/vaks/ n. 1. [from Virtual Address eXtension] The most successful minicomputer design in industry history, possibly excepting its immediate ancestor, the PDP-11. Between its release in 1978 and its eclipse by killer micros after about 1986, the VAX was probably the hacker's favorite machine of them all, esp. after the 1982 release of 4.2 BSD Unix (see BSD). Esp. noted for its large, assembler-programmer-friendly instruction set -- an asset that became a liability after the RISC revolution. 2. A major brand of vacuum cleaner in Britain. Cited here because its sales pitch, "Nothing sucks like a VAX!" became a sort of battle-cry of RISC partisans. It is even sometimes claimed that DEC actually entered a cross-licensing deal with the vacuum-Vax people that allowed them to market VAX computers in the U.K. in return for not challenging the vacuum cleaner trademark in the U.S. A rival brand actually pioneered the slogan: its original form was "Nothing sucks like Electrolux". It has apparently become a classic example (used in advertising textbooks) of the perils of not knowing the local idiom. But in 1996, the press manager of Electrolux AB, while confirming that the company used this slogan in the late 1960s, also tells us that their marketing people were fully aware of the possible double entendre and intended it to gain attention. And gain attention it did - the VAX-vacuum-cleaner people thought the slogan a sufficiently good idea to copy it. Several British hackers report that VAX's promotions used it in 1986-1987, and we have one report from a New Zealander that the infamous slogan surfaced there in TV ads for the product in 1992. From Jargon Dictionary


Version information of the package. From Rute-Users-Guide


Virtual File System. It's the abstraction layer between the user and real filesystems like ext2, minix and msdos. Amongst other things, its job is to flush the read buffer when it detects a disk change on the floppy disk drive. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


VFlib is a font library written in C which converts vector fonts to bitmap data. Functions provided in VFlib include rotating, shrinking,and changing the slant of characters. VFlib provides a unified API forall supported font formats; any software using VFlib can use any of the supported font file formats immediately. VFlib is used by localized software for Japanese document processing thatrequires Kanji fonts (for example xdvi, dvi2ps, and Ghostscript). From Redhat 8.0 RPM


Vim stands for 'Vi Improved'. Vi is one of the most popular and powerful editors in the Unix world. Vi is an abbreviation for "Visual" editor. One of the first editors was a line editor called 'ed' (and 'ex'). The Visual editor like Vi was a vast improvement over line editors like 'ed' (or 'ex'). The editors 'ed' and 'ex' are still available on Linux: see 'man ed' and 'man ex'. A good editor improves programmer productivity. Vim supports color syntax highlighting of program code and also emphasises text using different fonts like normal, bold or italics. A color editor like Vim can improve the productivity of programmers by 2 to 3 times!! Programmers can read the code much more rapidly as the code syntax is colored and highlighted. From VIM-HOWTO

VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network, IEEE 802.1q)

A VLAN allows multiple virtual LANs to coexist on the same physical LAN (switched). This means that two machines attached to the same switch cannot send Ethernet frames to each other even though they pass over the same wires. If they need to communicate, then a router must be placed between the two VLANs to forward packets, just as if the two LANs were physically isolated. The only difference is that the router in question may contain only a single Ethernet NIC that is part of both VLANs (a one-armed router). The frames are "tagged" with an 802.1q prefix as they enter the network, which the Ethernet switches will use to separate traffic. Key point: Sometimes people want to put a firewall between VLANs, putting their DMZ on one VLAN on the rest of their company on another. This is an extraordinarily bad thing to do. VLANs are designed primarily to segment broadcast domains and improve performance and manageability. They are not hardened against security breaches. For example, Bay switches will forward packets incorrectly if the MAC address is known by the hacker. Cisco ATM switches have been known to leak frames onto incorrect VLANs when overloaded. Key point: Most cable-modem and DSL connectivity is provided via VLANs over an ATM infrastructure. All the security concerns expressed above for VLANs applies to these technologies as well. From Hacking-Lexicon


/V-M-S/ n. DEC's proprietary operating system for its VAX minicomputer; one of the seven or so environments that loom largest in hacker folklore. Many Unix fans generously concede that VMS would probably be the hacker's favorite commercial OS if Unix didn't exist; though true, this makes VMS fans furious. One major hacker gripe with VMS concerns its slowness -- thus the following limerick: There once was a system called VMS Of cycles by no means abstemious. It's chock-full of hacks And runs on a VAX And makes my poor stomach all squeamious. --- The Great Quux See also VAX, TOPS-10, TOPS-20, Unix, runic. From Jargon Dictionary

VPN (Virtual Private Network)

A VPN allows the user to remotely connect to a company, via the Internet, with a secure connection that makes it appear ("virtually") as if the machine is on the corporate LAN. VPNs are used for employee-company and company-company connections. Key point: One way that an employee can connect to a company is to put a modem in the machine and dial directly to modems inside the corporation. This is expensive due to long distance charges. But think for a moment that the employee can purchase two modems to put in the machine, and while dialed up to the corporation, the employee also dials up the Internet. This would mean that the employee has two active network connections: one to the corporation, one to the Internet. A VPN is the same thing, only the corporate connection and modem are "virtual". Key point: Vendors claim that when the VPN is active, that the previous Internet access is disabled and all further communication goes through the corporation. Therefore, if the user wants to browse the web while the VPN is active, the user must browse through firewalls/proxies inside the corporation then back out to the web. However, this is just a bit of sleight-of-hand: while it appears to the user that normal Internet communication has been disabled, in reality it has only been "hidden": a hacker can still compromise the machine from the Internet. Key point: VPN puts the connection on the company's internal network, inside the firewall. Therefore, if a hacker compromises someone's machine who uses VPN, then the hacker has easy access to the inside of a hardened corporate environment. From Hacking-Lexicon

VPN (Virtual Private Network)

Usually refers to a network in which some of the parts are connected using the public Internet, but the data sent across the Internet is encrypted, so the entire network is "virtually" private. From Matisse

VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language)

A primarily Web-based language used for 3D effects (such as building walk-throughs). From I-gloss


A standard terminal type supported by many computer systems. Telnet programs emulate this type of terminal in order to connect to many Internet sites. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


VECTORLINUX is a small, fast, Intel based Linux operating system for PC style computers. The creators of VECTORLINUX had a single credo: keep it simple, keep it small and let the end user decide what their operating system is going to be. Version 2.5 was released April 2, 2002. A beta named SOHO was announced as an iso only, July 29, 2002. SOHO 1.0 was released August 20, 2002. SOHO 3.2 was released March 19, 2003. VectorLinux 3.2 was released February 6, 2003. A small disk distribution. From LWN Distribution List

Vedova Linux

Vedova Linux is currently at version 3.0, and Vedova Software also has Mandrake 8.1 and DemoLinux 3.0 available in boxed sets. Presumably in Italian. From LWN Distribution List


A computer program that helps Internauts find what they are looking for on gopher servers around the world. Instead of looking through menus, Veronica allows users to enter keywords to locate the gopher site that holds the information they want. Gopher to


A program to track down information from Gopher databases. From KADOWKEV

Veronica (Very Easy Rodent Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives)

Developed at the University of Nevada, Veronica was a constantly updated database of the names of almost every menu item on thousands of gopherservers. The Veronica database could be searched from most major gophermenus. Now made obsolete by web-bases search engines. From Matisse

Version 7 alt. V7

/vee' se'vn/ n. The first widely distributed version of Unix, released unsupported by Bell Labs in 1978. The term is used adjectivally to describe Unix features and programs that date from that release, and are thus guaranteed to be present and portable in all Unix versions (this was the standard gauge of portability before the POSIX and IEEE 1003 standards). Note that this usage does not derive from the release being the "seventh version of Unix"; research Unix at Bell Labs has traditionally been numbered according to the edition of the associated documentation. Indeed, only the widely-distributed Sixth and Seventh Editions are widely known as V[67]; the OS that might today be known as `V10' is instead known in full as "Tenth Edition Research Unix" or just "Tenth Edition" for short. For this reason, "V7" is often read by cognoscenti as "Seventh Edition". See BSD, USG Unix, Unix. Some old-timers impatient with commercialization and kernel bloat still maintain that V7 was the Last True Unix. From Jargon Dictionary

Vine Linux

"The Supreme Linux Distribution with Integrated Japanese Environment for Your Desktop PCs and Notebooks." Multiple platforms seem to be supported. Vine Linux 2.5 was released April 15, 2002. Japanese distribution From LWN Distribution List


From the makers of cLIeNUX, ViraLinux_II is a LILO boot/root floppy image that can run without a hard drive and has over 200k free space on the floppy, ash, eforthl, H3sm and no libc. From LWN Distribution List

Virtual Desktop

A method for expanding the user's workspace beyond the boundaries of the computer screen. The desktop may be scrollable left and right, up and down, as if a larger desktop were positioned behind the glass screen and moved around to reveal icons, windows and other objects that were 'off-stage', or out of view. Alternatively, as with the KDE desktop, multiple buttons may be available, each of which displays an area of desktop equal to the size of the glass screen and which can each contain different objects. From I-gloss

Virtual Hosting

Virtualhosting is the use of a single web server to serve the web pages of multiple domains. Although the web server seems to be connecting to a web site that is an isolated entry, that web site may be in fact be hosted alongside many others on the same machine. From Rute-Users-Guide

Virtual Linux

Virtual Linux is based on Mandrake 8.1, modified to run from CDROM. Modifications include a new startup script, automatic search and mount of CDROM drive, and cloop compression. The CD contains 1.7 GB of software. Version 1.1 was released May 4, 2002. A CD-based distribution. From LWN Distribution List

Virtual Machine

Virtual Machines (VMs) are features of central processor chips that isolate an area of memory from the rest of the system. Because operating systems and applications run in a "protected mode" environment, if a program freezes in one Virtual Machine it will not affect the operation of the programs and operating systems running outside of that Virtual Machine. From I-gloss

Virtual Memory

The process of using a portion of disk space as a temporary storage area for memory. Synonymous with Swap. From I-gloss


A chunk of computer programming code that makes copies of itself without any concious human intervention. Some viruses do more than simply replicate themselves, they might display messages, install other software or files, delete software of files, etc. A virus requires the presence of some other program to replicate itself. Typically viruses spread by attaching themselves to programs and in some cases files, for example the file formats for Microsoft word processor and spreadsheet programs allow the inclusion of programs called "macros" which can in some cases be a breeding ground for viruses. From Matisse


VoIP stands for 'V'oice 'o'ver 'I'nternet 'P'rotocol. As the term says VoIP tries to let go voice (mainly human) through IP packets and, in definitive through Internet. VoIP can use accelerating hardware to achieve this purpose and can also be used in a PC environment. Many years ago we discovered that sending a signal to a remote destination could have be done also in a digital fashion: before sending it we have to digitalize it with an ADC (analog to digital converter), transmit it, and at the end transform it again in analog format with DAC (digital to analog converter) to use it. VoIP works like that, digitalizing voice in data packets, sending them and reconverting them in voice at destination. Digital format can be better controlled: we can compress it, route it, convert it to a new better format, and so on; also we saw that digital signal is more noise tolerant than the analog one (see GSM vs TACS). TCP/IP networks are made of IP packets containing a header (to control communication) and a payload to transport data: VoIP use it to go across the network and come to destination. Voice (source) - - ADC - - - - Internet - - - DAC - - Voice (dest) What is the advantages using VoIP rather PSTN? When you are using PSTN line, you typically pay for time used to a PSTN line manager company: more time you stay at phone and more you'll pay. In addition you couldn't talk with other that one person at a time. In opposite with VoIP mechanism you can talk all the time with every person you want (the needed is that other person is also connected to Internet at the same time), as far as you want (money independent) and, in addition, you can talk with many people at the same time. If you're still not persuaded you can consider that, at the same time, you can exchange data with people are you talking with, sending images, graphs and videos. Then, why everybody doesn't use it yet? Unfortunately we have to report some problem with the integration between VoIP architecture and Internet. As you can easy imagine, voice data communication must be a real time stream (you couldn't speak, wait for many seconds, then hear other side answering): this is in contrast with the Internet heterogeneous architecture that can be made of many routers (machines that route packets), about 20-30 or more and can have a very high round trip time (RTT), so we need to modify something to get it properly working.From VoIP HOWTO


tool to configure video4linux drivers This is a small tool to configure a video4linux device driver. It is required to make the video overlay work in fbtv and xawtv. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


email autoresponder Vacation returns a message to the sender of a message telling them that you are currently not reading your mail. This program is derived from the NetBSD version and has most of the features present in the linux, solaris, AIX and *BSD versions. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


adj. [from the default flavor of ice cream in the U.S.] Ordinary flavor, standard. When used of food, very often does not mean that the food is flavored with vanilla extract! For example, `vanilla wonton soup' means ordinary wonton soup, as opposed to hot-and-sour wonton soup. Applied to hardware and software, as in "Vanilla Version 7 Unix can't run on a vanilla 11/34." Also used to orthogonalize chip nomenclature; for instance, a 74V00 means what TI calls a 7400, as distinct from a 74LS00, etc. This word differs from canonical in that the latter means `default', whereas vanilla simply means `ordinary'. For example, when hackers go on a great-wall, hot-and-sour soup is the canonical soup to get (because that is what most of them usually order) even though it isn't the vanilla (wonton) soup. From Jargon Dictionary


/veir/ or /var/ n. Short for `variable'. Compare arg, param. From Jargon Dictionary

variable width fonts

Most of the fonts you will use are variable width. See fixed width fonts. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


VA RAID monitor A textbased tool to monitor DAC 960 RAID controllers. This includes Mylex RAID cards from the 960 and 1100 series, eXteremeRAID 2000 & 3000, AcceleRAID 352 & 170. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


LBNL audio conferencing tool over the internet. The LBNL audio tool, vat, is a real-time, multi-party, multimedia application for audio conferencing over the Internet. Vat is based on the Draft Internet Standard Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) developed by the IETF Audio/Video Transport working group. RTP is an application-level protocol implemented entirely within vat -- you need no special system enhancements to run RTP. Although vat can be run point-to-point using standard unicast IP addresses, it is primarily intended as a multi-party conferencing application. To make use of the conferencing capabilities, your system must support IP Multicast, and ideally, your network should be connected to the IP Multicast Backbone (MBone). Vat provides only the audio portion of a multimedia conference; video, whiteboard, and session control tools are implemented as separate applications. Our video tool is called vic and our whiteboard tool wb, UCL developed the session directory tool sdr Other related applications include ISI's Multimedia Conference Control, mmcc, the Xerox PARC Network Video tool, nv and the INRIA Video-conferencing System, ivs. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


voice response system for isdn4linux Please install also raccess4vbox3 and refer to /usr/share/doc/raccess4vbox3. This is vbox3 taken from isdn4k-utils cvs repository http://www.isdn4linux.de/cgi-bin/cvsweb.cgi/isdn4k-utils/vbox3/ on December 2000. Since the upstream author no longer works on this project, I applied the vboxputty patch and did some more changes, now found in the new source tree vbox3-x.x.x.tar.gz. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Creates Video CD (VCD) filesystem images This package includes two utilities "mkvcdfs" and "vcdmplex". mkvcdfs creates filesystem images for video CDs, which can then be written to CD with the cdrdao program. vcdmplex is used to multiplex MPG audio and data streams into a format suitable for a video CD. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A Visualization Tool for compiler graphs The VCG tool reads a textual and readable specification of a graph and visualizes the graph. If not all positions of nodes are fixed, the tool layouts the graph using several heuristics as reducing the number of crossings, minimizing the size of edges, centering of nodes. The specification language of the VCG tool is nearly compatible to GRL, the language of the edge tool, but contains many extensions. The VCG tool allows folding of dynamically or statically specified regions of the graph. It uses colors and runs on X11. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Virtual Console Hex Editor Standard hex editor, whose main advantage is the ability to write directly to the virtual terminals and thus display all 0-255 displayable characters on the terminal. Includes support for xterm and curses as well. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


cuts Ogg Vorbis files From whatis


manages virtual desktops for minimal window managers vdesk takes the task of managing virtual desktops away from the window manager and implements an easy to use interface to those desktops. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


/vee'dif/ v.,n. Visual diff. The operation of finding differences between two files by eyeball search. The term `optical diff' has also been reported, and is sometimes more specifically used for the act of superimposing two nearly identical printouts on one another and holding them up to a light to spot differences. Though this method is poor for detecting omissions in the `rear' file, it can also be used with printouts of graphics, a claim few if any diff programs can make. See diff. An interesting variant of the vdiff technique usable by anyone who has sufficient control over the parallax of their eyeballs (e.g. those who can easily view random-dot stereograms), is to hold up two paper printouts and go cross-eyed to superimpose them. This invokes deep, fast, built-in image comparison wetware (the same machinery responsible for depth perception) and differences stand out almost immediately. This technique is good for finding edits in graphical images, or for comparing an image with a compressed version to spot artifacts.<p> From Jargon Dictionary


list directory contents From whatis


RAD for VDK VDK Builder is a clone of C++ Builder. Builder's main features are: * Project Manager * GUI designer * Text Editor * Widget Inspector * generates VDK code * plugin extensions This package contains the executable. The plugins bundled with vdkbuilder are in libvdkbuilder and libvdkbuilder-dev packages. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Video Disk Recorder for DVB-S cards, base package Video Disk Recorder (VDR) is a digital sat-receiver program using Linux and DVB-S technologies. It allows one to record MPEG2 streams, as well as output the stream to TV. It is also possible to watch DVDs (hardware accelerated) with some comfort and use a IR remote control. This package contains files shared by different VDR versions and frontends. NOTE: You should install compatible DVB drivers before using these programs. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Server version of Video Disk Recorder for DVB-S cards Video Disk Recorder (VDR) is a digital sat-receiver program using Linux and DVB-S technologies. It allows one to record MPEG2 streams, as well as output the stream to TV. It is also possible to watch DVDs with some comfort and hardware acceleration. This package contains a VDR version without any direct control capabilities. Instead, it opens a control port and other programs like kvdr (from the kvdr package) can connect to the vdr-daemon and use it. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Video Disk Recorder for DVB-S cards with keyboard control Video Disk Recorder (VDR) is a digital sat-receiver program using Linux and DVB-S technologies. It allows one to record MPEG2 streams, as well as output the stream to TV. It is also possible to watch DVDs with some comfort and hardware acceleration. This package contains the vdr-kbd program which is controlled via the PC keyboard. There are also vdr-rcu and vdr-lirc packages which contain another VDR versions using RCU or infrared remote control. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Video Disk Recorder for DVB-S cards with IR remote control Video Disk Recorder (VDR) is a digital sat-receiver program using Linux and DVB-S technologies. It allows one to record MPEG2 streams, as well as output the stream to TV. It is also possible to watch DVDs with some comfort and hardware acceleration. This package contains the vdr-lirc program which is controlled via a IR remote control. There are also vdr-kbd and vdr-rcu packages which contain another VDR versions using keyboard/rcu control. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Video Disk Recorder for DVB-S cards with RCU control Video Disk Recorder (VDR) is a digital sat-receiver program using Linux and DVB-S technologies. It allows one to record MPEG2 streams, as well as output the stream to TV. It is also possible to watch DVDs with some comfort and hardware acceleration. This package contains the vdr-kbd program which is controlled via the the "Remote Control Unit". There are also vdr-kbd and vdr-lirc packages which contain another VDR versions using PC keyboard or infrared remote control. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


vector-based rock-shooting "Vectoroids" is a vector-based rock-shooting game similar to the arcade classic "Asteroids." Pilot a spaceship and destroy asteroids by shooting them into smaller and smaller pieces while trying to avoid being smashed or shot by UFOs. "Vectoroids" is an SDL game based on the source for "Agendaroids," an X-Window game written for the Agenda VR3 Linux-based PDA written by the same author. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


List of computer acronyms This is GNU version 1.8 of V.E.R.A., a list dealing with computational acronyms. It comes as one info file. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Icarus verilog compiler The Icarus verilog compiler for the verilog hardware description language. The compiler can target either simulation, or netlist (XNF). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Emacs mode for verilog language This is a major mode for verilog, a hardware description language. This mode provide automatic indentation, keyword completion, interactive editing and more. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Daily Devotional Verse from KJV Bible Verse displays a Bible Verse on each login. A verse from the King James Version of the Bible is assigned to each day. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


a GTK+OpenGL 3D modeller Vertex is a 3D modeller designed specifically for generating efficient models for (but not limited to) games and applications using OpenGL's style of graphics rendering. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Font files for Morisawa Basic-5 type faces for pTeX Contains VF/TFM files for Ryumin-Light, GothicBBB-Medium, FutoMinA101-Bold, FutoGoB101-Bold and Jun101-Light. It will be easy to use morisawa.sty of okumura-clsfiles if you wish to use these fonts in pTeX. For dvips: you should add "p +morisawa.map" in your config.ps or an appropriate config.foo and you could do this with "morisawa-config add" or "morisawa-config add config.foo" at present. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Vector Font Library for Japanese Character Code. VFlib2 is a font library written in C providing several functions to obtain bitmaps of characters. VFlib hides the font format of font files and provides a unified API for all supported font formats. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Miscelanious tools for VFlib2 library. VFlib2 is a font library written in C providing several functions to obtain bitmaps of characters. VFlib hides the font format of font files and provides a unified API for all supported font formats. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Versatile Font Library VFlib3 is a font rasterizer library for multi-lingual information processing. Using VFlib3, you can obtain bitmap data of characters(glyphs) from various fonts in a unified manner. VFlib3 can handle almost all font formats available - it now supports PK, GF, VF, TFM, OFM level 0, OVF, PCF, BDF, HBF, Syotai-Club, JG, eKanji and more. TrueType and Type 1 fonts are also supported via FreeType1 and T1lib respectively. Font search via kpathsea is supported, too. This package contains the shared library and configuration files needed to run programs using VFlib3. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Sample programs using VFlib3 VFlib3 is a font rasterizer library for multi-lingual information processing. Using VFlib3, you can obtain bitmap data of characters(glyphs) from various fonts in a unified manner. VFlib3 can handle almost all font formats available - it now supports PK, GF, VF, TFM, OFM level 0, OVF, PCF, BDF, HBF, Syotai-Club, JG, eKanji and more. TrueType and Type 1 fonts are also supported via FreeType1 and T1lib respectively. Font search via kpathsea is supported, too. This package contains a few sample programs that come with VFlib3. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


a tool to generate VF files for dvi2ps/dvi2dvi You can use PostScript fonts and/or TrueType fonts etc. in your TeX files with the VF files generated by vftool. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


convert virtual font (vf) files to virtual property lists (vpl) From whatis


A versatile text-based filemanager vfu is a nice filemanager using the ncurses library. It has many nice features: * Fast one-key commands * Filename completition and wildcard expansion * Directory tree with sizes * File-type colorization * Archives support (TAR, TGZ, BZ2, and many more) * FTP support through archive-like interface * Internal text/hex file viewer and hex editor * Automount feature * Extensive user-defined external support/utils! From Debian 3.0r0 APT


VGA BIOS software for the Plex86 and Bochs emulated VGA card The goal of this project is to provide a Video BIOS for Plex86 and Bochs. This VGA BIOS is very specific to the plex86/bochs emulated VGA card. It is NOT meant to drive a physical vga card. You will probably fry it if you try. You have been warned. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Four SVGAlib card games A collection of the card games Oh Hell!, Spider, Klondike and another solitaire game. They use a mouse and svgalib in the VGA mode 640x480x16. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


SVGAlib games ConnectN, Othello, and Mines This package includes clones of these popular games that work under SVGAlib. (mouse highly recommended) From Debian 3.0r0 APT


grabs a image from a camera and puts it in jpg/png format vgrabbj is a program that will grab an image from a v4l compatible device (usually a webcam of some sort) and save it in a jpg or png file, with options given on the command line to imprint a label onto the image. It only works on v4l devices that can be set to 24-bit mode. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


/vee'grep/ v.,n. Visual grep. The operation of finding patterns in a file optically rather than digitally (also called an `optical grep'). See grep; compare vdiff. From Jargon Dictionary


Runoff preprocessor for program sources Vgrind formats the program sources which are arguments in a nice style using groff(1). Comments are placed in italics, keywords in bold face, and the name of the current function is listed down the margin of each page as it is encountered. Vgrind runs in two basic modes, filter mode (see the -f option) or regu- lar mode. In filter mode vgrind acts as a filter in a manner similar to tbl(1). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Volks-hypertext browser Designed for use with the Jargon File but useful for lexicons in general (lighter-weight than WWW, fast search). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


/V-I/, not /vi:/ and never /siks/ n. [from `Visual Interface'] A screen editor crufted together by Bill Joy for an early BSD release. Became the de facto standard Unix editor and a nearly undisputed hacker favorite outside of MIT until the rise of EMACS after about 1984. Tends to frustrate new users no end, as it will neither take commands while expecting input text nor vice versa, and the default setup on older versions provides no indication of which mode the editor is in (years ago, a correspondent reported that he has often heard the editor's name pronounced /vi:l/; there is now a vi clone named `vile'). Nevertheless vi (and variants such as vim and elvis) is still widely used (about half the respondents in a 1991 Usenet poll preferred it), and even EMACS fans often resort to it as a mail editor and for small editing jobs (mainly because it starts up faster than the bulkier versions of EMACS). See holy wars. From Jargon Dictionary


On UNIX, the vi program is a small text editor that can be run from the command-line. It can even be run in ed/ex mode that runs in line-mode rather than full-screen mode. Since vi is included on every UNIX system, this is the one program that all hackers learn to use. (More advanced editors like emacs may not be installed on a system that a hacker breaks into, leaving them out of luck if they don't know vi). From Hacking-Lexicon


NCBI libraries for graphic biology applications This is the library for those who just want to run Vibrant applications. It also includes a wrapper (vibrate) that allows many NCBI applications to provide a GUI for selecting options. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Video Conferencing Tool VIC is a Video Conferencing tool that will let you watch videos using IP multicast. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The Versatile Commodore Emulator VICE emulates well the hardware of the Commodore Business Machines of the pre-Amiga era. Supported are the various Pets, the VIC-20, the Commodore 64 and (incompletely) the Commodore 128. This package does not contain the various ROM images needed to actually use the emulators but includes a script which will attempt to download them from a number of well-known locations. The legal status of the ROM images is currently unknown; VICE itself is unencumbered. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A simple, Perl-based ICQ client. vICQ is simple ICQ client written in Perl with the look and feel of mICQ, which supports ICQv7 TCP protocol. Its features include: * Sending messages * Receiving messages * Invisible handling * Receiving contacts and contacts request * Receiving URL messages * Receiving offline messages off all types (well, almost all) * Receiving auth requests * Sending authorization * Coloring * koi8-r and koi8-u support * UIN info obtaining * SMS sending * Event external hooks * Sounds * Autocompletion * White Pages search * White Pages basic info editing From Debian 3.0r0 APT


IDE for C++ and Java based on the V GUI VIDE is a Integrated Development Environment developed using V. It works with the GNU g++ compiler and Sun's JDK for Java. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Create arbitrary-res modelines using hardware parameters Videogen is a small but nice utility to create modelines you can insert into your XF86Config(-4) and fb.modes files. Modeline is created by telling the program the resolution you want and your video hardware parameters (maximum video adapter bandwidth, maximum HCF and VCF of the monitor etc). The tool some_modes.sh is provided which may help you to create some common modes very fast. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


n. obs. An electronic service offering people the privilege of paying to read the weather on their television screens instead of having somebody read it to them for free while they brush their teeth. The idea bombed everywhere it wasn't government-subsidized, because by the time videotex was practical the installed base of personal computers could hook up to timesharing services and do the things for which videotex might have been worthwhile better and cheaper. Videotex planners badly overestimated both the appeal of getting information from a computer and the cost of local intelligence at the user's end. Like the gorilla arm effect, this has been a cautionary tale to hackers ever since. See also vannevar. From Jargon Dictionary


query/set image root device, RAM disk size, or video mode From whatis


Vi IMproved, a programmers text editor From whatis


Simple viewer for 3D Studio files This is simple realtime 3DS file previewer based on the lib3ds library by J.E. Hoffmann. It won't display any 3DS model, but it can properly display 3DS scenes. lib3ds was developed as part of the support libraries for FAMP, the Free Animation and Modeling Project (http://famp.sourceforge.net/) From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Viewing CVS Repositories via HTTP The ViewCVS software was inspired by cvsweb (by Henner Zeller). ViewCVS can browse directories, commit-logs, and specific revisions of files. It can display diffs between versions and show selections of files based on tags or branches. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A graphical front end for computational chemistry programs. VIEWMOL is a graphical front end for computational chemistry programs. It is able to graphically aid in the generation of molecular structures for computations and to visualize their results. The program's capabilities include: - Building and editing of molecules - Visualization of the geometry of a molecule - Tracing of a geometry optimization or a MD trajectory - Animation of normal vibrations or to show them as arrows - Drawing of IR, Raman, and inelastic neutron scattering spectra - Drawing of an MO energy level or density of states diagram - Drawing of basis functions, molecular orbitals, and electron densities - Display of forces acting on each atom in a certain configuration - Display of Miller planes in crystals - Calculation of thermodynamic properties for molecules and reactions - Drawings generated by VIEWMOL can be saved as TIFF, HPGL, or - PostScript files - Animations of normal modes can be converted to a video file (MPEG), - e. g. for inclusion into World Wide Web documents (requires - additional programs available on the Internet) - Interface to the freeware ray tracing program RAYSHADE (input - file generation and use of RAYSHADE from within VIEWMOL) - Input and output in a variety of formats, new formats can be - added easily by the user VIEWMOL includes a Python interpreter for automation. At present VIEWMOL includes input filters for DISCOVER, DMOL, GAMESS, GAUSSIAN 9X, GULP, MOPAC, and TURBOMOLE outputs as well as for PDB files (VIEWMOL is therefore suited as a viewer for structural data on the World Wide Web). Structures can be saved as MSI car-files, MDL files, and TURBOMOLE coordinate files. VIEWMOL's file format has been added to BABEL so that BABEL can serve as an input as well as an output filter for coordinates. VIEWMOL supports a space ball as input device. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


graphical class browser for Xt From whatis


nvi with the evil paperclip Vigor is a perpetration of the Microsoft Word "Office Assistant" paperclip, based on nvi. It was inspired by Pitr of the "User Friendly" comic strip (http://www.userfriendly.org/). Some people have speculated that Vigor was created under the influence of the evil Crud Puppy. The maintainer of this Debian package would like to stress his firm belief that these foul rumours are entirely without foundation. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


edit the password, group, shadow-password, or shadow-group file. From whatis


VI Like Emacs - vi work-alike vile is a text editor which is extremely compatible with vi in terms of ``finger feel''. In addition, it has extended capabilities in many areas, notably multi-file editing and viewing, syntax highlighting, key rebinding, an optional embedded perl interpreter, and real X window system support. This package contains the character-mode binary. Required support files are contained in vile-common. Source code highlighting filters are in vile-filters. An X11 binary is in the xvile package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Vi IMproved - enhanced vi editor Vim is an almost compatible version of the UNIX editor Vi. Many new features have been added: multi level undo, syntax highlighting, command line history, on-line help, filename completion, block operations, folding, unicode support, etc. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


edit two or three versions of a file with Vim and show differences From whatis


the Vim tutor From whatis


network analyzer for electrical networks ViPEC is a program that allows the user to analyze high frequency, linear, electrical networks. Analysis is performed in the frequency domain, and the results are presented to the user in the form of port parameters (S,Y or Z). It can also be used to compute input and output impedance/admittance and amplifier stability factors (Linvill & Stern). ViPEC supports various lumped elements (capacitors, resistors etc.), as well as distributed elements like transmission lines and coupled transmission lines. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


edit the password, group, shadow-password, or shadow-group file. From whatis


adj. Unused; pristine; in a known initial state. "Let's bring up a virgin system and see if it crashes again." (Esp. useful after contracting a virus through SEX.) Also, by extension, buffers and the like within a program that have not yet been used. From Jargon Dictionary


Metafont, a language for font and logo design From whatis


MetaPost, a system for drawing pictures From whatis


extended unicode TeX From whatis


text formatting and typesetting From whatis


adj. [via the technical term `virtual memory', prob. from the term `virtual image' in optics] 1. Common alternative to logical; often used to refer to the artificial objects (like addressable virtual memory larger than physical memory) simulated by a computer system as a convenient way to manage access to shared resources. 2. Simulated; performing the functions of something that isn't really there. An imaginative child's doll may be a virtual playmate. Oppose real. From Jargon Dictionary

virtual desktop

A way of reducing clutter on your screen by expanding the available space beyond the actual screen boundaries. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

virtual memory

A memory-management technique that enables programs to appear to utilize more memory than is physically available. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

virtual reality

n. 1. Computer simulations that use 3-D graphics and devices such as the Dataglove to allow the user to interact with the simulation. See cyberspace. 2. A form of network interaction incorporating aspects of role-playing games, interactive theater, improvisational comedy, and `true confessions' magazines. In a virtual reality forum (such as Usenet's alt.callahans newsgroup or the MUD experiments on Internet), interaction between the participants is written like a shared novel complete with scenery, `foreground characters' that may be personae utterly unlike the people who write them, and common `background characters' manipulable by all parties. The one iron law is that you may not write irreversible changes to a character without the consent of the person who `owns' it. Otherwise anything goes. See bamf, cyberspace, teledildonics. From Jargon Dictionary


A virus is a program (or a fragment of code) that replicates by attaching a copy of itself to other programs. For a virus to be activated, the software it infects must first be run. Analogy: A biological virus is not a "living" thing. Instead, it is simply a strand of DNA. When it enters a living cell, it takes control of the cell forcing it to generate duplicate copies of the original DNA strand. In much the same way, a computer virus hijacks the computer forcing it to generate duplicate copies of the original virus. Computer viruses are so common because humans do not practice sufficient cyber-hygiene when exchanging files. Key point: An "anti-virus" programs scans the disks on your system hunting down those files that have signatures indicative of infected files. Since file-scanning technology is generic, most anti-virus programs also scan for other hostile content, such as trojans. Contrast: The popular use of the word "virus" means any form of malware. For example, in the movie Office Space, the protagonists write what is called a "virus" that runs in the banking mainframe to steal round-off errors. In contrast, the technical definition limits itself to just those forms of contagious malware that spreads by infecting other programs. Key point: Viruses have a life cycle from the point they are originally created, distributed, found by anti-virus programs, then eradicated. They also mutate as script kiddies take viruses, make small alteration that avoids current virus scanners, and redistribute the viruses. Example: boot sector Historically, the most popular kind of virus, though becoming less popular as floppies are used less often. E.g. Form Virus macro virus Data files cannot contain viruses -- except when they also include scripting "macros". Currently the most popular kind of virus. Most macro viruses are written in VisualBasic, a programming language included as part of Microsoft Office products (Word, Excel). E.g. Marker Virus file infector The traditional definition of a virus: an executable file contains a virus imbedded within. When run, it attaches the virus to other executables on the system. multi-part Uses more than one of the techniques above. toolkits Increasingly, viruses are created via toolkits designed for the purpose of creating viruses that evade anti-virus programs. polymorphic This type of virus automatically changes its form in order to evade anti-virus programs. A common technique is to XOR its code with changing patterns. Culture: Viruses are rarely written by a single human being. Instead, they are often written by groups. Each virus is usually built upon work done by other virus writers. This means that a virus is usually related to other viruses. Computer viruses mutate and exchange genetic material much like biological systems. What we classify as the "author" of a virus is usually somebody who made one small mutation that made a virus especially virulent. From Hacking-Lexicon


n. [from the obvious analogy with biological viruses, via SF] A cracker program that searches out other programs and `infects' them by embedding a copy of itself in them, so that they become Trojan horses. When these programs are executed, the embedded virus is executed too, thus propagating the `infection'. This normally happens invisibly to the user. Unlike a worm, a virus cannot infect other computers without assistance. It is propagated by vectors such as humans trading programs with their friends (see SEX). The virus may do nothing but propagate itself and then allow the program to run normally. Usually, however, after propagating silently for a while, it starts doing things like writing cute messages on the terminal or playing strange tricks with the display (some viruses include nice display hacks). Many nasty viruses, written by particularly perversely minded crackers, do irreversible damage, like nuking all the user's files. In the 1990s, viruses became a serious problem, especially among Windows users; the lack of security on these machines enables viruses to spread easily, even infecting the operating system (Unix machines, by contrast, are immune to such attacks). The production of special anti-virus software has become an industry, and a number of exaggerated media reports have caused outbreaks of near hysteria among users; many lusers tend to blame everything that doesn't work as they had expected on virus attacks. Accordingly, this sense of `virus' has passed not only into techspeak but into also popular usage (where it is often incorrectly used to denote a worm or even a Trojan horse). See phage; compare back door; see also Unix conspiracy. From Jargon Dictionary


Visualizes data made by numerical weather models etc. Vis5D is a software system for visualizing data made by numerical weather models and similar sources. Vis5D works on data in the form of a five-dimensional rectangle. The Vis5D system includes the vis5d visualization program, several programs for managing and analyzing five-dimensional data grids, and instructions and utilities for converting your data into its file format. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Interactively debug regular expressions This TCL script shows the result of running a regular expression, making debugging relatively easy. It also assists in the construction of regular expressions. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Tcl GUI builder Visual Tcl is a freely-available, high-quality application development environment. Written entirely in Tcl and generating pure Tcl should make porting either unnecessary or trivial. Visual Tcl is covered by the GNU General Public License insuring that it will remain in the capable hands of the internet community. Visual Tcl has no relation to SCO Visual Tcl or the FREE Visual Tcl/Tk project. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Visual Simulator of an Operating System VisualOS is a visual representation of the more general concepts in an operating system (CPU scheduling, memory management and IO reordering) From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The vixie-cron package contains the Vixie version of cron. Cron is a standard UNIX daemon that runs specified programs at scheduled times. Vixie cron adds better security and more powerful configuration options to the standard version of cron. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


Virtual Keyboard program This program allows you to use the Linux AWE32 driver, OSS MIDI sequencer, or ALSA MIDI sequencer and provides "virtual" keyboard (the musical type), which can be "played" using the keyboard or mouse under X11. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


LDAP visualisation tool Vlad is an LDAP visualisation tool. It can be used to browse the entries and attributes of an LDAP tree. Basic functionality is in place. You can browse an LDAP tree and view individual entries. Future enhancements will include searches, ability to edit entries, ability to bind as different users, ability to export parts of the tree as an LDIF file. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


User mode programs to enable VLANs on your ethernet devices This package contains the user mode programs you need to add and remove VLAN devices from your ethernet devices. A typical application for a VLAN enabled box is a single wire firewall, router or load balancer. You need a VLAN kernel for this. Kernel versions < 2.4.14 need to be patched. Currently the VLAN patch is only supported for 2.4 kernels. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


a free MPEG and DVD player VideoLAN is a free MPEG, MPEG2 and DVD software solution. This is vlc, the VideoLAN Client. It plays MPEG and MPEG2 files, unencrypted DVDs, or MPEG streams from a network source. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Virtual Console locking program vlock either locks the current terminal (which may be any kind of terminal, local or remote), or locks the entire virtual console system, completely disabling all console access. vlock gives up these locks when either the password of the user who started vlock or the root password is typed. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A mail user agent for Emacs VM (View Mail) is an Emacs subsystem that allows UNIX mail to be read and disposed of within Emacs. Commands exist to do the normal things expected of a mail user agent, such as generating replies, saving messages to folders, deleting messages and so on. There are other more advanced commands that do tasks like bursting and creating digests, message forwarding, and organizing message presentation according to various criteria. With smtpmail in modern emacsen, you do not need a MTA locally in order to use VM. VM 6.x versions have problems with the library tm-vm from the Tiny Mime (TM) package, since that version was written for VM 5.X. Indeed, the problems seems to exist with semi as well. This package comes (by default) bundled in with XEmacs. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A simple virtual networking program This program has been written to implement virtual networking support for the Hercules S/390 simulator, but it is intentionally generic in its functionality, so any other virtual machine simulator/emulator program could potentially use it. The function is quite simple: - The virtual machine simulator program starts VMnet and talks the SLIP protocol with it over stdin/out. - VMnet sets up a SLIP connection on the host system, talking over a pseudo-tty to the VMnet program. - Once things have been set up, VMnet simply copies the data streams between stdin/out and the SLIP psuedo-tty in both directions. Thus, the virtual machine has a direct SLIP connection with the host, without needing to worry about root privileges, pseudo-ttys, access rights, etc. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Report virtual memory statistics From whatis


Virtual Network Computing (VNC) is a remote display system which allows you to view a computing 'desktop' environment not only on the machine where it is running, but from anywhere on the Internet and from a wide variety of machine architectures. This package contains a client which will allow you to connect to other desktops running a VNCserver. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


Virtual network computing server software. VNC stands for Virtual Network Computing. It is, in essence, a remote display system which allows you to view a computing `desktop' environment not only on the machine where it is running, but from anywhere on the Internet and from a wide variety of machine architectures. It is implemented in a client/server model. This package provides a fully functional X server, to which a VNC viewer can connect. Note: This server does not support or need a display. You need a vncviewer to see something. However, this viewer may also be on a computer running other operating systems in the local net. This package is an enhanced version of VNC including TightVNC allowing it to be optimized to work over slow network connections such as low-speed modem links so you can work remotely almost in real time in most environments. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Volume daemon for CDROM devices. NOTE. You must run a recent kernel (2.2 or later) in order to use this package. This daemon probes all CDROM devices in the system (in the future: local network) at regular intervals, and mounts a CDROM upon insertion. The mountpoint is typically /cdrom/<volume-name> where <volume-name> is the name of the CDROM. This utility is especially useful if you have more than one CDROM drive, and you don't wish to bother in which drive you put your CDROMs. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Virtual Private Network Daemon Vpnd is a daemon which connects two networks on network level either via TCP/IP or a (virtual) leased line attached to a serial interface. All data transfered between the two networks are encrypted using the unpatented free Blowfish encryption algorithm (see http://www.counterpane.com/) with a key length of up to 576 bits (may be downgraded to a minimum of 0 bits to suit any legal restrictions). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


convert virtual property lists to virtual font metrics From whatis


Virtual Reality Engine vreng is a virtual 3D world based on the IP multicast protocol From Debian 3.0r0 APT


tool to flash kernels and romdisks to Agenda VR The Agenda VR is a handheld computer that runs Linux. VRFlash communicates with the Agenda's boot monitor (PMON) over a serial line to install new software on the device. The kernel and the root image can be upgraded this way. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Verify electronic mail addresses. 'vrfy' is a tool to verify e-mail addresses and mailing lists. In its simplest form it takes an address "user@domain", figures out the MX hosts for "domain", and issues the SMTP command VRFY at the primary MX host (optionally all), or at "domain" itself if no MX hosts exist. Without "domain" it goes to "localhost". More complex capabilities are: * recursively expanding forward files or mailing lists, * detecting mail forwarding loops, * understanding full-blown RFC822 address specifications, * syntax checking that can be carried out either locally or remotely, * various options provided to exploit alternative protocol suites if necessary, and to print many forms of verbose output. Obvious limitations exist (mostly due to a lousy VRFY command implementation on some hosts), but otherwise, it works pretty well. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Virtual Richard M. Stallman The vrms program will analyze the set of currently-installed packages on a Debian GNU/Linux system, and report all of the packages from the non-free tree which are currently installed. Future versions of vrms will include an option to also display text from the public writings of RMS and others that explain why use of each of the installed non-free packages might cause moral issues for some in the Free Software community. This functionality is not yet included. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Virtual Router Redudancy Protocol user-space implementation This package provides an implementation of VRRPv2 as specified in rfc2338. It runs in the Linux kernel's userspace (as root). VRRP can be used to setup high-availability services in Debian since two machines can use the same (virtual) IP address which is transfered upon failover. Some kernel features need to be enabled (please read the FAQ) From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A VRML browser and editor. VRweb is a VRML 1 browser that you can use to browse a Virtual Reality World (WRL). Currently the upstream team no longer supports VRweb as it has developed a replacement Java version named VRwave, also available from Debian. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The Very Secure FTP Daemon A lightweight, efficient FTP server written from the ground up with security in mind. vsftpd supports both anonymous and non-anonymous FTP, PAM authentication, bandwidth limiting, and the Linux sendfile() facility. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Virtual loopback sound recorder and real audio converter This program allows you to record the output of any standard OSS program (one that uses /dev/dsp for sound) without having to modify or recompile the program. It uses sox to convert and save the raw data into the desired file format and can help to convert real audio files to some other non-proprietary format. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


bttv video capture utility aimed at making MPEGs A (fairly) fast video+audio capture utility targeted towards making MPEG movies. Includes capture to multiple streams (to make use of maximum possible IO bandwidth) and unlimited maximum stream length. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


check whether current VT is in UTF8- or byte-mode. From whatis


VTE is an experimental terminal emulator widget for use with GTK+ 2.0. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


A VNC like console monitoring This is a utility for monitoring the screen of another machine. It only works for text consoles: for X, the idea is to use VNC instead. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Tcl bindings for VTK. This provides the shared libraries and executable that enable one to use VTK from Tcl/Tk scripts. You will need Tcl/Tk and vtk installed to use this. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Installer for example data for VTK The Visualization Toolkit comes with example C++, Tcl and Python code. These examples reference data files installed using the get-vtkdata script in this package. The get-vtkdata script transfers about 30 Megabytes over the Internet, and unpacks it into around 115 Megabytes in /usr/share/vtkdemo/vtkdata. Plan your network and disk use accordingly. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Prints to term emulator via ANSI codes This program allows users to print from a remote UNIX host to a printer attached to their local terminal or emulator, which makes it great for printing files at home, etc. (It only does text files, though.) From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Virtual Tunnel over TCP/IP Networks VTun is the easiest way to create Virtual Tunnels over TCP/IP networks with traffic shaping, compression, and encryption. It supports IP, PPP, SLIP, Ethernet and other tunnel types. VTun is easily and highly configurable, it can be used for various network tasks. VTun requires the Universal TUN/TAP kernel module which can be found at http://vtun.sourceforge.net/tun/index.html or in the 2.4 series linux kernel. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


virtual Tab window manager vtwm is an extension to twm that provides multiple virtual screens, pixmap file format support, and other enhancements in addition to the features of twm. From Debian 3.0r0 APT

vulnerability (vulnerable)

In the security community, the word "vulnerability" describes a problem (such as a programming bug or common misconfiguration) that allows a system to be attacked or broken into. Culture: Finding vulnerabilities is a big part of the hacker/infosec culture. Finding vulnerabilities is way of proving that you are "elite". This subculture is similar to the scientific community. For example, there are a number of people (usually commercial companies) that are "research whores": they take existing research and add their own small contribution, but then publish the result in such a way that leads people to believe that they are responsible for all the research leading up to that discovery. Contrast: The words exploit and vulnerability are tightly bound together. Often, an script/program will exploit a specific vulnerability. Since most vulnerabilities are exploited by script kiddies, the vulnerability is often known by the name of the most popular script that exploits it. Key point: There exist broad-spectrum vulnerability scanners/assessment-tools that will scan a system looking for common vulnerabilities. These are often used in order to harden a system. See also: risk From Hacking-Lexicon