/F-A-Q/ or /fak/ n. [Usenet] 1. A Frequently Asked Question. 2. A compendium of accumulated lore, posted periodically to high-volume newsgroups in an attempt to forestall such questions. Some people prefer the term `FAQ list' or `FAQL' /fa'kl/, reserving `FAQ' for sense 1. This lexicon itself serves as a good example of a collection of one kind of lore, although it is far too big for a regular FAQ posting. Examples: "What is the proper type of NULL?" and "What's that funny name for the # character?" are both Frequently Asked Questions. Several FAQs refer readers to this file. From Jargon Dictionary


An Acronym for Frequently Asked Questions, these are lists of questions that occur frequently on Usenet newsgroups, they are posted at regular intervals and archived at several sites. You should always read the FAQ (if there is one) for a group before posting a message, or risk being flamed. From KADOWKEV

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

FAQs are documents that list and answer the most common questions on a particular subject. There are hundreds of FAQs on subjects as diverse as Pet Grooming and Cryptography. FAQs are usually written by people who have tired of answering the same question over and over. From Matisse

FAT (File allocation table)

A hidden table of every cluster on a floppy or hard disk. The FAT records how files are stored in distinct - and not necessarily contiguous - clusters. Viruses also like to hide out in the FAT; make sute youur virus-checking software loooks there for malicious programs. A file allocation table uses a simple method, much like a scavenger hunt, to keep track of data. The directory file stores the address of the file's first cluster. In the entry for the second cluster is the address of the third cluster, and so on, until the last cluster entry, which contains an end-of0-file code. Because this table provides only a menas for finding data on a disk, DOS creates and maintains two copies of the FAT in case one is damaged. From QUECID


The default editor for the fc builtin command. From Rute-Users-Guide

FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface)

A standard for transmitting data on optical fiber cables at a rate of around 100,000,000 bits-per-second (10 times as fast as 10-BaseTEthernet, about twice as fast as T-3). See also: Ethernet, T-3 From Matisse


FIRE is a portable bootable cdrom based distribution with the goal of providing an immediate environment to perform forensic analysis, incident response, data recovery, virus scanning and vulnerability assessment. The initial version (v. was released February 28, 2002. FIRElite v0.2b was released August 19, 2002. A CD-based distribution. From LWN Distribution List


A measure of processor performance based on floating point operations per second. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


A popular version of FORTRAN with Block IF, PARAMETER and SAVE statements added, but still no WHILE. It has fixed-length character strings, format-free I/O, and arrays with lower bounds. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

FPU (Floating Point Unit)

A portion of a microprocessor that handles operations in which the deimal point moves left and right to handle operations to allow for very high precision when dealing with very large or very small numbers. An FPU usuallu makes a microprocessor much faster. Early Pentium chips had flaws in their FPUs. From QUECID


FREESCO (stands for FREE ciSCO) is a free replacement for commercial routers supporting up to 3 ethernet/arcnet/token_ring/arlan network cards and up to 2 modems. Mirror sites are available in Canada, Europe, Russia, and South Africa. A floppy-based distribution. From LWN Distribution List


/F-S-F/ abbrev. Common abbreviation (both spoken and written) for the name of the Free Software Foundation, a nonprofit educational association formed to support the GNU project. From Jargon Dictionary


Free Software Foundation. The FSF owns most of the offical GNU SW and licences its use with the 3000 word GPL and 4000 word LGPL licences. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

FSF (Free Software Foundation)

A nonprofit organisation, based in Massachusetts, that is devoted to the ideal of the free sharing of useful software for noncommercial purposees. To promote this goal, FSF supports a UNIX compatible operating system (called GNU) and system utilities, which are freely redistributable under FSF' GPL (General Public License). From QUECID


A file transfer system similar to FTP, distinguished by the ability for servers to run on any port without requiring special privledges, and the lower system load from FSP servers than from FTP. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


Often the group, which creates the Linux File System Structure document, or the document itself, is referred to as the 'FSSTND'. This is short for "file system standard". This document has helped to standardize the layout of file systems on Linux systems everywhere. Since the original release of the standard, most distributors have adopted it in whole or in part, much to the benefit of all Linux users.


FTOSX Desktop 2003, and other versions like WebServer and Professional for Intel (IA-32) as well other platforms are a new generation Operating System, because we made all the necessary design, in back-end and front-end to offers something new and innovative. From LWN Distribution List

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

An Internet standard for the exchange of files. FTP (uppercase letters) is a specific set of rules that comprise a file transfer protocol. To use FTP, you start an FTP client, an application program that enables youy to contact another computer on the Internet and exchange files with it. To gain access to the toher computer, you normally must supplu a login name and password, after which you are given access to the computer's file directory system, and you can send (upload) and receive (download) files. An exceptin is anonymous FTP, which makes a file arvhive publicly accessible to any Internet use who possesses an FTP clietnl in response to the authentication prompts, you enter anonmous rather than a login name, and as a courtesy supply your electronic mail address as a password. Many web browsers can function as FTP clients to download files from anonymous FTP file archives. From QUECID

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

is a client/server protocol that allows a user to transfer files to and from a remote network site. It works with TCP and is most commonly used on the Internet, although it can also be used on a LAN. An FTP site is a computer that is running FTP server software (also known an FTP daemon, or ftpd). A public ftp site can usually be accessed by anybody by logging in as anonymous or ftp. There are many excellent public ftp sites that make repositories of free Unix software available. By learning how to use FTP, you give yourself access to an indespensible resource. Private FTP sites require a user name or password. If you have a shell account with your ISP, you may be able to access your files via FTP (contact your system administrator to check on this). An FTP client is the userland application that provides access to FTP servers. There are many FTP clients available. Some are graphical, and some are text-based. FTP was first developed by the University of California, Berkeley for inclusion in 4.2BSD (Berkeley Unix). The RFC (Request for Comments) is available at ftp://nic.merit.edu/documents/rfc/rfc0959.txt. From FTP mini-HOWTO

FTP is a way to login to another Internet site for the purposes of retrieving and/or sending files. There are many Internet sites that have established publicly accessible repositories of material that can be obtained using FTP, by logging in using the account name "anonymous", thus these sites are called "anonymous ftp servers". FTP was invented and in wide use long before the advent of the World Wide Web and originally was always used from a text-only interface. From Matisse

Facsimile (FAX)

System used to transmit textual or graphical images over standard telephone lines. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology

Familiar (iPAQ)

The Familiar Project is composed of a group of loosely knit developers all contributing to creating the next generation of PDA OS. Currently, most development time is geared towards producing a stable, and full featured Linux distribution for the Compaq iPAQ h3600-series of handheld computers, as well as apps to run on top of the distribution. Familiar v0.5.3 was released July 11, 2002. Familiar v0.6.1 was released January 9, 2003. From LWN Distribution List

Fatal error

An error in a program that, at best causes the program to abort, and, at worst causes a crash with losss of data. Bulletproff programs are supposed to be immune to fatal errors, but they usually are not. From QUECID


Software that is so laden with features, or is designed so inefficiently, that it monopolizes huge chunks of hard disk space, random-access memory (RAM), and microprocesssor power. Fatware is one of the undesirable result of creeping featurism. From QUECID

Fault tolerance

The capability of a computer system to cope with internal hardware problems without interrupting the system's performance, often by automatically bringing backup systems online whenever computers are assigned critical functions, such as guiding aircraft to a safe landing or ensuring a steady flow of medicines to a patient. Fault tolerance also is beneficial for non-critical everyday applications. From QUECID

Fd Linux

Fd Linux is a very tiny floppy distribution of Linux, set to fit on one floppy disk (kernel and root fs are combined!). All binaries are based on Red Hat. Version 2.1-0 was released March 12, 2002. Version 3.0-0 was released March 10, 2003. A floppy-based distribution. From LWN Distribution List

Fiber Optic Cable

The transport fibres of glass or plastic that are enclosed by material of a lower index of refraction and that transmit light throughout their length by internal reflections. These fibres are bundled into cables and are capable of transmitting very large amounts of digital information (data) in both directions with very little loss in signal quality. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology


A set of data exchange standards and procedures that permit privately operated copmuter bulletin board systems (BBSs) to exchange data, files, and electronic mail internationally, using the world telephone syste. At an agreed-on time when telephone rates are low, subscribing BBSs send e-mail messages and files to a regional host, which in turn distributes them to other bulletin boards. Responses, or echoes eventually find their way back to the host bulletin board. A popular Fidonet feature is EchoMail, a set of moderated conferences that cover a variety of popular subjects, such as Star Trek, model aircraft, and political issues. From QUECID


A document or other collection of information stored on a disk and identified as a unit by a unique name. When you save a file, the disk may scatter the data among dozens or even hundreds of noncontiguous clusters. The file allocation table (FAT) is an index of the order in which those clusters are linked to equal a file. To the user, however files appear as units on disk directories and are retreived and copied as units. From QUECID

File Locking

Often, one would like a process to have exclusive access to a file. By this we mean that only one process can access the file at any one time. Consider a mail folder: if two processes were to write to the folder simultaneously, it could become corrupted. We also sometimes want to ensure that a program can never be run twice at the same time; this insurance is another use for ``locking.'' In the case of a mail folder, if the file is being written to, then no other process should try read it or write to it: and we would like to create a write lock on the file. However if the file is being read from, no other process should try to write to it: and we would like to create a read lock on the file. Write locks are sometimes called exclusive locks; read locks are sometimes called shared locks. Often, exclusive locks are preferred for simplicity. Locking can be implemented by simply creating a temporary file to indicate to other processes to wait before trying some kind of access. UNIX also has some more sophisticated builtin functions. From Rute-Users-Guide

File Manager

software that allows you to select, copy, move, and open files and directories in a graphical environment. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux Examples of file managers on Linux include konqueror for KDE and mc (Midnight Commander). The Windows equivalent would be Windows Explorer. From Binh

File Ownerships

Each file on a system is owned by a particular user and also owned by a particular group. When you run ls -al, you can see the user that owns the file in the third column and the group that owns the file in the fourth column (these will often be identical, indicating that the file's group is a group to which only the user belongs). To change the ownership of the file, simply use the chown, change ownerships, command as follows. chown <user>[:<group>] <filename> From Rute-Users-Guide

File System

A set of programs that tells an operating system how to access and interpret the contents of a disk or tape drive, or other storage medium. Common file systems include: FAT and FAT-32 (DOS/Windows), HPFS (OS/2), NFS, NTFS (Windows NT/2000), and others. From I-gloss

File attribute

A hidden code, stored with a file's directory, that contains the file's read-only or archive status and whether the file is a system, hidden, or directory archive. See archive attribute, hidden file, loacked file, and read-only attribute. From QUECID

File compression utility

A utility program, such as PKZIP, StuffIt or DriveSpace, that compresses and decompresses infrequently used files so that they take up to 40 to 90 percent less rooom on a hard disk. You use another utilit to decompress a file. Specialty file compression utilities that compress only certain types of files, such as downloadable font files, are also available. These programs usually load a special driver that remains in memory to decompress and recompress the files as needed. See archive, bulletin board system (BBSs), and compressed file. From QUECID

File conversion utility

A utility program that converts text or graphoics files created with one program to the file format used by another program. The best application programs now include a conversion utility that can handle a dozen or more file formats. From QUECID

File format

The patterns and standards that a program uses to store data on disk. Few programs store data in ASCII format. Most use a proprietry file format that other programs cannot read, ensuring that customers continue to use the company's progam and enabling the progammers to include special features that standard formats might not allow. See file conversion utilitu and native file format. From QUECID

File fragmentattion

The allocation of a file in noncontiguoug sectors on a floppy or hard disk. Fragmentation occues because of multiple file delections and write operations. File gramentattion can seriously reduce disk efficiency, because a disk drive's rad/write head must travel longer distances to retreive a file that's scattered all over the disk. Defragmenting can improve disk efficiency by as much as 50 percent by rewriting files so that they are placed in contiguous clusters. See defragmentation. From QUECID

File locking

On a network, a method of concurrency control that ensures the integrity of data. File locking prevents moe than one user from accessing and altering a file at the same time. See Local Area Network (LAN). From QUECID

File server

In a Local Area Network (LAN), a computer that stoes on its hard disk the application programs and data files for all workstations in the network. In a peer-to-peer network, all workstations act as file servers, because each workstattion can provide files to other workstations. In the more common client/server architecure, a single, high-powered machine with a huge hard disk is set aside to functino as the file server for all the workstations (clients) in the network. See Network Operating System (NOS). From QUECID


A unique name assigned to a file when the file is written on a disk. From QUECID


Common to every computer system invented is the file. A file holds a single contiguous block of data. Any kind of data can be stored in a file, and there is no data that cannot be stored in a file. Furthermore, there is no kind of data that is stored anywhere else except in files. A file holds data of the same type, for instance, a single picture will be stored in one file. During production, this book had each chapter stored in a file. It is uncommon for different types of data (say, text and pictures) to be stored together in the same file because it is inconvenient. A computer will typically contain about 10,000 files that have a great many purposes. Each file will have its own name. The file name on a LINUX or UNIX machine can be up to 256 characters long. From Rute-Users-Guide


A program that reads data (from a file, program output or command line entry) as input, processes it according to a set of predefined conditions (for example, sorted alphabetically) and outputs the processed data. Some filters include Awk, Grep, Sed and Sort. From I-gloss


Any utility program that functions automatically to screen data. In electronic mail, you can use a filter to delete unwanted messages automatically. From QUECID


Hardware or software designed to restrict access to certain areas on the Internet. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology


A Unix command that provides information about users logged in, and can also be used to retrieve the .plan and .project files from a users home directory. From KADOWKEV


An Internet software tool for locating people on other Internet sites. Finger is also sometimes used to give access to non-personal information, but the most common use is to see if a person has an account at a particular Internet site. Many sites do not allow incoming Finger requests, but many do. From Matisse


An Internet utility that enables you to obtain information about a use who has an electronic mail addrss. Normally, this infromation is limited to the person's full name, job titile, and address. However, the use can set up finger to retrieve one or more text files that contain information (such as a resume) that the user wants to make public. From QUECID


Finnix is a self-contained, bootable Linux CD distribution, based on Red Hat Linux 6.1. Finnix was created as a system maintenance distribution. You can mount hard drives, set up network devices, repair filesystems, and pretty much do anything you can do with a regular distribution. A CD-based distribution. From LWN Distribution List


FireCast is a Linux-based software suite for building and managing interactive kiosk networks. It is designed for use with standard PC hardware, and bundles a tamper-resistant kiosk environment, customizable user interface, Web browser, and full multimedia support with a plug- and-play Linux operating system. It also includes a complete set of Web- based remote management and advertising control tools for scheduling content, monitoring device status, and creating and tracking ad campaigns. It requires no prior knowledge of Linux, and uses a familiar graphical interface for all administrative functions. This is a proprietary package, with a free trial. Version 2.0 was released August 31, 2002. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. From LWN Distribution List

Firegate Server

The Firegate Server SMB Edition from Wiresoft is a self-managing server operating system designed for small and mid-sized businesses. It securely connects offices to the Internet and to each other, protecting valuable electronic information. Office staff can securely surf the web, send and receive email, host the company Web site, share files, host a customer database, and more. It is controlled through a simple Web browser or mobile telephone interface and managed by an artificial intelligence-based administration service. This package contains proprietary software. Version 7.1 was released September 25, 2002. A 'secured' distribution. From LWN Distribution List


A combination of hardware and software that separates a Network into two or more parts for security purposes. From Matisse


A firewall is a structure intended to keep a fire from spreading. Building have firewalls made of brick walls completely dividing sections of the building. In a car a firewall is the metal wall separating the engine and passenger compartments. Internet firewalls are intended to keep the flames of Internet hell out of your private LAN. Or, to keep the members of your LAN pure and chaste by denying them access the all the evil Internet temptations. ;-) The first computer firewall was a non-routing Unix host with connections to two different networks. One network card connected to the Internet and the other to the private LAN. To reach the Internet from the private network, you had to logon to the firewall (Unix) server. You then used the resources of the system to access the Internet. For example, you could use X-windows to run Netscape's browser on the firewall system and have the display on your work station. With the browser running on the firewall it has access to both networks. This sort of dual homed system (a system with two network connections) is great if you can TRUST ALL of your users. You can simple setup a Linux system and give an account accounts on it to everyone needing Internet access. With this setup, the only computer on your private network that knows anything about the outside world is the firewall. No one can download to their personal workstations. They must first download a file to the firewall and then download the file from the firewall to their workstation. BIG NOTE: 99% of all break-ins start with gaining account level access on the system being attacked. Because of this I don't recommend this type of firewall. It is also very limiting. From Firewall-HOWTO


A firewall is used on some networks to provide added security by blocking access to certain services in the private network from the rest of the internet, in the same way that a firewall in a building keeps fire from spreading, an internet firewall keeps hackers from spreading. From KADOWKEV


A security procedure that places a specially progammed computer system between an organisation's Local Area Network (LAN) and the Internet. The firewall computer precents acrackes from accessing the internal network. Unfortunately, it also prevents the organisation's copmuter uses form gaining direct access to the Internet. The access the the firewall provides is indirect and mediated by programs called proxy servers. From QUECID


Broadly, the system software stored in a computer's read-only memory (ROM) or elsewhere in the computer's circuitry, such as the basic input-output system (BIOS) chips in IBM PC-compatible computers. From QUECID


A variable that serves as an indicator about the stattus of a program or some data. A flag in a database record might be true if the other fields in the record show that a videotape is overdue, for example. From QUECID


An offensive or insulting e-mail or Usenet News message, often the result of an error in netiquette. From KADOWKEV


Lacking elaborate structure. A file system withoug subdirectories in which you can group files is said to be flat. Such systems have not been used since the earliest days of personal computing. From QUECID

Flat address space

A method of organising a computer's memoery so the operating system can allocate portions of the memory without restriction. The opposite of a flat addres space is the segmented memoey architecture of MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows 3.1, which divide memory into 64K sections (called segments). A falt memory space design is more efficient because the processor does not have to map each momery address to a spsecific 64K segment, but such a design requires the use of 32-bit memoery addresses. Microsoft Windows 95, which emplys 32-bit memory addressesm creates a flat address space for your applications. From QUECID

Fli4l (Floppy ISDN/DSL)

"the on(e)-disk-router". Website in German and English. Fli4l is a single floppy Linux-based ISDN, DSL and Ethernet-Router. You can build it from an old 486 based pc with 16 megabyte memory, which is more than adequate for this purpose. Development version 2.1.2 was released February 15, 2003. Stable version 2.0.8 was released April 27, 2003. From LWN Distribution List


FlightLinux is a concept that uses a real-time variation of the open source Linux Operating System for onboard spacecraft use. From LWN Distribution List


Floppix is a teaching tool; it is a very small subset of Debian/ GNU Linux that fits on two 3.5 in. 1.4Mb diskettes. The current version is derived from Debian 2.1 (slink), providing a platform to practice Linux commands and experiment with simple system administration. A floppy-based distribution. From LWN Distribution List

Flow control

A method of ensuring that the data devide such as a modem or a computer system sends does not overwhelm the receiving device, such as a modem. Software handshaking (also XON/XOFF handshaking) regulates communications between two modems. Hardware handshaking (CTS/RTS) regulates data flow between the computer and the modem. From QUECID

Flying Linux

Flying Linux was originally based on Bambi. This wireless distribution is oriented to security in wireless environments and mobility. Unfortunately it looks defunct (20020605). A 'wireless' distribution. From LWN Distribution List

Foreground Process

In a multitasking operating system, such as UNIX/Linux, the foreground process is the program that the user is interacting with at the present time (for example, data entry). Different programs can be in the foreground at different times, as the user jumps between them. In a tiered windowing environment, it is the topmost window. From I-gloss


FORmula TRANslator - The first and still the most widely used programming language for numerical and scientific applications. The original versions lacked recursive procedures and block structure and had a line-oriented syntax in which certain columns had special significance. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

Fortran 90

An extensive enlargement of FORTRAN 77. Fortran 90 has derived types, assumed shape arrays, array sections, functions returning arrays, case statement, module subprograms and internal subprograms, optional and keyword subprogram arguments, recursion, and dynamic allocation. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


A framebuffer device is an abstraction for the graphic hardware. It represents the frame buffer of some video hardware, and allows application software to access the graphic hardware through a well-defined interface, so that the software doesn't need to know anything about the low-level interface stuff [Taken from Geert Uytterhoeven's framebuffer.txt in the linux kernel sources] From Framebuffer-HOWTO

FrazierWall Linux

Originally developed as a customized firewall, early versions were based on the Linux Router Project and Coyote Linux 1.03. It has evolved into a unique router/firewall distribution. FrazierWall 3.4 was released on August 29, 2001. A 'secured' distribution. From LWN Distribution List


Any one of more than two dozen freely accessible Internet sites, primarily offering community and educational information. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology

FreeBSD (Free Berkeley Software Distribution)

Similar to Linux in that it includes many GNU programs and runs many of the same packages as Linux. However, some kernel functions are implemented differently. (Also, see BSD UNIX.) From I-gloss


The Organization for Free Software in Education and Teaching (OFSET) has produced Freeduc, a Knoppix/Debian-based Linux system with educational software, all on one bootable CDROM. Version 1.1 of the Freeduc CD-ROM was released November 5, 2002. Version 1.3 was released May 20, 2003. From LWN Distribution List


Freepia is small GNU/Linux distribution designed to run on Via Epia-M Mainboards. At present it only runs on the M-9000. The motivation behind this project is to build a full featured, low noise media box to play movies/mp3s/images etc. It currently uses Freevo, but in the future there maybe support for other media players like mythtv or vdr. Version 0.3.6 was released on June 11, 2003. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. From LWN Distribution List


Copyrighted prorgams that have been made available without charge for public use. The programs cannot be resold for profit. From QUECID


To stop software development at a point at which the developer judges that the software is sufficiently stable for release. From QUECID Can also be used to describe when a computer system seems to 'hang' and doesn't seem to be accepting any input. From Binh


The number of complete oscillations per second of an electromagnetic wave. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology

Fried Chicken

Fried Chicken Linux (FCL) is a Linux software repository designed for use by students and staff at the IT University of Copenhagen. FCL contains Fried Chicken Linux packages and integrates these with Red Hat Linux. The Repository furthermore comprises mirrors of the Red Hat distributions and updates to these. Finally, automatically updated Red Hat distributions are provided. From LWN Distribution List

Full Duplex

Process that allows both parties to Receive (listen) and transmit (talk) at the same time. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology

Full Motion Video

Signal which allows transmission of complete action taking place at the origination site. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology


Uses Pliant as an whole operating system on top of a Linux kernel. From LWN Distribution List


A FORTRAN 77 to C/C++ translator, plus static & shared libs. f2c translates FORTRAN 77 (with some extensions) into C, so that it can then be compiled and run on a system with no Fortran compiler. The C files must then be linked against the appropriate libraries. This is an actively maintained FORTRAN to C translator and with the fort77 frontend provides an ideal way to compile FORTRAN routines as black boxes (for example for invocation from C). Source level debugging facilities are not available, and error messages are not as well developed as in g77. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Faces is a program for visually monitoring a list (typically a list of incoming mail messages, a list of jobs in a print queue or a list ofsystem users). Faces operates in five different modes: monitoring fornew mail, monitoring an entire mail file, monitoring a specified printqueue, monitoring users on a machine and custom monitoring. Faces also includes a utility for including a face image (a compressed, scannedimage) with mail messages. The image has to be compressed in a certain way, which can then be uncompressed and displayed on-the-fly in the mail program. This feature of faces is typically used with the exmh mailhandling system. Install faces if you'd like to use its list monitoring capability orits face image inclusion capability. If you would like to include face images in email, you'll also need to install the faces-xface package. If you would like to develop xface applications, you'll need to also install faces-devel. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


prints prime factors From whatis


Fully Automatic Installation FAI is a non interactive system to install a Debian Linux operating system on a PC cluster. You can take one or more virgin PCs, turn on the power and after a few minutes Linux is installed, configured and running on the whole cluster, without any interaction necessary. Homepage: http://www.informatik.uni-koeln.de/fai From Debian 3.0r0 APT

fail-safe (fail-open, fail-close)

A philosophic point of view. When a system fails, how should it leave things: secure or unsecure? For example, if a firewall crashes, should it disable all network connectivity, or should it allow network connectivity to continue unprotected? A lot of security vulnerabilities occur because designers make the wrong choice. It is often easier to cause a system to fail than to break through it, so security items should probably fail in such a way to result in greater security at the expensive of stopping everything. Confusion: The terms "fail-open" and "fail-close" are frequently used to mean the opposite of each other. Some people think of a door, which when "open" allows things to pass through. Other people think of an electrical circuit, when "open" stops the flow of current (and conversely, a "closed" circuit passes current). Therefore, use the word "fail-safe" instead in order to avoid confusion. Analogy: The electrical circuit-breakers in your home are fail-safe switches using this concept. In the case of an electrical fault causing a short, the circuit breaker will blow open, halting the flow of electricity. This prevents a fire from starting. From Hacking-Lexicon


Login failure logging file From whatis


examine faillog and set login failure limits From whatis


IP address takeover tool Fake is a utility that enables the IP address be taken over by bringing up a second interface on the host machine and using gratuitous arp. Designed to switch in backup servers on a LAN. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Gives a fake root environment. This package is intended to enable something like: dpkg-buildpackage -rfakeroot i.e. to remove the need to become root for a package build. This is done by setting LD_PRELOAD to libfakeroot.so, which provides wrappers around getuid, chown, chmod, mknod, stat, ..., thereby creating a fake root environment. If you don't understand any of this, you do not need fakeroot! From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A port of NetHack using SDL Falcon's Eye is a mouse-driven interface for NetHack that enhances the visuals, audio and accessibility of the game, yet retains all the original gameplay and game features. NetHack is a single player dungeon exploration game that runs on a wide variety of computer systems, with a variety of graphical and text interfaces all using the same game engine. Unlike many other Dungeons & Dragons-inspired games, the emphasis in NetHack is on discovering the detail of the dungeon and not simply killing everything in sight - in fact, killing everything in sight is a good way to die quickly. Each game presents a different landscape - the random number generator provides an essentially unlimited number of variations of the dungeon and its denizens to be discovered by the player in one of a number of characters: you can pick your race, your role, and your gender. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


do nothing, unsuccessfully From whatis


False login shell Strange kind of 'shell' which don't let the user to log in. Before the next login prompt falselogin gives some info to the user. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


FAM, the File Alteration Monitor, provides a daemon and an API which applications can use for notification of changes in specific files ordirectories. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


File Alteration Monitor FAM monitors files and directories, notifying interested applications of changes. This package provides a server that can monitor a given list of files and notify applications through a socket. If the imon pseudo device driver is loaded into the kernel, it notifies FAM. Otherwise it has to poll the files' status. FAM can also provide a RPC service for monitoring remote files (such as on a mounted NFS filesystem). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Online interactive FAQ CGI Creates updatable web-based FAQs with CGI. It keeps cumulative statistics about hits. Highly customizable to permit only those you choose to update the FAQ, or to allow anyone to change it depending on your requirements. It will also generate a cache of static pages if desired so that most accesses to unchanging data will be served directly through your webserver without the overhead of CGI. If you want to generate graphs of access statistics, install the libgd-perl package as well. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


[Biology] A tool for construction of phylogenetic trees of DNA sequences fastDNAml is a program derived from Joseph Felsenstein's version 3.3 DNAML (part of his PHYLIP package). Users should consult the documentation for DNAML before using this program. fastDNAml is an attempt to solve the same problem as DNAML, but to do so faster and using less memory, so that larger trees and/or more bootstrap replicates become tractable. Much of fastDNAml is merely a recoding of the PHYLIP 3.3 DNAML program from PASCAL to C. URL: http://geta.life.uiuc.edu/~gary/programs/fastDNAml.html From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Jar creation utility Replacement for Suns .jar creation program. It is written in C instead of java and is tons faster. It is currently not complete. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


[Biology] A faster version of pedigree programs of Linkage Fastlink is much faster than the original Linkage but does not implement all the programs. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Backup System using a Filesystem for Storage This Program uses a filesystem on a hard drive for incremental and full backups. All Backups can easily be accessed by standard filesystem tools (ls, find, grep, cp, ...) Later Backups to the same filesystem will automatically be incremental, as unchanged files are only hard-linked with the existing version of the file. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Packet radio mailbox and utilities. The fbb package contains software written by f6fbb for setting up a packet radio mailbox. It is intended for amateur radio operators. A short overview of some of the binaries: o fbb: Script to start the daemon. o xfbbd: The daemon which listens for incoming connects. o epurmess: Delete messages based on age. o epurwp: White Pages maintenance. o reqdir: FBB server which requests directory listings. o xfbbC: B/W Ncurses console for xfbbd. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Documentation for fbb, the packet radio mailbox This package provides documentation on setting up a packet radio mailbox with fbb. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A console getty with and without frame buffer capability fbgetty is a console getty, which supports frame buffers. It also uses an extend issue field and refreshes the displayed issue, when an VT (Virtual Terminal) is activated. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


linux FrameBuffer Imageviewer This is a image viewer for linux framebuffer devices. It has buildin support for a number of common formats. For unknown files it tries to use convert from the ImageMagick package as external converter. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Converts images to framebuffer-logo header file fblogo takes an image as input and generates an appropriate linux_logo.h which can simply be included in the kernel. It will be displayed when the framebuffer device is enabled. You can also use it to generate full screen splash screens for the Linux Progress Patch. It will work for 2.2.x, 2.4.x and 2.5.x kernels. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Fbset is a utility for maintaining frame buffer resolutions. Fbsetcan change the video mode properties of a frame buffer device, and is usually used to change the current video mode. Install fbset if you need to manage frame buffer resolutions. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


Framebuffer device maintenance program. Program to modify settings for the framebuffer devices (/dev/fb?) on Linux, like depth, virtual resolution, timing parameters etc. This program is useful for all Linux/m68k kernel versions, and for late 2.1 kernels on most other architectures. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


linux console (fbcon) TV application TV application for the linux console, requires a framebuffer device (vesafb, matroxfb, atyfb, ...) and a video4linux driver like bttv. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


IDS filesystem baseline integrity checker. The fcheck utility is an IDS (Intrusion Detection System) which can be used to monitor changes to any given filesystem. Essentially, fcheck has the ability to monitor directories, files or complete filesystems for any additions, deletions, and modifications. It is configurable to exclude active log files, and can be ran as often as needed from the command line or cron making it extremely difficult to circumvent. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Free media files for FreeCraft. These are a set of free sounds and graphics for FreeCraft, a clone of the realtime fantasy strategy game, WarCraft II, from Blizzard Entertainment. These files come from the FreeCraft Media Project, reachable at http://www.freecraft.net/fcmp . Note that this version contains almost all the files needed for a fair game experience, and has not anything to do with WarCraft II data (in fact spoofs it), as it's completely free. This is the last stable snapshot from the CVS repository. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


cron-like scheduler with extended capabilities Fcron is a scheduler. It implements most of Vixie Cron's functionalities. But contrary to Vixie Cron, fcron does not need your system to be up 7 days a week, 24 hours a day: it also works well with systems which are running neither all the time nor regularly. Fcron also includes a useful system of options, such as: run jobs one by one, run jobs at fcron's startup if they should have been run during system down time, a better management of the mailing of outputs, set a nice value for a job... From Debian 3.0r0 APT


C malloc debug library Provides routines that can be plugged in to replace malloc(), realloc(), calloc(), and free(). If you're not debugging, and an allocation fails, FDA will call user supplied callbacks to allow you to free up some memory or shut down the program cleanly -- this means you don't have to check the return values from malloc if you don't want to. For debugging FDA provides a nice toolkit for validating pointers, checking for leaks, gathering memory statistics, bounds checking and other nice things. FDA uses shredding, prefix and postfix signatures, and a liberal amount of predicate asserts. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A console-base lightweight file manager FD(FD represents "File and Directory") is an easy-to-use file management tool for Un*x newbies. As its name shows, this is a rewrite from scratch - the original version was written by Atsushi Idei for MS-DOS(tm) and once very popular in Japan. Messages are available either in English or in Japanese. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A disk-flushing program. fdflush is a band-aid for floppy (or other) drivers with bad disk-change sensing. fdflush makes the system believe the disk-change switch has been triggered forcing the system to discard the buffered data. If you have one of these slightly-broken disk drives, you'll have to run fdflush every time you change a disk From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Low-level formats a floppy disk From whatis


Partition table manipulator for Linux From whatis


Floppy disk mount utility TQ From whatis


Floppy disk mount utility TQ From whatis


Floppy disk mount utility TQ From whatis


send raw commands to the floppy disk controller TQ From whatis


Floppy disk mount utility TQ From whatis


Identifies duplicate files within given directories. FDupes uses md5sums and then a byte by byte comparison to find duplicate files within a set of directories. It has several useful options including recursion. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Linux floppy utilities This package contains utilities for configuring and debugging the Linux floppy driver, for formatting extra capacity disks (up to 1992K on a high density disk), for sending raw commands to the floppy controller, for automatic floppy disk mounting and unmounting, etc. Author: [email protected] Released-date: 1999-07-03 Keywords: floppy 2m xdf superformat floppycontrol fdrawcmd URL: http://www.tux.org/pub/knaff/fdutils/ From Debian 3.0r0 APT


configure the suid bit of fdmount From whatis


imlib2 based image viewer feh is a fast, lightweight image viewer which uses imlib2. It is commandline-driven and supports multiple images through slideshows, thumbnail browsing or multiple windows, and montages or index prints (using truetype fonts to display file info). Advanced features include fast dynamic zooming, progressive loading, loading via HTTP (with reload support for watching webcams), recursive file opening (slideshow of a directory hierarchy), and mousewheel/keyboard control. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Package for introductory level finite element analysis. FElt is a free system for introductory level finite element analysis. It is primarily intended as a teaching tool for introductory type courses in finite elements - probably in the mechanical/structural/civil fields. In a command line environment, FElt uses an intuitive, straightforward input syntax to describe problems. It also includes a graphical user interface for workstations that allows the user to set-up, solve and post-process the problem in a single CAD-like environment. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Ferite programming language Ferite is a language that incorporates the design philosophies of other languages, but without many of their drawbacks. It has strong similiarities to perl, python, C, Java and pascal, while being both lightweight, modular, and embeddable. This package contains the ferite language interpreter. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


maintain and setup complicated firewall rules ferm allows one to reduce the tedious task of carefully inserting rules and chains by a large factor, thus enabling the firewall administrator to spend more time on developing good rules then the proper implementation of the rule. ferm supports ipchains firewalls, ipfwadm rules and iptables firewalls. Changing to another system will be very easy, and ferm will help in the process. ferm compiles ready to go firewall-rules from a structured rule- setup. These rules will be executed by the preferred kernel interface, such as ipchains(8) and iptables(8). ferm will also add in modularizing firewalls, because it creates the possibility to split up the firewall into several different files, which can be reloaded at will, so you can dynamically adjust your rules. ferm, pronounced "firm", stands for "For Easy Rule Making". From Debian 3.0r0 APT


speech synthesis system Festival is a general multi-lingual speech synthesis system. It offers a full text to speech system with various APIs, as well an environment for development and research of speech synthesis techniques. It includes a Scheme-based command interpreter. Besides research into speech synthesis, festival is useful as a stand-alone speech synthesis program. It is capable of producing clearly understandable speech from text. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Fetchmail is a remote mail retrieval and forwarding utility intended for use over on-demand TCP/IP links, like SLIP or PPP connections. Fetchmail supports every remote-mail protocol currently in use on the Internet (POP2, POP3, RPOP, APOP, KPOP, all IMAPs, ESMTP ETRN, IPv6,and IPSEC) for retrieval. Then Fetchmail forwards the mail through SMTP so you can read it through your favorite mail client. Install fetchmail if you need to retrieve mail over SLIP or PPP connections. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


POP3, APOP, IMAP mail gatherer/forwarder (crypto-crippled binary) fetchmail is a free, full-featured, robust, and well-documented remote mail retrieval and forwarding utility intended to be used over on-demand TCP/IP links (such as SLIP or PPP connections). It retrieves mail from remote mail servers and forwards it to your local (client) machine's delivery system, so it can then be read by normal mail user agents such as mutt, elm, pine, (x)emacs/gnus, or mailx. The fetchmailconf package includes an interactive GUI configurator suitable for end-users. Kerberos IV & V, RPA, OPIE and GSSAPI support are available if the package is recompiled. SSL is provided by the fetchmail-ssl package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


a secure finger daemon ffingerd is a secure fingerd replacement. This version of the finger daemon is invoked by inetd, but it's not meant to be run as root. Requests that may indicate attacks are logged by ffinger through the syslog(3) facility. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Library for computing Fast Fourier Transforms This library computes Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) in one or more dimensions. It is extremely fast. This package contains the shared library version of the fftw libraries in double precision. To get the static library and the header files you need to install fftw-dev. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A built-in shell command that will take a suspended process and run it in the foreground.From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


print the number of the active VT. From whatis


Flight Gear Flight Simulator -- base files Flight Gear is a free and highly sophisticated flight simulator. This package contains graphics, sounds, aircraft models, and the minimum scenery you need to start Flight Gear. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


print lines matching a pattern From whatis


File history, comparison and merge utilities The fhist package contains 3 utilities fhist - a file history tool fcomp - a file comparison tool fmerge - a file merging tool All three are bundled together, because they all use the same minimal-difference algorithm. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Gnome Hotline client. For more info on what Hotline is, see <http://www.bigredh.com/>. Essentially it is a file-sharing and communication protocol that lets you share your files, post messages, and chat realtime. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Gateway Fido <-> Internet Fidogate is a Fido-Internet gateway and a Fido tosser. The gateway converts between the worlds of Fido NetMail/EchoMail (or FTNs, Fido Technology Networks in general) and the UNIX mail/news system. FIDOGATE will convert Fido mail packets to RFC822/1036-style messages and vice versa. FIDOGATE also includes a complete FIDO mail processor (NetMail/EchoMail scanner and tosser), an FTN-FTN gateway (NetMail only), a file processor (TIC file areas) and an Areafix/Filefix. Supports the Gatebau 94 standard. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


In text-processing, a segment of a line of text that may be named and processed by a program. The sort program can use fields when it sorts lines in a file. In Linux, fields are usually separated by spaces or tab. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

field separator

A character, also called a delimiter, that is used to separate one field from another. The default field separator for many programs, such as sort, is a blank space (or a tab). From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


Fifteen Applet for the GNOME panel. From whatis


fifteen pieces puzzle for KDE An applet for the KDE panel that lets you play the Fifteen Pieces sliding block puzzle. You have to order 15 pieces in a 4x4 square by moving them around. This package is part of the official KDE toys module. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Frank, Ian & Glenn's Letters Figlet is a program that creates large characters out of ordinary screen characters. It can create characters in many different styles and can kern and "smush" these characters together in various ways. Figlet output is generally reminiscent of the sort of "signatures" many people like to put at the end of e-mail and Usenet messages. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


an X11 vector graphics drawing program figurine is an X drawing program that is compatible with the xfig application. figurine is intended to be easier to use than xfig, while providing a similar set of features. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Determines file type using "magic" numbers File tests each argument in an attempt to classify it. There are three sets of tests, performed in this order: filesystem tests, magic number tests, and language tests. The first test that succeeds causes the file type to be printed. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The file command is used to identify a file according to the type of data it contains. File can identify many different file types, including ELF binaries, system libraries, RPM packages, and different graphics formats. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


The file command is used to identify a particular file according to thetype of data contained by the file. File can identify many different file types, including ELF binaries, system libraries, RPM packages, and different graphics formats. You should install the file package, since the file command is such a useful utility. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM

file extension

In filenames, the group of letters after the period is called the file extension.From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

file server

A process that provides access to a file from remote devices. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

file system

the physical or logical device that holds a collection of files and directories. This might be a hard disk drive or a partition on a disk drive. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

file type

A description of the function of a file. These types include ordinary files, directories, and special files, which represent devices in the system. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


kanji code checker This package contains file2. File2 tests each argument in an attempt to classify it to JIS, EUC, SJIS, ascii and UNKNOWN. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Alternative boot mechanism using a single configuration file This package provides an alternative mechanism to boot the system, to shut it down and to change runlevels. The /etc/rc?.d/* links will be converted into one single configuration file /etc/runlevel.conf instead, which is easier to administrate than symlinks, and is also more flexible. The package will automatically convert your existing symlinks into the file method on installation, and convert the file back into symlinks on removal. Both mechanisms are compatible through /etc/init.d/rc, /etc/init.d/rcS, /usr/sbin/update-rc.d, and /usr/sbin/invoke-rc.d scripts. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


File Roller is an archive manager for the GNOME environment. This means that you can : create and modify archives; view the content of an archive; view afile contained in the archive; extract files from the archive. File Roller is only a front-end (a graphical interface) to archiving programs like tar and zip. The supported file types are : * Tar archives uncompressed (.tar) or compressed with * gzip (.tar.gz , .tgz) * bzip (.tar.bz , .tbz) * bzip2 (.tar.bz2 , .tbz2) * compress (.tar.Z , .taz) * lzop (.tar.lzo , .tzo) * Zip archives (.zip) * Jar archives (.jar , .ear , .war) * Lha archives (.lzh) * Rar archives (.rar) * Single files compressed with gzip, bzip, bzip2, compress, lzop From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


an Archiver for GNOME File-roller is an archiver for GNOME with support for tar, bzip2, zip, jar, gzip, compress and lzop archives. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


allows you to configure how files of various types should be handled. From whatis


A directory navigation GNOME applet. File Menu Applet is a small GNOME panel application which creates a file manager. File Menu Applet is not designed to replace your existing file manager, but instead work with it. It supports standard drag and drop, GNOME file types, and Nautilus icons. One may use it for small tasks such a easily attaching files to emails in Evolution or Sylpheed by dragging them out of File Menu Applet into the composer window. It's also excellent for selecting songs to play from your MP3 or OGG collection. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


X-Based FTP program & file manager FileRunner is an X-Based FTP program. It gives you a windowed view of files on your local system and a remote system. It allows transferring multiple files at once, tagging of files, etc. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The methods and data structures that an operating system uses to keep track of files on a disk or partition; the way the files are organized on the disk. Also used to describe a partition or disk that is used to store the files or the type of the filesystem. From Linux Administrator's Guide


Small utility to keep track of changes in config files. FileTraq is just a shell script that reads a list of files to watch, runs diff against each file and its backup, and reports any discrepancies, along with keeping a dated backup of the original. It's designed to be run as a cron job. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


GNU file management utilities This package contains the essential system utilities to manipulate files on your system. Included in this package are commands to change the permissions on files, list the files in a directory, create new directories, and list free disk space, among other things. The specific utilities included are: chgrp chmod chown cp dd df dir dircolors du install ln ls mkdir mkfifo mknod mv rm rmdir shred touch vdir sync. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The fileutils package includes a number of GNU versions of common andpopular file management utilities. Fileutils includes the following tools: chgrp (changes a file's group ownership), chown (changes a file's ownership), chmod (changes a file's permissions), cp (copies files), dd (copies and converts files), df (shows a filesystem's diskusage), dir (gives a brief directory listing), dircolors (the setup program for the color version of the ls command), du (shows disk usage), install (copies files and sets permissions), ln (creates file links), ls (lists directory contents), mkdir (creates directories),mkfifo (creates FIFOs or named pipes), mknod (creates special files),mv (renames files), rm (removes/deletes files), rmdir (removes empty directories), sync (synchronizes memory and disk), touch (changes file timestamps), and vdir (provides long directory listings). From Redhat 8.0 RPM


Simple game in Java Filler is a simple two-player game written in java. The object of the game is to conquer more area of the playing board than your opponent. This game requires a java 2 runtime environment. Try www.blackdown.de or java.sun.com From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A program that filters local email via forward/pipe filter is one of the original mailfiltering programs written for UNIX. (originally a part of the 'elm' mailer) Install it via a pipe(|) reference in $HOME/.forward, and let it separate your incoming email into different personal mailboxes. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A program that takes a set of data (usually in a file) as input, processes the data, and makes the processed data its output. Some examples of filters include grep, sort, awk, and sed. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


A filtering proxy, which can among other things remove ads. FilterProxy is a Perl script that acts as a generic web proxy. It is unique in that it allows "Modules" to be installed that can perform arbitrary transformations on HTML(or any other mime-type). Currently it filters ads, and compresses HTML content (for a 5-1 speedup on modems!) Configuration is done with web forms. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


a collection of filters, including B1FF and the Swedish Chef A collection of filters to do all sorts of strange things to text. This includes such favorites as B1FF and the Swedish Chef, and a wide range of others. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


search for files in a directory hierarchy From whatis


translate find command lines to Perl code From whatis


Interactive spelling checking From whatis


Finds visually similar or duplicate images findimagedupes is a commandline utility which performs a rough "visual diff" to two images. This allows you to compare two images or a whole tree of images and determine if any are similar or identical. The program can optionally export a GQView compatible collection file, so you can deal with the duplicates visually. On common image types, findimagedupes seems to be around 98% accurate. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The findutils package contains programs which will help you locatefiles on your system. The find utility searches through a hierarchy of directories looking for files which match a certain set of criteria(such as a filename pattern). The locate utility searches a database (create by updatedb) to quickly find a file matching a given pattern. The xargs utility builds and executes command lines from standard input arguments (usually lists of file names generated by the findcommand). You should install find utils because it includes tools that are very useful for finding things on your system. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


The findutils package contains programs which will help you locatefiles on your system. The find utility searches through a hierarchy of directories looking for files which match a certain set of criteria (such as a filename pattern). The xargs utility builds and executescommand lines from standard input arguments (usually lists of filenames generated by the find command). From Redhat 8.0 RPM


utilities for finding files--find, xargs, and locate These utilities find files meeting specified criteria and perform various actions on the files which are found. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A user information lookup program that shows a person's full name, most recent log-in time, and other information. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


Finger is a utility that displays information about system users (login name, home directory, name, how long they have been logged in, etc.). The finger package includes a standard finger client. You should install finger if you would like to retrieve finger information from other systems. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


In UNIX, the finger service provides information about a users. Fingering a user, such as running the command "finger [email protected]", will often display the contents of the .plan file. Fingering no specific user, such as finger @robertgraham.com, will list all the users who are logged on. Fingering users is often done during the reconnaissance phase of an attack. Example: The following shows the output of the command "finger [email protected]": Login: rob Name: Robert David Graham Directory: /home/rob Shell: /bin/bash On since Fri Dec 3 18:13 (PST) on ttyp0 from gemini No mail. No Plan Key point: The finger command reveals extensive information. For example, if I were attacking the above machine, I would notice that the user is running bash Therefore, I may try something like http://rh5.robertgraham.com/ against the user, which in about 1% of the cases will give me a history file of recent commands they've entered, which may contain passwords and such. Key point: There are a number of fun things you can do with finger. The first is that you can use the "finger bounce" technique. Finger servers will often forward requests for you. The command: finger [email protected]@example.com will query example.com for [email protected]. You can use this technique to hide where your are coming from. On some systems, you can do a DoS attack by sending a finger command like: finger rob@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@robertgraham.com causing the system to go into a loop trying to resolve this. There are also special names you can finger. An empty name will sometimes list the currently logged on users, or sometimes all users with accounts on a machine. The special names of "0", "*", "**" will sometimes have similar effects. From Hacking-Lexicon


User information lookup program. finger displays information about the system users. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


[WAITS, via BSD Unix] 1. n. A program that displays information about a particular user or all users logged on the system, or a remote system. Typically shows full name, last login time, idle time, terminal line, and terminal location (where applicable). May also display a plan file left by the user (see also Hacking X for Y). 2. vt. To apply finger to a username. 3. vt. By extension, to check a human's current state by any means. "Foodp?" "T!" "OK, finger Lisa and see if she's idle." 4. Any picture (composed of ASCII characters) depicting `the finger'. Originally a humorous component of one's plan file to deter the curious fingerer (sense 2), it has entered the arsenal of some flamers. From Jargon Dictionary


Finger is a utility that displays information about system users(login name, home directory, name, how long they've been logged in,etc.). The finger-server package includes a standard finger server. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


Remote user information server. Fingerd is a simple daemon based on RFC1196 that provides an interface to the "finger" program at most network sites. The program is supposed to return a friendly, human-oriented status report on either the system at the moment or a particular person in depth. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A common scan hackers perform nowadays is fingerprinting a system in order to figure out what operating system it is running. The two main types of fingerprinting are Queso, which sends weird TCP flags, and nmap, which sends weird TCP options. Narrowing down the operating system is important. For example, attempting Windows-specific hacks against a UNIX system is pointless. Fingerprinting is possible because the TCP/IP specifications do not fully define the behavior of a protocol stack. Therefore, by sending unusual (undefined) network traffic at a system, the hacker will receive responses unique to that system. Key point: One of the key reasons for fingerprinting a system is to search for "old" or "unusual" systems. Non-computer devices like routers, printers, modem banks, etc. are not written to the same level of security standards as real computers. In addition, a hacker may be able to find old SunOS 4 systems which are rife with well-known security flaws. From Hacking-Lexicon


gtk program for managing and observing your firewall. Firestarter is a complete firewall tool for Linux machines. It features an easy to use firewall wizard to quickly create a firewall. Using the program you can then open and close ports with a few clicks, or stealth your machine giving access only to a select few. The real-time hit monitor shows attackers probing your machine. Firestarter is made for the GNOME desktop. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A device that isolates a network from the Internet. The word is derived from construction, where "firewalls" isolate areas of a building in order to stop a fire from spreading. A firewall acts as a "choke point". Corporations install firewalls between their internal (private) networks and the (public) Internet. All traffic between the corporation and the Internet flows through the firewall. It acts as a "gate" with virtual guards that examines the traffic, and decided whether to allow it or block it. Misunderstanding: Many people believe that a firewall makes your network immune to hacker penetration. Firewalls have no ability to decide for themselves whether traffic is hostile or benign. Instead, the administrator must program the firewall with rules as to what type of traffic to allow or deny. This is similar to a guard checking badges at a gate: the guard can only detect if the badge is allowed/denied, but cannot detect impersonations or somebody climbing the fence in the back. Key point: Firewalls are based on the principle of blocking everything by default and only allowing those things that are absolutely necessary. Key point: Firewall administrators are frequently at odds with their management. Executives are frequently frustrated by things that don't work in the network. They don't understand how difficult it is to secure each new application, or the increased risks involved. Controversy: A lot of time is wasted on trying to come up with the exact definition of the word "firewall", usually by marketing flaks or nerds with attitude. The term isn't well defined. Most people equate firewalls with packet filters. Others include proxy servers and NATs along with the definition. Misunderstanding: A common question posed is "what is the best firewall?". People who ask the question mean "what stops hackers the best?". This is based upon the same misunderstanding highlighted above: firewalls isolate you from the Internet in the hopes of reducing exposure to hackers. The best firewall that will protect you best from hackers is therefore to completely isolate yourself from the Internet (i.e. don't use the Internet at all). If you want to use the Internet, then you will have some risk due to hackers that firewalls cannot prevent. For example, if you tell the firewall to accept incoming e-mail, then you are suddenly at risk to hacks against e-mail (either viruses, or attempts to force spam through your server). Therefore, the most secure firewall tends to be the cheapest, such as the basic packet filters built into most routers and operating systems. The more expensive firewalls allow you to secure more applications through the firewall, but the more features that you use, the more applications you expose, and ultimately the more risk you undertake. Misunderstanding: Some vendors are selling personal firewalls. This is based upon the misconception highlighted above: firewalls do not block hacker traffic, they are instead a (blunt) tool that allows security administrators to reduce risk. Putting packet filters in the hands of end-users doesn't give them the necessary expertise to secure their systems against hackers. There is also the issue that properly configuring a firewall is actually more difficult than hardening a single machine in the first place. It is only worthwhile because one firewall controls access to hundreds/thousands of machines. Putting a single firewall on a single machine isn't really worth the effort. From Hacking-Lexicon


a device that protects a private network from the public part (the internet as a whole). From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

firewall machine

n. A dedicated gateway machine with special security precautions on it, used to service outside network connections and dial-in lines. The idea is to protect a cluster of more loosely administered machines hidden behind it from crackers. The typical firewall is an inexpensive micro-based Unix box kept clean of critical data, with a bunch of modems and public network ports on it but just one carefully watched connection back to the rest of the cluster. The special precautions may include threat monitoring, callback, and even a complete iron box keyable to particular incoming IDs or activity patterns. Syn. flytrap, Venus flytrap. [When first coined in the mid-1980s this term was pure jargon. Now (1999) it is techspeak, and has been retained only as an example of uptake --ESR] From Jargon Dictionary


Easy to use packet filter firewall (usually zero config) Firewall easy is a set of scripts to setup firewalling rules with ease of use in mind. Features: - It can be used at home, and in Intranet servers - Autodetection of IP, net/mask, and DNS servers in resolv.conf and in bind (cache-dns) - Configures masquerading so a network can be connected to Internet - interfaces and IP can be configured in /etc/firewall-easy.conf - rules are in a easy/portable language in /etc/firewall-easy-lib It has been designed to allow: - testing of rules offline using an alias IP of - multi-kernel usage (2.0 ipfwadm and 2.4 iptables easy to add) - firewall script is generated from a user-configured file From Debian 3.0r0 APT


/ferm'weir/ n. Embedded software contained in EPROM or flash memory. It isn't quite hardware, but at least doesn't have to be loaded from a disk like regular software. Hacker usage differs from straight techspeak in that hackers don't normally apply it to stuff that you can't possibly get at, such as the program that runs a pocket calculator. Instead, it implies that the firmware could be changed, even if doing so would mean opening a box and plugging in a new chip. A computer's BIOS is the classic example, although nowadays there is firmware in disk controllers, modems, video cards and even CD-ROM drives. From Jargon Dictionary


Programming that is inserted into programmable read-only memory (PROM), thus becoming a permanent part of a computing device. Firmware is created and tested like software (using microcode simulation). When ready, it can be distributed like other software and, using a special user interface, installed in the programmable read-only memory by the user. Firmware is sometimes distributed for printers, modems, and other computer devices. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

fixed width fonts

Look like typewriter text, because each character is the same width. This quality is desirable for something like a text editor or a computer console, but not desirable for the body text of a long document. See variable width fonts. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


Fix non-ANSI header files FixIncludes was created to fix non-ANSI system header files. Many system manufacturers supply proprietary headers that are not ANSI compliant. The GNU compilers cannot compile non-ANSI headers. Consequently, the FixIncludes shell script was written to fix the header files. Not all packages with header files are installed at gccs build time From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Implementation of KISekae Set System (KISS) for the X Window System. fkiss - French-KISS! - is a sample implementation of KISekae Set system (KISS) on X Window System. It will allow you to play KISS, a game similar to those traditional paper doll ones. Kisekae means "changing clothes". From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Free Lossless Audio Codec - command line tools FLAC stands for Free Lossless Audio Codec. Grossly oversimplified, FLAC is similar to MP3, but lossless. The FLAC project consists of: * The stream format * libFLAC, which implements a reference encoder, stream decoder, and file decoder * flac, which is a command-line wrapper around libFLAC to encode and decode .flac files * Input plugins for various music players (Winamp, XMMS, and more in the works) This package contains the command-line tool, flac From Debian 3.0r0 APT


n. [very common] A variable or quantity that can take on one of two values; a bit, particularly one that is used to indicate one of two outcomes or is used to control which of two things is to be done. "This flag controls whether to clear the screen before printing the message." "The program status word contains several flag bits." Used of humans analogously to bit. See also hidden flag, mode bit. From Jargon Dictionary


n. 1. [common] Variety, type, kind. "DDT commands come in two flavors." "These lights come in two flavors, big red ones and small green ones." "Linux is a flavor of Unix" See vanilla. 2. The attribute that causes something to be flavorful. Usually used in the phrase "yields additional flavor". "This convention yields additional flavor by allowing one to print text either right-side-up or upside-down." See vanilla. This usage was certainly reinforced by the terminology of quantum chromodynamics, in which quarks (the constituents of, e.g., protons) come in six flavors (up, down, strange, charm, top, bottom) and three colors (red, blue, green) -- however, hackish use of `flavor' at MIT predated QCD. 3. The term for `class' (in the object-oriented sense) in the LISP Machine Flavors system. Though the Flavors design has been superseded (notably by the Common LISP CLOS facility), the term `flavor' is still used as a general synonym for `class' by some LISP hackers. From Jargon Dictionary


examines source code and looks for security weaknesses Flawfinder searches through C/C++ source code looking for potential security flaws, ranking them by likely severity. Flawfinder intentionally works similarly to another program, ITS4, which is not open source. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Report a bug (or rather a flea) in mutt. From whatis


A fast lexical analyzer generator. flex is a tool for generating scanners: programs which recognized lexical patterns in text. flex reads the given input files for a description of a scanner to generate. The description is in the form of pairs of regular expressions and C code, called rules. flex generates as output a C source file, lex.yy.c, which defines a routine yylex(). This file is compiled and linked with the -lfl library to produce an executable. When the executable is run, it analyzes its input for occurrences of the regular expressions. Whenever it finds one, it executes the corresponding C code. This product includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. The upstream source code can be found at ftp://ftp.gnu.org/pub/non-gnu/flex/ From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The flex program generates scanners. Scanners are programs which can recognize lexical patterns in text. Flex takes pairs of regular expressions and C code as input and generates a C source file as output. The output file is compiled and linked with a library to produce an executable. The executable searches through its input for occurrences of the regular expressions. When a match is found, it executes the corresponding C code. Flex was designed to work with both Yacc and Bison, and is used by many programs as part of their build process. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


fast lexical analyzer generator From whatis


fast lexical analyzer generator From whatis


File Transfer to Flex.Memory on Siemens GSM Mobiles Application to access the Flex.Memory on Siemens GSM Mobiles via the OBEX Protocol over IrDA or Serial link, maybe bluetooth. The Object Exchange protocol can best be described as binary HTTP. OBEX is optimised for ad-hoc wireless links and can be used to exchange all kind of objects like files, pictures, calendar entries (vCal) and business cards (vCard). OBEX is builtin in devices like PDA's like the Palm Pilot, and mobile phones like the Ericsson R320, Siemens S25, Siemens S45, Siemens ME45, Nokia NM207 and Nokia 9110 Communicator. This application should work with other equipment like other mobiles, palm pdas etc., too, that use this generic protocol. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Generate fast validating XML processors and applications. FleXML makes it easy to generate very fast validating XML processors as flex(1) source. By design it can only handle documents using an external DTD. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Flexible IDL Compiler Kit Flick is a flexible and optimizing compiler for interface definition languages (IDLs). Flick can read a high-level specification describing an interface to a software component or module, and from that, produce a special functions called stubs to implement the interface in the C or C++ programming language. More information can be found at the FLICK web site http://www.cs.utah.edu/flux/flick/. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Flight Gear Flight Simulator Flight Gear is a free and highly sophisticated flight simulator. This package contains the runtime binaries. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Library to provide basic features about message for Emacsen FLIM is a library to provide basic features about message representation or encoding for Emacsen. FLIM is conflicts with Standard Gnus. Do not use with Gnus of Emacs20. If you want to use with gnus, please install semi-gnus package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Menuing system with fvwm-like syntax A color, ncurses-based menu system, intended to be an easy login shell for new users. It understands the simple menu syntax that was once used by fvwm-1.xx. Flin means "Flin's a Learners Interface to 'Nix Systems." From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Mail-checking GNOME applet supporting multiple accounts The Flink mail checker is a small applet for the GNOME panel. It features support for multiple accounts, so that you will not need to have several applets for checking different accounts, Flink is capable to have (almost) an infinite amount of accounts configured. Flink supports POP3, IMAPv4 and mbox right now. Support for other types of mail accounts will be added in time. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


convert text file line endings between Unix and DOS formats This program converts line endings of text files between MS-DOS and **IX formats. It detects binary files in a nearly foolproof way and leaves them alone unless you override this. It will also leave files alone that are already in the right format and preserves file timestamps. User interrupts are handled gracefully and no garbage or corrupted files left behind. 'flip' does not convert files to a different character set, and it can not handle Apple Macintosh line endings (CR only). For that (and more), you can use the 'recode' program (package 'recode'). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


slowly modify the color of the X root window Subtly changes the color of the root window over time, so slowly that it won't be noticed. This is a good alternative to placing a picture in the root window. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A class of hacker attack whereby the victim is flooded with information. Examples: The DDoS attacks of early 2000 Major websites where flooded with traffic, clogging their 1-gbps high-bandwidth Internet connections. IRC A user in the chat room is flooded with commands, or the user's client is triggered into flooding the server with commands. Either way, the user has to log out or is kicked off. RalF In the olden days, a UNIX command that looks like ls / -RalF > /dev/tty1 would flood a user's terminal with huge quantities of text, forcing them to logout. stick/snot By generating a steady stream of spoofed, random/meaningless attacks, these tools flood the IDS console, making it impossible for the operator to discover real attacks. From Hacking-Lexicon


v. [common] 1. To overwhelm a network channel with mechanically-generated traffic; especially used of IP, TCP/IP, UDP, or ICMP denial-of-service attacks. 2. To dump large amounts of text onto an IRC channel. This is especially rude when the text is uninteresting and the other users are trying to carry on a serious conversation. Also used in a similar sense on Usenet. 3. [Usenet] To post an unusually large number or volume of files on a related topic. From Jargon Dictionary


Floppy backup using a diversity of floppy formats This little package was hacked together because all the more sophisticated backup systems were more suited for tape drives and such, and even if they supported floppies, verify mode was either lacking or missing, and mixed-size floppies caused problems. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


floppy driver configuration utility TQ From whatis


Daemon for remote access to floppy drives Floppyd is used as a server to grant access to the floppy drive to clients running on a remote machine, just as an X server grants access to the display to remote clients. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


floppyfw is a static router with firewall capabilities. Suitable for use as a screening router or as a packet filtering firewall. Version 2.0.3 was released October 3, 2002. Stable version 2.0.5 was released June 18, 2003. Development version 2.9.1 was released February 14, 2003. A floppy-based distribution. From LWN Distribution List


measure raw capacity and exact rotation speed of floppy drive TQ From whatis


flphoto is a basic photo/image management and display program. - Download of photos from digital cameras or usual file systems - Organization in albums - Loss-less rotation for portrait-oriented photos - Basic correction tasks - Printing series of photos (full access to printer settings): o Index prints o 1, 2, or 4 equally-sized images per page o 8 photos in different sizes on one page o Calendar: 1 photo per month o Framed/Matted photos - Slide-show with manual or automatic advancing - Web album generation - Integration of GPhoto2 and CUPS From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


v. 1. [common] To delete something, usually superfluous, or to abort an operation. "All that nonsense has been flushed." 2. [Unix/C] To force buffered I/O to disk, as with an fflush(3) call. This is not an abort or deletion as in sense 1, but a demand for early completion! 3. To leave at the end of a day's work (as opposed to leaving for a meal). "I'm going to flush now." "Time to flush." 4. To exclude someone from an activity, or to ignore a person. `Flush' was standard ITS terminology for aborting an output operation; one spoke of the text that would have been printed, but was not, as having been flushed. It is speculated that this term arose from a vivid image of flushing unwanted characters by hosing down the internal output buffer, washing the characters away before they could be printed. The Unix/C usage, on the other hand, was propagated by the fflush(3) call in C's standard I/O library (though it is reported to have been in use among BLISS programmers at DEC and on Honeywell and IBM machines as far back as 1965). Unix/C hackers found the ITS usage confusing, and vice versa. From Jargon Dictionary


Highly configurable and low resource X11 Window manager Fairly similar to blackbox, from which it is derived, but has been extended with features such as pwm-style window tabs, configurable key bindings, toolbar, and an iconbar. It also includes some cosmetic fixes over blackbox. This package contains support for Gnome and KDE. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Fast Light Window Manager Flwm is an attempt to combine the best ideas from several window managers. The primary influence and code base is from wm2 by Chris Cannam. Primary features copied from wm2 are: - Does not look like Windoze. - Nifty sideways titlebars. - No icons. You deiconize by picking off a pop-up menu. This means no space is wasted by icons. - Really small and fast code. It is enhanced by the author's own further nutty ideas: - Does not use shape extension, more standard resize handles. - Occupies as little screen space as possible. The border and titles are as thin as I could possibly make them. And maximized windows waste only 15 pixels horizontally and zero (count'em) pixels vertically! - Independent maximize buttons for width & height, close button. - Understands Motif, KDE, and Gnome window manager hints. - Multiple desktops, controlled from the same menu as the icons. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


pool/snooker/carrom/hockey/curling simulator for X11 Especially the billiards variants are very playable and nice. The only drawback is that there are no rules implemented so you have to know them yourself :-) NOTE: The game will only run on a screen with 8 bit color depth (256 colors); displays with a color depth above 8 won't work. You've got to switch to a 8 bit display before playing the game or with XFree4.0 you could use an 8 bit overlay if available. The original author has abandoned the game so it's unlikely that the color depth problem will get fixed anytime soon. If you are able to fix the game for other depths please send the patch. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


memory efficient ftp mirror program A program for mirroring a directory from a remote ftp server. It allows regex-matching for files that are to be included and excluded. It uses a combination of timestamp, file size and file permissions to decide what files to transfer from the ftp server. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Mailing List Server Package FML is a package of mailing list server and utility programs. It consists of perl scripts. It has been developed, tested and advanced in Japan from 1993 to 1999. FML contains distributer (filter program which passes articles to MTA to deliver) command server for users command interface for general user command interface for remote administration listserv/majordomo style interface (emulation) digest server CUI installer and configuration program other utility programs FML design policy is based on the degree of freedom, so that I respect "each environment for each man/women". From Debian 3.0r0 APT


simple optimal text formatter From whatis


FM radio tuner Command-line utility for adjusting the frequency and volume and muting and unmuting FM radio cards. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


utility for maintaining TeX format files From whatis


Font files needed by Fnlib Graphics files that fnlib renders as fonts for use by Enlightened apps. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A full GNU/Linux Portuguese guide (Html Format) The Foca GNU/Linux is a Portuguese Linux guide that is splitted in three learning levels: Beginner, Intermediary and Advanced and is based in the Debian GNU/Linux distribution. This package contains the Html version of all learning levels of the guide: http://www.metainfo.org/focalinux From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A full GNU/Linux Portuguese guide (Text Format) The Foca GNU/Linux is a Portuguese Linux guide that is splitted in three learning levels: Beginner, Intermediary and Advanced and is based in the Debian GNU/Linux distribution. This package contains the Text version of all learning levels of the guide: http://www.metainfo.org/focalinux From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The command line of a terminal has the focus when the actual input is being directed to it. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


wrap each input line to fit in specified width From whatis


A character set or typeface family denoting a particular size and style, either for on-screen display or printing, usually on a laser or inkjet printer. Popular fonts are Times New Roman, Helvetica and Courier. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


font-tools is used by drakfont and include:- ttf2type1: convert .ttf to .pfb and .afm.- tt2afm: convert .ttf to .afm .- pfm2afm: convert .pfm to afm. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


Write PostScript Type 0 or Type 1 font as C code From whatis


Fontconfig is designed to locate fonts within the system and select them according to requirements specified by applications. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


Interactive font editor for the console Fonter is an interactive console font (8x16 .fnt) manipulation tool. It's a linux-console-only program that displays all 256 characters of the font on screen and lets you edit them in realtime. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


export fonts from the teTeX directory structure From whatis


import fonts into the teTeX directory structure From whatis


utility to run TeX as fontinst From whatis


This package is a collection of free True Type Fonts. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


This package is a collection of free True Type Fonts. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


Fonts on Linux console. Fonty package brings a set of iso-8859-n fonts with VT100 graphics: single frames, a few symbols. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


An Xkb state indicator -- plain X version. WindowMaker docked Xkb state indicator. Fookb can switch xkb groups and display a pixmap corresponding to the selected group. It also can execute a specified command upon the switch (for example, play sound). This is the plain X-compiled version. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


An Xkb state indicator -- WindowMaker version. WindowMaker docked Xkb state indicator. Fookb can switch xkb groups and display a pixmap corresponding to the selected group. It also can execute a specified command upon the switch (for example, play sound). This is the WindowMaker-compiled version. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Foomatic is a comprehensive, spooler-independent database of printers, printer drivers, and driver descriptions. It contains utilities to generate driver description files and printer queues for CUPS, LPD,LPRng, and PDQ using the database. There is also the possibility to read the PJL options out of PJL-capable laser printers and take them into account at the driver description file generation. There are spooler-independent command line interfaces to manipulatequeues (foomatic-configure) and to print files/manipulate jobs (foomatic printjob). The site http://www.linuxprinting.org/ is based on this database. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


A conceptual location in a computer system where interaction takes place between a user and a process initiated by the user; the opposite of background. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


vt. [Unix; common] To bring a task to the top of one's stack for immediate processing, and hackers often use it in this sense for non-computer tasks. "If your presentation is due next week, I guess I'd better foreground writing up the design document." Technically, on a time-sharing system, a task executing in foreground is one able to accept input from and return output to the user; oppose background. Nowadays this term is primarily associated with Unix, but it appears first to have been used in this sense on OS/360. Normally, there is only one foreground task per terminal (or terminal window); having multiple processes simultaneously reading the keyboard is a good way to lose. From Jargon Dictionary


Graphical Gopher Browser forg is a new graphical browser for gopher written in python. It will let you browse the world-wide gopherspace and handles various types of media, including HTML and video. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A Linux system call used by a process (the "parent") to make a copy (the "child") of itself. The child process is identical to the parent except it has a different process identifier and a zero return value from the fork call. It is assumed to have used no resources. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


In the open-source community, a fork is what occurs when two (or more) versions of a software package's source code are being developed in parallel which once shared a common code base, and these multiple versions of the source code have irreconcilable differences between them. This should not be confused with a development branch, which may later be folded back into the original source code base. Nor should it be confused with what happens when a new distribution of Linux or some other distribution is created, because that largely assembles pieces than can and will be used in other distributions without conflict. Forking is uncommon; in fact, it is so uncommon that individual instances loom large in hacker folklore. Notable in this class were the http://www.xemacs.org/About/XEmacsVsGNUemacs.html, the GCC/EGCS fork (later healed by a merger) and the forks among the FreeBSD, NetBSD, and OpenBSD operating systems. From Jargon Dictionary


adj.,vi. 1. [common after 1997, esp. in the Linux community] An open-source software project is said to have forked or be forked when the project group fissions into two or more parts pursuing separate lines of development (or, less commonly, when a third party unconnected to the project group ). Forking is considered a Bad Thing - not merely because it implies a lot of wasted effort in the future, but because forks tend to be accompanied by a great deal of strife and acrimony between the successor groups over issues of legitimacy, succession, and design direction. There is serious social pressure against forking. As a result, major forks (such as the Gnu-Emacs/XEmacs split, the fissionings of the 386BSD group into three daughter project, and the short-lived GCC/EGCS split) are rare enough that they are remembered individually in hacker folklore. 2. [Unix; uncommon; prob. influenced by a mainstream expletive] Terminally slow, or dead. Originated when one system was slowed to a snail's pace by an inadvertent fork bomb. From Jargon Dictionary


mail (re)formatter From whatis

format-string attacks (printf())

A common vulnerability created by programmers who use tainted input as the format string for printf() (a common C function). Normally, printf() uses a "format string" to specify how following data will be formatted when printed. For example, when printing the time, you could use the following command: printf("%02d:%02d:%02d", hours, minutes, seconds); This will print the time in a format that looks like "09:15:00" (i.e. quarter after nine). The format string "%02d" means print a decimal number that is 2 digits long, and if the number isn't long enough, put a 0 at the front. Character strings can be printed in a similar manner: printf("greetings=%s", "hello"); This prints the output: greetings=Hello However, if you wanted to be lazy, you could simply program the system: printf("greetings=Hello"); Up to this point, everything is fine. The problem comes about when the string is read from input: g = read_input(); printf(g); The programmer is expecting the user to enter normal input such as "Hi". However, the user could enter something like "die %s". This makes the above statement equivalent to: printf("die %s"); Since there is no following string, this may cause the program to crash. The correct way that this should have been handled is: g = read_input(); printf("%s", g); Printf will treat the first parameter as the format string, but will know not to interpret any formatting characters in subsequent strings. Key point: A popular technique to see if a system is possibly vulnerable to format string bugs is to send the input "%x %x %x". If the hacker sees hex output, then they know the system was vulnerable to format string bugs. From Hacking-Lexicon


Framework for OCaml Regression Testing FORT provides an environment for testing programs and Objective Caml modules. It contains a module that oversees the testing process as well as a front-end for executing tests. Individual test cases are written as Objective Caml functions that return the result of executing the test. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Invoke f2c like a real compiler. The fort77 script invokes the f2c command transparently, so it can be used like a real Fortran compiler. It can be used to compile Fortran, C and assembler code, and to link it with the f2c libraries. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Data files containing fortune cookies There are far over 15000 different 'fortune cookies' in this package. You'll need the fortune-mod package to display the cookies. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


a collection of FORTRAN 77 utilities ForUtil-0.62 is a small utilities to analyze the FORTRAN code. A very brief description of each program found in ForUtil is given below. - fflow, a FORTRAN flowgraph generator. - ffscan, a subroutine argument checker; - ftags, a FORTRAN tag file generator for use with vi. Common utilities. These are three tools that allow you to create, examine and search a database with each and every common that is defined in a collection of FORTRAN include files. They are the following: - scan_commons, needed for creating a database; - list_commons, to list the contents of the database or the contents of one or all files stored in the database; - get_common, to quickly search through the database to see in which include file a common is defined. From Debian 3.0r0 APT

forward lookup

is an ordinary lookup of the IP address from the host name. From Rute-Users-Guide


Free Pascal Compiler The Free Pascal Compiler is a Turbo Pascal 7.0 and Delphi compatible 32bit Pascal Compiler. It comes with fully TP 7.0 compatible run-time library. Some extensions are added to the language, like function overloading. Shared libraries can be linked and created. Basic Delphi support is already implemented (classes,exceptions,ansistrings). This package contains the commandline compiler. You need at least the RTL package before you can start compiling anything. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts. fping is a ping like program which uses the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo request to determine if a target host is responding. fping differs from ping in that you can specify any number of targets on the command line, or specify a file containing the lists of targets to ping. Instead of sending to one target until it times out or replies, fping will send out a ping packet and move on to the next target in a round-robin fashion. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Password Manager Figaro's Password Manager is a program that allows you to securely store the passwords you use on the web. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


an extremely configurable console login program francine is an easy to configure themeable console login program. Its great configurability for per tty access-settings and that the prompt for username and password can be located anywhere in a nice colored ANSI-screen should be makes it a greatly enhanced replacement for the old clumpy login. You need a getty that is able to run different programs than just login. I suggest rungetty for that, but (alternative) getty does suffice. It can also be used from the telnetd with the -L option. This project is a spin-off from the fancylogin project, which is still maintained by Richard Bergmair. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Allocate and free dynamic memory From whatis


Display amount of free and used memory in the system From whatis

free software

n. As defined by Richard M. Stallman and used by the Free Software movement, this means software that gives users enough freedom to be used by the free software community. Specifically, users must be free to modify the software for their private use, and free to redistribute it either with or without modifications, either commercially or noncommercially, either gratis or charging a distribution fee. Free software has existed since the dawn of computing; Free Software as a movement began in 1984 with the GNU Project. See also open source. From Jargon Dictionary


Free-EOS is a French distribution with the aim of being incredibly easy to set up and get a set of services running. Version 1.1 was released June 14, 2003. From LWN Distribution List


Extensible, cross-platform audio player FreeAmp is an extensible, cross-platform audio player. It features an optimized version of the GPLed Xing MPEG decoder which makes it one of the fastest and best sounding players available. FreeAmp provides a number of the most common features users have come to expect in a clean, easy to use interface. Some of the these features are: o Plays all MPEG 1, MPEG 2, and MPEG 2.5 encoded files. o Support for Vorbis o Support for Xing's Variable Bitrate Encoding Technology. o Play songs over the Internet through HTTP unicast streaming (ShoutCast), or RTP multicast streaming (Obsequiem). o Supports IceCast style title streaming. o Save ShoutCast and IceCast streams locally to your computer for offline listening... o A powerful music browser and playlist editor. o A built in download manager which supports downloading files from sites using the RMP (RealJukebox) download process. o User defined prebuffering for slower machines. o Enlightened Sound Daemon support From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Bass synthesizer/sample player/sequencer similar to Rebirth Freebirth is a free software bass synthesizer / step sequencer / sample player for the linux operating system. It is currently at version 0.3.2. The bass synthesizer vaguely 303ish but in the author's opinion, it has much more sonic capability such as: - Three oscillators (saw, sin , sqr) - Phase offsets for each oscillator. - Separate filter and amplitude envelopes. - Separate tuning for each oscillator - Two effects busses (reverb and delay) From Debian 3.0r0 APT


a package for creating and reading constant databases freecdb is a small, fast and reliable utility set and subroutine library for creating and reading constant databases. The database structure is tuned for fast reading: - Successful lookups take normally just two disk accesses. - Unsuccessful lookups take only one disk access. - Small disk space and memory size requirements; a database uses 2048 bytes for the header and 24 bytes per record. - Maximum database size is 4GB; individual record size is not otherwise limited. - Portable file format. - Fast creation of new databases. - No locking, updates are atomical. This package contains both the utilities and the development files. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Library for solving Freecell games Freecell Solver is a library for automatically solving boards of Freecell and similar variants of card Solitaire. This package contains the header files and static libraries necessary for developing programs using Freecell Solver. This package contains the binaries included with freecell-solver From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Freeciv is a turn-based, multi-player strategy game for the X Window System. Freeciv is generally comparable to, and has compatible rules with, the Civilization II(TM) game by Microprose(R). In Freeciv, each player is the leader of a civilization, and is competing with the other players in order to become the leader of the greatest civilization. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


Realtime fantasy strategy game for Unix and X. FreeCraft is a clone of the realtime fantasy strategy game, WarCraft II, from Blizzard Entertainment. It is nearly feature complete compared to the original game, and includes a handful of Neat New Features, such as queuing peon/fighter production, finding out idle workers, and a completely new AI. Also has network connectivity for up to 16 players. Note that this is a beta for the next stable release of FreeCraft, and as such is both fairly playable and fairly bug-free. This version is compiled with nearly all the possible options, and thus has gzip, bunzip, SDL and SVGAlib support (the last one only for i386 arches). The sound options will depend on your personal election on SDL packages. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A pde oriented language using Finite Element Method. FreeFEM is a language adapted to Partial Differential equation. The underlying method used is the Finite Element Method. This tool has been successfully used as a teaching tool and even as a research tool. It can be seen a RSD ( Rapid Research Development (tm) :) ) to test new ideas. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A peer-to-peer network for anonymous publishing Freenet is a decentralised network of nodes designed to allow for efficient distribution of information over the Internet. Freenet's goals are resilience to censorship, and anonymity for producers and consumers of information through plausible denyability. There are different, incompatible versions of the Freenet protocol. This dummy package will ensure that you always have the most useful node software version installed. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Client to configure an IPv6 tunnel to freenet6 Providing tspc, a Tunnel Server Protocol Client, this Package allows an easy way to connect the machine to the 6bone. Configured tunneling is a transition method standardized by IETF to use IPv6 in coexistence with IPv4 by encapsulating IPv6 packets over IPv4. Any host already connected to Internet with IPv4 which has an IPv6 stack can establish a link to the Internet IPv6. FREENET6's TSP is a new model based on a client/server approach. A protocol is used to request a single IPv6 address to a full IPv6 prefix from a client to a tunnel server according to the IPv6 broker model. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Free JIS X 4081 Formatter Freepwing is a system to make JIS X 4081 data. JIS (Japanese Industrial Standard) X 4081 is a subset of EPWING V1 which stands for Electoric Publishing WING. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


a portable interpreter for SCI games like Space Quest 3 FreeSCI is a portable interpreter for SCI games, such as the Space Quest series (starting with SQ3) or Leisure Suit Larry (2 and sequels). FreeSCI is in beta right now; the current release still has several known bugs. It is feature-complete within the following limits: - Only SCI0 games are supported - The SCI debug functions aren't fully supported (and probably never will be, since FreeSCI uses its own debug functions). It offers the following improvements over Sierra SCI: - Improved background picture support - Trilinear filtering for text and images - readline-like editing in controls - General MIDI sound output (still experimental) From Debian 3.0r0 APT


IPSEC utilities for FreeSWan IPSEC is Internet Protocol SECurity. It uses strong cryptography to provide both authentication and encryption services. Authentication ensures that packets are from the right sender and have not been altered in transit. Encryption prevents unauthorised reading of packet contents. These services allow you to build secure tunnels through untrusted networks. Everything passing through the untrusted net is encrypted by the IPSEC gateway machine and decrypted by the gateway at the other end. The result is Virtual Private Network or VPN. This is a network which is effectively private even though it includes machines at several different sites connected by the insecure Internet. Please note that you will need kernel support for using this package. The standard Debian kernel does not include support for FreeSWan. You can build your own kernel by installing the kernel-source package and kernel-patch-freeswan, which can be automatically applied when using make-kpkg. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


a text-based minesweeper Freesweep is an implementation of the popular minesweeper game, where one tries to find all the mines without igniting any, based on hints given by the computer. Unlike most implementations of this game, Freesweep works in any visual text display - in Linux console, in an xterm, and in most text-based terminals currently in use. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Facilitates production of HTML tables Freetable is a perl script that aims to make the production of HTML tables a little easier. This script works as a filter, reading stdin and writing to stdout. The input syntax is as roughly follows: <wwwtable table-options...> initial text (e.g. <caption> ... </caption>). (X, Y) options for cell (X, Y) text for cell (X,Y)... ((X,Y)) options for header cell X,Y text for header cell (X,Y)... </wwwtable> Rows and cells may be specified in any order, numbering starts at 1. X and/or Y may be replaced by regular expression, explicit range or even arbitrary Perl code to indicate rows or columns. Options or text (or both) may be omitted for cells. Cells may be omitted completely if they are empty or fall under the rowspan/colspan specifications of another cell. Cells may contain arbitrary HTML text, including other freetable tables. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Pure Java JDBC driver for MS SQL and Sybase This is a sneak peek of a free type 4 JDBC driver for SQLServer and Sybase. Currently it has only been tested mostly on SQLServer 6.5. The driver is not complete yet, but Methods that aren't implemented will throw a SQLException with the message "Not implemented". From Debian 3.0r0 APT


libraries for connecting to MS SQL and Sybase SQL servers FreeTDS is an implementation of the Tabular DataStream protocol, used for connecting to MS SQL and Sybase servers over TCP/IP. This package includes the shared libraries for the DB-Lib and CT-Lib APIs. You will need this if you plan to connect to MS SQL or Sybase servers, or use the PHP sybase or Perl DBD::Sybase extensions. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The FreeType engine is a free and portable TrueType font rendering engine. It has been developed to provide TT support to a great variety of platforms and environments. Note that FreeType is a library, not a stand-alone application, though some utility applications are included. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


Tools to manipulate TTF fonts. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


Bundled tests, demos and tools for FreeType 1 The FreeType 1 engine is a free and portable TrueType font rendering engine. It has been developed to provide TT support to a great variety of platforms and environments. This package contains several programs bundled with the FreeType 1 engine for testing and demonstration purposes, as well as some contributed utilities such as ttf2pk, ttf2bdf, ttf2pfb and ttfbanner. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The FreeType2 engine is a free and portable TrueType font rendering engine. It has been developed to provide TT support to a great variety of plat forms and environments. Note that FreeType2 is a library, not a stand-alone application, though some utility applications are included From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


freevix is a tiny GNU/Linux distribution designed to provide a complete but small foot print environment for people wanting to build a media player system with Freevo. Initial version 0.2 was released March 12, 2003. Version 0.7 was released June 10, 2003. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. From LWN Distribution List


n. [common] Free software, often written by enthusiasts and distributed by users' groups, or via electronic mail, local bulletin boards, Usenet, or other electronic media. At one time, `freeware' was a trademark of Andrew Fluegelman, the author of the well-known MS-DOS comm program PC-TALK III. It wasn't enforced after his mysterious disappearance and presumed death in 1984. See shareware, FRS. From Jargon Dictionary


vrml browser and netscape plugin freewrl includes a standalone vrml browser, which also browses url's from the command line. Currently, you must edit the xswallow configuration file by hand in order to get the plugin function. Web Page: http://www.crc.ca/FreeWRL/ From Debian 3.0r0 APT


v. To lock an evolving software distribution or document against changes so it can be released with some hope of stability. Carries the strong implication that the item in question will `unfreeze' at some future date. "OK, fix that bug and we'll freeze for release." There are more specific constructions on this term. A `feature freeze', for example, locks out modifications intended to introduce new features but still allows bugfixes and completion of existing features; a `code freeze' connotes no more changes at all. At Sun Microsystems and elsewhere, one may also hear references to `code slush' -- that is, an almost-but-not-quite frozen state. From Jargon Dictionary


print names of those who have sent mail From whatis


Converts text files between DOS and Unix formats. From whatis


Interpreter of Z-code story-files Frotz interprets Z-code story-files, which are usually text adventure games (although a few arcade-style Z-code games have been written). Examples of such story files include the adventure games published by Infocom, as well as any games produced by compilers to this format, such as Inform. You can find a number of Inform-compiled games up for anonymous FTP at ftp.gmd.de. Frotz complies with the Z Machine specification version 1.0. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Caching ftp proxy Frox is a caching ftp proxy. It also optionally supports non-transparent proxying, active-->passive conversion of the data connection, and caching of anonymously downloaded files either locally or by rewriting the requests in HTTP and sending them through a HTTP proxy. Transparent support is supported by frox but not compiled into this package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Pop out the bubbles ! Frozen-Bubble is a free clone of the popular "Puzzle Bobble" game, written in perl and using SDL. It features 50 levels of 1 player game, a 2 player mode, and beautiful music. The game mainly consists of firing randomly chosen bubbles across the board. If a bubble hits a clump of at least 2 bubbles of the same color, they all pop. The goal is to pop all the bubbles on the board as quickly as possible. You WANT this game. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


audits and interactively repairs inconsistent conditions for the file systems on mass storage device files. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


check and repair a Linux file system From whatis


check a Linux second extended file system From whatis


check a Linux second extended file system From whatis


a file system consistency checker for Linux From whatis


Fast remote command execution over rsh/ssh/lsh The problem: logging in to a remote system with a cryptographic solution such as lsh or ssh takes time, due to the computationally expensive key exchanges that occur when the connection is established. It is common to trigger a lot of remote logins while using remote CVS, which makes it painfully slow compared to having the repository locally. The solution: reuse the secure tunnel once it has been established. fsh is a drop-in rsh-compatible replacement for ssh that automatically reuses ssh tunnels. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


list fonts served by X font server From whatis


client utilities for File Service Protocol (FSP) FSP is an alternative to anonymous FTP. In the words of the developers, `FSP is what anonymous FTP *should* be'. FSP is a protocol, a bit like FTP, for moving files around. It's designed for anonymous archives, and has protection against server and network overloading. It doesn't use connections, so it can survive things falling over. It's also designed to prevent network congestion, so it can be very nice for large transfers over slow links. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A minimalist panel for X It's a panel for Linux that lists all your windows, but the difference is that it's tiny. The binary is about 10k and it takes barely any memory. It works under any gnome compliant window manager (eg. E, Sawfish, WindowMaker, IceWM, Oroborus) and supports KDE's mini icons (the KWM_WIN_ICON atom). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A File Service Protocol (FSP) server FSP is an alternative to anonymous FTP that is very resource friendly. The server does not fork so it can handle far more concurrent users. Also, the protocol is designed with a transmisson failure backoff, so it's transfers do not interfere with interactive network applications. If you don't provide anonymous FTP access, you probably don't want this software either. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


generate BDF font from X font server From whatis


A NeXT FileViewer lookalike for Window Maker. Features include Browser mode, DND and file operations. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Bleeding Edge floppy tape driver (source) A substitution for the stock ftape driver in the kernel. If you want to use a floppy tape drive with a 2.0.x kernel you should definitly use these sources instead of the stock ftape driver in the kernel. This driver detects and supports many more tape drives than the 2.0.x driver which is ancient. Compared to the 2.2.x stock ftape driver the difference is reduced to support for the Iomega Ditto Max, parallel port floppy tapes (Colorado Trakker, Iomega, Exabyte and Seagate parallel port drives) and multiple tape drives in one box. Supported drives according to upstream README: "Currently, the driver supports many QIC-40/QIC-80/QIC-3010/QIC-3020 tape drives that conform to the respective QIC-* development standards, as well as the Iomega Ditto 2GB and Max drives. Some parallel port tape drives are also supported, too. These are the Colorado Trakker and several kinds of parallel port drives that use the Micro Solutions' "Backpack" protocol, i.e. the Iomega Ditto parallel port drives, and some parallel port floppy tape drives made by Exabyte and Seagate." Please note that the kernel sources must be installed to compile these modules. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Text editor for programmers - base package Package contains files necessary to build configuration file and some elementary documentation. There is no editor in this package. Please select some from the list of suggested binary packages. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A replacement for make This is the version of Jam/MR with additional features, which is maintained by the FreeType project. Current version (2.3.5) is claimed to be backward compatible with the original Jam/MR from Perforce (in package `jam'). A powerful and highly customizable utility to build programs and other things, that can run on Un*x, Nt, VMS, OS/2 and Macintosh MPW, using portable Jamfiles. It can build large projects spread across many directories in one pass. It takes some time to fully apprehend, as there's no tutorial available yet, especially when one's already accustomed to make(1), but there's no comparison in power when comparing these 2 tools. Standard rules: - can automatically extract header dependencies for C/C++ (you can customize for you own language) - provide for automatic "clean", "install", "uninstall" rules, so that an automake-like tool is not needed From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A semantic checker for Fortran 77 programs. ftnchek (short for Fortran checker) is a tool designed to detect certain errors in a Fortran program that a compiler usually does not, thus assisting users in the debugging of their Fortran programs. Unlike syntax errors, semantic errors are legal in the Fortran language but are wasteful or may cause incorrect operation. For example, variables which are never used may indicate some omission in the program; uninitialized variables contain garbage which may cause incorrect results to be calculated; and variables which are not declared may not have the intended type. ftnchek can also be used to provide call-trees, cross-reference of subprogram calls and COMMON blocks usage, source listings, symbol tables and other things you might find useful when debugging a Fortran program. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Internet file transfer program From whatis


The FTP client. ftp is the user interface to the ARPANET standard File Transfer Protocol. The program allows a user to transfer files to and from a remote network site. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The ftp package provides the standard UNIX command-line FTP (File Transfer Protocol) client. FTP is a widely used protocol for transferring files over the Internet and for archiving files. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


The ftp package provides the standard UNIX command-line FTP client. FTP is the file transfer protocol, which is a widely used Internet protocol for transferring files and for archiving files. If your system is on a network, you should install ftp in order to do file transfers. This version supports kerberos authentication. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


SuSE Proxy-Suite FTP-Proxy SuSE Proxy Suite is a set of programs to enhance firewall security. The first (and currently only) component released is the FTP-Proxy: o Securely relays FTP connections between clients and servers o Can switch connections from active to passive and vice versa o Utilizes port ranges for both control and data connections o Provides extensive auditing (via syslog or rotating log files) o Can separate user related from system triggered audit events o Provides command restriction based on logged in user name o Allows command argument checking with regular expressions o Is able to retrieve configuration data from an LDAP directory o Has been thoroughly tested against buffer overflow attacks o Fully conforms to RFC 959 and 1123 (the basic FTP RFCs) o Planned to support RFC 1579 ("Firewall Friendly FTP") o Planned to support RFC 2428 (IPv6 Extensions for FTP) o Based on GNU AutoConf, supposed to run on many UNIX systems From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The FTP client with SSL encryption support. ftp is the user interface to the ARPANET standard File Transfer Protocol. The program allows a user to transfer files to and from a remote network site. ftp-ssl replaces normal ftp using SSL authentication and encryption. It interoperates with normal ftpd. It checks if the other side is also talking SSL, if not it falls back to normal ftp protocol. Advantages over normal ftp(d): Your passwords and the data you send will not go in cleartext over the line. Nobody can get it with tcpdump or similar tools. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


put files with FTP from a script ftp-upload transfers local files to another machine using FTP. It's meant to be used by scripts and such rather than interactively. There's no user interface, the program is controlled strictly via the command line. It is disciplined with its exit status. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


ftp support for shell scripts ftp-utils is a small collection of shell tools for the FTP protocol. Using it, you can write shell scripts which work equally well for both local file systems and remote file systems accessed via FTP. Included in the distribution is a simple shell script to build or maintain an FTP-mirror (pushing from origin to mirror). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


FTP server This is the netkit ftp server. It is recommended for you to use one of its alternatives, such as wu-ftpd or proftpd. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


FTP server with SSL encryption support. This is the netkit ftp server with encryption support ftpd-ssl replaces normal ftpd using SSL authentication and encryption. It interoperates with normal ftp. It checks if the other side is also talking SSL, if not it falls back to normal ftp protocol. Advantages over normal ftp(d): Your passwords and the data you send will not go in cleartext over the line. Nobody can get it with tcpdump or similar tools. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The virtual filesystem for transparent FTP access FTP File System is a Linux kernel module, enhancing the VFS with FTP volume mounting capabilities. That is, you can "mount" FTP shared directories in your very personal file system and take advantage of local files operations. This package contains prepared source which you can use with make-kpkg to build a modules package for your kernel. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Mount utils for FTP filesystem This package contains the ftpmount utility, needed to mount the FTP filesystem. There is also a auto.ftp helper application, which allows to use FTP ressources with autofs. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


file mirroring utility ftpgrab is a utility for maintaining FTP mirrors. In fact not unlike the "Mirror" perl program. However ftpgrab is oriented towards the smaller site which doesn't have the resources to mirror entire version trees of software. The primary "plus point" of ftpgrab is that it can base download decisions by parsing version numbers out of filenames. For example, ftpgrab will recognize that the file "linux-2.2.2.tar.gz" is newer than "linux-2.2.1.tar.gz" based on the version string. It will then download the new version and delete the old one when it is done, thus saving you mirroring 10 kernel versions all at >10Mb each. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Library of callable ftp routines Ftplib presents a convenient C interface for the standard File Transfer Protocol (FTP). It makes it easier for programmers to use file transfer in their programs. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Mirroring directory hierarchy with FTP ftpmirror is an utility to copy directory hierarchy (this is called ``mirror'') with FTP. A similar perl script exists, whose name is `mirror', but ftpmirror requires less memory than mirror. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Notifies you of changes on remote ftp servers This package should be installed as a cron job (for interested users) which every week makes a ftp connection to a list of sites and studies a set of files or directories and report any changes it finds by email. Every user can have his own set of sites and directories to watch. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


FreeType font utilities. mkttfdir utility generates font.dir file for TrueType font. ftinfo utility reports TrueType font info. mkttfdir only supports iso8859-1 and JIS encodings. For other font encoding try the ttmkfdir package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Interface for Fuji digital cameras fujiplay is a command-line program to control and manipulate settings Fuji digital cameras, such as MX-500 or MX-700. You are able to download, upload and delete pictures from the memory card. It's also possible to trigger the shoot button, get a preview image, set the settings of the flash and set the Camera ID. The preview images are in a special format which can be converted to ppm using yycc2ppm which is also included in the fujiplay package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT

full pathname

the name of a directory or file in relation to the root (/) directory. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


A literate-programming tool Literate-programming allows the programmer to write a program's code and the code's documentation, with equal importance accorded to both. This helps to produce well-documented code. Unlike other literate-programming tools, funnelweb is not derived from Knuth's cweb. It claims the following technical features: * Can be used with any programming language. * Runs on most platforms. * Mature and essentially bug-free (released 1992). * Simple; specifically designed to minimize errors. * High speed; doesn't stretch the development cycle. * Generates documentation in HTML and TeX forms. This package does not include the reference, tutorial, and developer manuals. See package funnelweb-doc for these. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


more funny manpages A set of miscellaneous humorous manpages (don't take them too seriously!). Includes, amongst others, rtfm (1). Warning! Some of these manpages might be treated offensive. You've been warned. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


filter for extracting from a ZIP archive in a pipe From whatis


identify processes using files or sockets From whatis


stress-test programs by giving them random input The fuzz generator is designed to attack certain kinds of software and expose one particular kind of bug common in software. This is the situation where the programmer implicitly makes some assumptions about the data stream that the program will be parsing. If the data stream is substantially different then the program might not be able to deal with it. From Debian 3.0r0 APT

fuzzy hashing

a hashing scheme which can handle range based lookups and multiple keys. It was born from debugging problems arising from from the removal of the old AVL tree mechanism for finding the virtual memory area (vma) associated with a page fault. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


a tool for viewing and editing FITS format files Fv provides a graphical user interface to data stored in FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) files. Local files can be created, viewed and edited, files on the internet can be opened read-only through the http and ftp protocols. Through the POWplot program, FITS data can be visualized in a large variety of styles. An interface to the SkyView online database allows for searching, downloading, and plotting of images and object lists for a region of the sky. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


F(?) Virtual Window Manager, version 2.4 FVWM 2 is an ICCCM-1.1 compliant window manager requiring relatively little memory and providing a three-dimensional appearance and a virtual desktop, complete with colour icons. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Old version of the F(?) Virtual Window Manager This package contains the old version of the FVWM windows manager. It is no longer supported upstream, having been replaced by FVWM 2, and so no non-Debian-related bugs will be fixed unless someone else provides a patch. You probably only want to use this package instead of the fvwm package if you know what you are doing or have very specific requirements. FVWM is a fairly small window manager which provides a three-dimensional appearance and a virtual desktop, complete with colour icons. You will need to install the fvwm-common package if you want the xpmroot command and some icons, along with manual pages for the modules. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


F(?) Virtual Window Manager, version 2.xx. The FVWM 2,xx is now packaged as fvwm since version 2.2 was officially released as a stable package. This Debian package is provided to allow smooth upgrades from the old fvwm2 package to the new fvwm package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Win95 lookalike Window Manager for X fvwm95 is a Window Manager for the X Window System, configured to look like a win95 user interface. Fvwm95 is no longer maintained upstream; it's main continued advantage is that it has low resource requirements compared to some of the other window managers that attempt to look somewhat like windows 95. (TM) From Debian 3.0r0 APT


iptables log-file report generator (using analog) fwanalog is a shell script that parses and summarizes firewall logfiles. It currently understands logs from ipchains (Linux 2.2) and iptables (Linux 2.4). It uses analog to generate the log-files, which includes daily statistics and such, and is both formatted in html and text (for online perusing, and a daily email, for instance). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Firewall administration tool GUI Firewall Builder consists of an object-oriented GUI and a set of policy compilers for various firewall platforms. In Firewall Builder, firewall policy is a set of rules, each rule consists of abstract objects which represent real network objects and services (hosts, routers, firewalls, networks, protocols). Firewall Builder helps the user maintain a database of objects and allows policy editing using simple drag-and-drop operations. This is the GUI part of fwbuilder From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Linux iptables policy compiler for Firewall Builder Firewall Builder consists of an object-oriented GUI and a set of policy compilers for various firewall platforms. In Firewall Builder, firewall policy is a set of rules, each rule consists of abstract objects which represent real network objects and services (hosts, routers, firewalls, networks, protocols). Firewall Builder helps the user maintain a database of objects and allows policy editing using simple drag-and-drop operations. This package contains the fwbuilder policy compiler for the Linux 2.4 iptables target. It creates a shell script to be run during the system bootup process. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


configure ipchains firewall using higher level abstraction This Perl Module and the script is used to generate ipchains rules from config files which are easy to use. It also handles accounting. The rules will be installed from a init script and accounting data is dumped daily. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A literate-programming tool for C/C++/Fortran/Ratfor Literate-programming allows the programmer to write a program's code and its code's documentation, with equal importance accorded to both. This helps producing a well-documented code. FWEB has grown out of Knuth and Levy's CWEB; it is far more configurable and customizable than the original, uses LaTeX to typeset documented code, provides a very powerful macro processor... Ratfor programmers may appreciate the builtin Ratfor-to-Fortran translator if they don't have the right compiler. Other languages than those cited may be used, but without code pretty-printing. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Firewall log analyzer fwlogwatch produces ipchains, netfilter/iptables, ipfilter, Cisco IOS and Cisco PIX log summary reports in text and HTML form and has a lot of options to find and display relevant patterns in connection attempts. With the data found it can also generate customizable incident reports from a template and send them to abuse contacts at offending sites or CERT coordination centers. Finally, it can also run as daemon and report anomalies or start countermeasures. From Debian 3.0r0 APT