VoIP) based phones, this is, answers calls and plays previously recorded messages and then records new ones for you to hear afterwards. For more information on the OpenH323 project visit them at http://www.openh323.org/ From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Convert and manipulate chemical data files Openbabel is a GPL and C++ rewrite of the 'babel' program to convert the various file formats used in chemical software. The command-line interface is mostly identical to the old 'babel' executable and recognizes these file formats among many others: Alchemy, ChemDraw, GAMESS, Gaussian, HyperChem, MDL Isis and Molfile, MOPAC, MPQC, PDB, SMILES and XYZ. Right now, openbabel is not a 100% replacement for babel as some file formats and bond order prediction are not yet supported. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


extensible C++ compiler OpenC++ is a tool for source-code translation for C++. Programmers can easily implement various kinds of translation so that they can define new syntax, new annotation, and new object behavior. Web Page: http://www.hlla.is.tsukuba.ac.jp/~chiba/openc++.html From Debian 3.0r0 APT


H.323 voice over IP gatekeeper OpenGatekeeper supports all the basic features of an H.323 Gatekeeper such as registration, admissions and access control, address translation and bandwidth monitoring and control. To utilise the gatekeeper you require a H.323 client, such as simph323, ohphone or even MS Netmeeting. It also supports many advanced features such as: - Gatekeeper routed calls - Support of H.323v2 alias types (party number, URL, transport id and email address) - Support for gateway prefixes - Registration and call activity logs - Neighbour gatekeeper database - Registration time to live From Debian 3.0r0 APT


H.323 gatekeeper H.323 gatekeeper controls all H.323 clients (endpoints like MS Netmeeting) in your zone. Its most important function is address translation between symbolic alias addresses and IP addresses. This allows you to call "jan" instead of knowing which IP address he currently works on. To utilise the gatekeeper you require a H.323 client, such as simph323, ohphone or even MS Netmeeting. - can send LRQ to neighbour GK based on prefix - authentication mechanism - Alternate gatekeeper option - rewriting of E.164 numbers - "ping" endpoints (heartbeat) - TCP interface for monitoring and controlling the GK From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Jade (James' DSSSL Engine) is an implementation of the DSSSL style language -- Document Style Semantics and Specification Language --an ISO standard for formatting SGML (and XML) documents. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


Implementation of the DSSSL language OpenJade is an implementation of the ISO/IEC 10179:1996 standard DSSSL language. It is based on James Clark's Jade software. This is the latest stable release of OpenJade. For the latest-and-greatest/bleeding-edge, install the `openjade' package. The OpenJade processor, in conjunction with a DSSSL style sheet, is capable of translating SGML documents into other formats. Output formats currently supported are RTF, HTML, MIF, JadeTeX, or an XML representation of the flow object tree. Using it's own non-standard system, it is also capable of transforming one SGML or XML DTD to another. Author: The OpenJade Team <[email protected]> Homepage: http://openjade.sourceforge.net/ From Debian 3.0r0 APT


OpenLDAP is an open source suite of LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) applications and development tools. LDAP is a set of protocols for accessing directory services (usually phone book style information, but other information is possible) over the Internet, similar to the way DNS (Domain Name System) information is propagated over the Internet. The openldap package contains configuration files, libraries, and documentation for OpenLDAP. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


H.323 conferencing server OpenH323 console interactive conferencing server that allows two or more people using a H.323 client to talk to each other in chat rooms. The server mixes the sound coming from all participants and splits the image so that up to 4 of them can be seen. For more information on the OpenH323 project visit them at http://www.openh323.org/ From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Utilities to administer an openmosix cluster node Openmosix is an extension to the linux kernel to support scalable and transparent cluster computing. The enhanced kernel allows a cluster of workstations and servers based on the Intel x86 architecture to work cooperatively as if part of a single system. This package provides the utilities to run a openmosix cluster. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


This is the Open Motif 2.2.1 runtime environment. It includes the Motif shared libraries, needed to run applications which are dynamically linked against Motif, and the Motif Window Manager "mwm". From Redhat 8.0 RPM


Open source Napster server. Napster is a protocol for sharing files between clients. The server acts as a broker and search engine for client transfers. It also features group and private chat, similar to IRC. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


OpenOffice.org is an Open Source, community-developed, multi-platformoffice productivity suite. It includes the key desktop applications, such as a word processor, spreadsheet, presentation manager, formulaeditor and drawing program, with a user interface and feature set similar to other office suites. Sophisticated and flexible,OpenOffice.org also works transparently with a variety of file formats, including Microsoft Office. Usage: Simply type "ooffice" to run OpenOffice.org or select the requested component (Writer, Calc, Draw, Impress, etc.) from your desktop menu. The ooffice wrapper script will install a few files in the user's home, if necessary. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


OpenJade group's SGML parsing tools This package is a collection of SGML/XML tools called OpenSP. It is a fork from James Clark's SP suite. These tools are used to parse, validate, and normalize SGML and XML files. The central programs included in this package are 'onsgmls', which replaces sgmls, 'ospam', 'ospent', 'osgmlnorm', and 'osgml2xml'. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


SSH (Secure Shell) a program for logging into a remote machine and for executing commands in a remote machine. It is intended to replace rlogin and rsh, and provide secure encrypted communications betweentwo untrusted hosts over an insecure network. X11 connections and arbitrary TCP/IP ports can also be forwarded over the secure channel. OpenSSH is OpenBSD's rework of the last free version of SSH, bringing it up to date in terms of security and features, as well as removing all patented algorithms to separate libraries (OpenSSL). This package includes the core files necessary for both the OpenSSH client and server. To make this package useful, you should also install openssh-clients, openssh-server, or both. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


Secure Socket Layer (SSL) binary and related cryptographic tools. This package contains the openssl binary and related tools. It is part of the OpenSSL implementation of SSL. You need it to perform certain cryptographic actions like: o Creation of RSA, DH and DSA key parameters o Creation of X.509 certificates, CSRs and CRLs o Calculation of Message Digests o Encryption and Decryption with Ciphers o SSL/TLS Client and Server Tests o Handling of S/MIME signed or encrypted mail . From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The openssl certificate management tool and the shared libraries that provide various encryption and decription algorithms and protocols, including DES, RC4,RSA and SSL. This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in theOpenSSL Toolkit (http://www.openssl.org/). This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young([email protected]). This product includes software written by Tim Hudson ([email protected]). From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


3D Universe Simulator OpenUniverse (OU for short) is a fun, fast and free OpenGL space simulator. It currently focusses on the Solar System and lets you visit all of its planets, most major moons and a vast collection of smaller bodies in colorful, glorious and realtime 3D. If you've ever had a chance to visit Mercury or asteroid Geographos, here you'll find them looking exactly the same way, following exactly the same path as when you've left them. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A graphical chat written in tcl/tk. OpenVerse is a graphical visual chat client/server written in tcl/tk. Anyone who has seen Virtual Places, The Palace, or any other visual chat can quickly relate to what OpenVerse is. This package includes both the client program and server code. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


VRML X11 viewer This package contains lookat, a X11 VRML viewer using openvrml From Debian 3.0r0 APT


start a program on a new virtual terminal (VT). From whatis

operating system

Software that shares a computer system's resources (processor, memory, disk space, network bandwidth, and so on) between users and the application programs they run. Controls access to the system to provide security.

operating system

The foundation software of a machine; that which schedules tasks, allocates storage, and presents a default interface to the user between applications. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

operating system

n. [techspeak] (Often abbreviated `OS') The foundation software of a machine; that which schedules tasks, allocates storage, and presents a default interface to the user between applications. The facilities an operating system provides and its general design philosophy exert an extremely strong influence on programming style and on the technical cultures that grow up around its host machines. Hacker folklore has been shaped primarily by the Unix, ITS, TOPS-10, TOPS-20/TWENEX, WAITS, CP/M, MS-DOS, and Multics operating systems (most importantly by ITS and Unix). From Jargon Dictionary


OPIE programs for generating OTPs on client machines This package contains the necessary generators to produce one-time passwords (OTPs) which allow you to log into systems running OPIE aware daemons. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


OPIE programs for maintaining an OTP key file Creates an OTP key file. Probably not useful without libpam-opie From Debian 3.0r0 APT


convert Omega and TeX property-list files to font-metric files From whatis


Options Parsing Tool shared library opt is a subroutine library which facilitates the convenient input of parameters to a C program. Parameters are parsed from a command line, with further facilities for reading options from files, from environment strings, or from an interactive environment. The aim of the opt package is to permit programs to be both user- and programmer- friendly. The package attempts to on the one hand provide a direct and relatively full-featured input interface to the ultimate user of the program, and at the same time impose a minimal amount of work on the programmer to "attach" the package to his or her software. It is similar to GNU's (and AT&T's old) getopts package, but with a different interface that might be easier to use. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


An argument on a command line, usually preceded by a minus sign, that modifies the functioning of the command-also known as a flag or a switch. For example, the -x option on the command line vi -x allows the vi editor to read an encrypted file. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


A CORBA ORB (used with Gnome) ORBit is a lightweight CORBA ORB designed for use with the Gnome project. (Nothing about it requires Gnome, though.) This package contains command-line utilities for various ORBit services: orbit-ird, name-client, orbit-name-server, orbit-event-server, ior-decode. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A CORBA ORB (used with Gnome) ORBit2 is a high-performance CORBA ORB originally designed for use with the GNOME project. (Nothing about it requires GNOME, though.) This package contains command-line utilities, such as name-client-2, orbit-name-server-2 and ior-decode-2. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


GNOME application for schematic capture of electrical circuits Oregano is an application for schematic capture and printing of electrical circuits. It can also be used for simulations if you have Berkeley Spice. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The original awk described in "The AWK Programming Language" This is the version of awk described in "The AWK Programming Language", by Al Aho, Brian Kernighan, and Peter Weinberger (Addison-Wesley, 1988, ISBN 0-201-07981-X). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A lightweight themeable window manager for X. Oroborus is a small and simple window manager which does exactly what it says it does, manage windows. There is no fancy doc, clip, wharf, or a root menu for that matter. These utilities can be provided by other programs such as "deskmenu". Oroborus has support for Gnome and session management, or can be run as a stand-alone window manager. This package has also been compiled with Xinerama support. Oroborus is small, about 40Kb at the time of this package. It has full keyboard control and is very themeable. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Java VM and JIT from Intel Research Lab. ORP stands for Open Runtime Platform, which is an Intel(TM) Open Source research platform for investigating dynamic compilation and memory management technologies. The basic ORP system incorporates a fast code generating JIT (Just-In-Time) as well as an optimizing JIT. It also includes several GC (Garbage Collection) algorithms, ranging from a simple mark-sweep algorithm to an advanced train algorithm. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Free java class libraries (specific to ORP JVM) GNU Classpath is a set of essential libraries for supporting the Java language. Our goal is to provide a free replacement for Sun's proprietary class libraries so that the GNU system can run programs written in the Java language. This specific package has additional files that are specific to the ORP JVM. It is only suitable for use with the ORP JVM. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


n. [Unix] A process whose parent has died; one inherited by init(1). Compare zombie. From Jargon Dictionary

orphaned i-node

/or'f*nd i:'nohd/ n. [Unix] 1. [techspeak] A file that retains storage but no longer appears in the directories of a filesystem. 2. By extension, a pejorative for any person no longer serving a useful function within some organization, esp. lion food without subordinates. From Jargon Dictionary


An alternative to the standard write program Orville Write is an alternative to the default write program. It has many features which are not present in the default write including helper flags, telegrams, access control, and more. The Orville Write home page is at: http://www.wwnet.net/~janc/write.html From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Clock using the XOSD library A clock which uses the X On-Screen Display library to display itself. It supports a strftime(3)-style format parameter and has can be configured to show up only at specific intervals. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Operator's Shell The Operator Shell (Osh) is a setuid root, security enhanced, restricted shell. It allows the administrator to carefully limit the access of special commands and files to the users whose duties require their use, while at the same time automatically maintaining audit records. The configuration file for Osh contains an administrator defined access profile for each authorized user or group. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The Flux Operating System Toolkit, a framework for OS design This package is a collection of libraries designed to ease kernel development. Provided with libraries of commonly used functions, operating system developers can spend more time focusing on design and "interesting" code, and less time wrestling with extremely-low-level issues. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Program to save/restore OSS mixer settings This package saves the Open Sound System (OSS) mixer settings into a file when the machine is shut down, and restores them from the file when it is restarted. It can optionally restore from a file of fixed settings. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


translate WEB to Pascal From whatis


Generator for One Time Passwords otp creates key and password lists for verification and security purposes in a variety of formats. Keys can be of any length, consist of digits or letters (capital or lower case), and alphabetic passwords can either be entirely random (most secure) or obey the digraph statistics of English text (easier to remember when transcribing, but less secure). For computer applications, for example one-time login passwords, otp can create a file containing the MD5 signature of each of the generated keys. This permits the computer to verify keys without the need to store the keys in plaintext. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


convert Omega Translation Process files to Omega Compiled Process files From whatis


A universal steganographic tool OutGuess is a universal steganographic tool that allows the insertion of hidden information into the redundant bits of data sources. The nature of the data source is irrelevant to the core of OutGuess. The program relies on data specific handlers that will extract redundant bits and write them back after modification. In this version the PNM and JPEG image formats are supported. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


debug an OCP file From whatis


Driver source for the OV511, a USB-only chip used in many webcams. This package contains the device driver source for the OV511, a USB-only chip used in many "webcam" devices. Any camera using the OV511/OV511+ and the OV6620 or OV7610/20/20AE image sensor should work. TV-capture devices with the SAA7111A decoder are supported as well. It supports streaming and capture of color or monochrome video via the Video4Linux API. Most V4L apps are compatible with it, and it supports most image widths and heights that are multiples of 8. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


bloody 2D action deathmatch-like game in ascii-art Throw away Doom, Quake and Duke Nukem - 0verkill comes. Now you don't even need graphic mode if you wanna take a bloody deathmatch with your friends. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


convert a virtual font file and its associated font metric file into property-list format From whatis


convert a virtual property-list file into a virtual font file and its associated font metric file From whatis


The user who creates a file and therefore has privileged access to it. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


DVI Previewer for the X Window System From whatis


DVI Previewer for the X Window System From whatis


DVI Previewer for the X Window System From whatis