Internet Assigned Names (Numbers?) Authority; part of Internet governance. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


/I-B-M/ Inferior But Marketable; It's Better Manually; Insidious Black Magic; It's Been Malfunctioning; Incontinent Bowel Movement; and a near-infinite number of even less complimentary expansions, including `International Business Machines'. See TLA. These abbreviations illustrate the considerable antipathy most hackers long felt toward the `industry leader' (see fear and loathing). What galled hackers about most IBM machines above the PC level wasn't so much that they were underpowered and overpriced (though that does count against them), but that the designs are incredibly archaic, crufty, and elephantine ... and you can't fix them -- source code is locked up tight, and programming tools are expensive, hard to find, and bletcherous to use once you've found them. For many years, before Microsoft, IBM was the company hackers loved to hate. But everything changes. In the 1980s IBM had its own troubles with Microsoft. In the late 1990s IBM re-invented itself as a services company, began to release open-source software through its AlphaWorks group, and began shipping Linux systems and building ties to the Linux community. To the astonishment of all parties, IBM emerged as a friend of the hacker community This lexicon includes a number of entries attributed to `IBM'; these derive from some rampantly unofficial jargon lists circulated within IBM's own beleaguered hacker underground. From Jargon Dictionary

IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm)

IDEA is a symmetric block cipher algorithm. It is popular because it is used in PGP, but due to commercial licensing issues, it is not popular elsewhere. Controversy: IDEA is one of the few (widely-used) ciphers protected by patents; it requires a license for commercial use. PGP is no longer using IDEA as its default cipher because of this. Notes: It was developed by Xuejia Lai and James L. Massey. It uses 128-bit keys. There is no known way to break it other than brute-force. It was published in 1990. Its patents are held by the Swiss company "Ascom-Tech AG". Misconception: The name implies that IDEA is some sort of official standard -- it isn't. However, it is is widely used, and is an option on many standards. Applications: PGP From Hacking-Lexicon

IDMS Linux

IDMS Linux is NOT a home user distribution. It is intended solely as the base for high end server software. No GUI's, No X, No fancy stuff. The initial Freshmeat announcement was for version 2.0.25, dated June 22, 2002. Version 2.2.8 was released January 5, 2003. From LWN Distribution List

IDS (intrusion detection system)

An IDS is a security countermeasure. It monitors things looking for signs of intruders. Contrast: A host-based IDS monitor system events, logfiles, and so forth. A network-based IDS monitors network traffic, usually promiscuously. Contrast: A firewall simply blocks openings into your network/system, but cannot distinguish between good/bad activity. Therefore, if you need to allow an opening to a system (like a web-server), then a firewall cannot protect against intrusion attempts against this opening. In contrast, intrusion detection systems can monitor for hostile activity on these openings. More: See http://www.robertgraham.com/pubs/network-intrusion-detection.html for more info. From Hacking-Lexicon


Acronym for the Internet Engineering Task Force, The IETF is the protocol engineering and development arm of the Internet, the IETF Home Page provides specific information in excruciating detail. From KADOWKEV

IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol)

A protocol for exchanging infromation between gateways (hosts with routers) within an autonomous network (for example, a system of corporate local area networks). The routing information can then be used by the Internet Protocol (IP) or other network protocols to specify how to route transmissions. There are two commonly used IGPSs: the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol. From IGP

IMAP (Internet Mail Access Protocol) IMAP4

IMAP is a popular protocol for users to retrieve e-mail from servers. It is likely supported by the mail client that you use, such as Netscape or Outlook. Key point: IMAP is important to hackers because many implementations are vulnerable to buffer overflow exploits. In particular, a popular distribution of Linux shipped with a vulnerable IMAP service that was enabled by default. Therefore, even today, security professionals frequently detect scans directed at port 143 looking for vulnerable IMAP servers. From Hacking-Lexicon

IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol)

IMAP is gradually replacing POP as the main protocol used by email clients in communicating with email servers. Using IMAP an email client program can not only retrieve email but can also manipulate message stored on the server, without having to actually retrieve the messages. So messages can be deleted, have their status changed, multiple mail boxes can be managed, etc. IMAP is defined in RFC 2060 From Matisse

INFOSEC (Information Security)

Contrast: The term "information security" distinguishes itself from "physical security". Key point: A common model used to describe security is the OSI/ISO/IEC 10181 standard. It breaks down infosec into the following areas: authentication Where people have to prove who they are. access control Where people are allowed to access computers or files. non-repudiation Making sure that both sides of a transaction cannot later deny the transaction took place. (antonym: repudiation/renounce/reject) confidentiality Prevent unauthorized disclosure of information. (antonym: disclosure) integrity Making sure that things cannot be corrupted. (antonym: corruption, tampering). audits and alarms Track what is happening. availability (antonym: Denial-of-Service) accountability Making sure that people can be held responsible for their actions. (antonym: anonymity). This includes finding out who violated security policies, as well as simple things as charging departments for their use of network resources. Key point: The most common threats are: disclosure Information was leaked to an unauthorized person. integrity violation Data was altered, such as an account balance that was changed. masquerading/forgery Somebody pretends to be somebody else, or generates a message pretending to be from somebody else. denial-of-service insider attacks From people you trust. backdoors/trojans Key point: The fields of infosec and hacking are not necessarily related. This is a little confusing. Infosec is the field of assuring that information is secure. Hacking is the field of breaking rules. For example, following infosec best practices, you can validate that a server is secure, data is encrypted, and that only authenticated users can gain access. However, a hacker executing a buffer overflow exploit gains access bypassing all the security measures. Contrast: The military has a number of terms related to INFOSEC. They include: COMSEC - communications security Describes the procedures designed to secure communications from the enemy. The antonym is COMINT. From Hacking-Lexicon


This is a standard document beginning with the line `` These are generic installation instructions.'' Since all GNU packages are installed in the same way, this file should always be the same. From Rute-Users-Guide

IP (Internet Protocol)

The underlying packet standard used to connect networks over the Internet. IP is half of a protocol suite that works and must work with TCP. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology

IP (Internet Protocol)

see also TCP. This is an international standard for providing unique addresses (of computers) on the Internet. An IP address is four bytes long and is usually of the form a.b.c.d where each of these letters represents a number between 0 and 255. From Faculty-of-Education

IP Filtering Firewalls

works at the packet level. It is designed to control the flow of packets based the source, destination, port and packet type information contained in each packet. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

IP Masquerade

A networking function in Linux similar to one-to-many NAT (Network Address Translation) found in many commercial firewalls and network routers. IP Masquerade allows other "internal" computers connected to this Linux box (via PPP, Ethernet, etc.) to also reach the Internet as well. Linux IP Masquerading allows for this functionality even though these internal machines don't have an officially assigned IP addresses. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

IP Number (Internet Protocol Number)

Sometimes called a dotted quad. A unique number consisting of 4 parts separated by dots, e.g. Every machine that is on the Internet has a unique IP number - if a machine does not have an IP number, it is not really on the Internet. Many machines (especially servers) also have one or more Domain Names that are easier for people to remember. From Matisse

IP aliasing

provides the possibility of setting multiple network addresses on the same low-level network device driver (e.g two IP addresses in one Ethernet card). From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

IP spoofing

IP Spoofing is a complex technical attack that is made up of several components. It is a security exploit that works by tricking computers in a trust-relationship that you are someone that you really aren't. There is an extensive paper written by daemon9, route, and infinity in the Volume Seven, Issue fourty-Eight issue of Phrack Magazine. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


keeps track of IP network traffic, packet logging and produces some statistics. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


IP Masquerade is a networking function in Linux similar to the one-to-many (1:Many) NAT (Network Address Translation) servers found in many commercial firewalls and network routers. For example, if a Linux host is connected to the Internet via PPP, Ethernet, etc., the IP Masquerade feature allows other "internal" computers connected to this Linux box (via PPP, Ethernet, etc.) to also reach the Internet as well. Linux IP Masquerading allows for this functionality even though these internal machines don't have an officially assigned IP address. MASQ allows a set of machines to invisibly access the Internet via the MASQ gateway. To other machines on the Internet, the outgoing traffic will appear to be from the IP MASQ Linux server itself. In addition to the added functionality, IP Masquerade provides the foundation to create a HEAVILY secured networking environment. With a well built firewall, breaking the security of a well configured masquerading system and internal LAN should be considerably difficult to accomplish. If you would like to know more on how MASQ (1:Many) differs from 1:1 (true) NAT and Proxy solutions, please see the Section 7.6 FAQ entry. From IP-Masquerade-HOWTO

IPCop Firewall

IPCop Firewall is a Linux firewall distro. It will be geared towards home and SOHO users. The difference with existing firewalls is that the IPCop interface will be very user-friendly and task-based. IPCop v0.1.1 was released January 17, 2002. Version 1.3.0 was released April 22, 2003. A 'secured' distribution. From LWN Distribution List


Internet Printing Protocol. A new HTTP-like protocol for sending files to a network printer. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


Internet Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange - a proprietary protocol stack developed by Novell and based on Xerox Network Systems (XNS) protocol. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


IP Next Generation: a new version of IP which is designed to be an evolutionary step from IPv4. It is a natural increment to IPv4. IPng is a new version of IP which is designed to be an evolutionary step from IPv4. It is a natural increment to IPv4. It can be installed as a normal software upgrade in internet devices and is interoperable with the current IPv4. Its deployment strategy was designed to not have any "flag" days. IPng is designed to run well on high performance networks (e.g., ATM) and at the same time is still efficient for low bandwidth networks (e.g., wireless). In addition, it provides a platform for new internet functionality that will be required in the near future. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


Security extensions to IP. Traditionally, encryption takes place at the application layer or above. IPsec provides generic encryption for IP packets in such a way that applications are not necessarily aware of the process. IPsec source code is freely available. Key point: IPsec's main use today is when tunneling traffic for VPNs. It can also work for generic encryption of data between two hosts. Algorithms: Diffie-Hellman From Hacking-Lexicon

IRC (Internet Relay Chat)

Interactive, real-time discussions between Internauts using text messages. Users log into designated Net computers and join discussions already in progress. More information about IRC can be obtained via FTP. FTP to: cs-ftp.bu.edu. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)

A digital telecommunications standard allowing communication channels to carry voice, video, and data simultaneously, see module three. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)

Basically a way to move more dataover existing regular phone lines. ISDN is available to much of the USA and in most markets it is priced very comparably to standard analog phone circuits. It can provide speeds of roughly 128,000 bits-per-second over regular phone lines. In practice, most people will be limited to 56,000or 64,000 bits-per-second. Unlike DSL, ISDN can be used to connect to many different locations, one at a time, just like a regular telephone call, as long the other location also has ISDN. From Matisse

ISO (International Standardization Organization)

An international standards body. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology

ISP (Internet Service Provider)

Any organization that provides access to the Internet. Many ISPs also offer technical assistance to schools looking to become Internet information providers by placing their school's information online. They also help schools get connected to the Net. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology

ITFS (Instructional Television Fixed Service)

A band of low-power microwave frequencies set aside by the Federal Communications Commisson (FCC) exclusively for the transmission of educational programming and licensed to public institutions. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology

ITFS (Instructional Television Fixed Service)

Microwave-based, high-frequency television used in educational program delivery. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology


IceLinux is trying to build the Linux Gaming Platform of the future using Red Hat 7.1 as a base. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. From LWN Distribution List

Icepack Linux

Icepack Linux is a full-featured Linux distribution built from scratch. Version 1.0 released on February 13th 2001. It's optimized for the i586 family of processors and aims to be user-friendly in both installation and configuration. Icepack 2.91 was released April 27, 2003. From LWN Distribution List


ImageMagick is a powerful image display, conversion and manipulation tool. It runs in an X session. With this tool, you can view, edit and display a varietyof image formats. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


WireX provides Immunix System 7 a secured Red Hat 7.0 distribution with StackGuard 2.0, FormatGuard 1.0, SubDomain 1.0 and a suite of application-level security tools. A Red Hat 6.2 version is also available. Immunix Secured Linux 7+ was released March 18, 2003. A 'secured' distribution. From LWN Distribution List


Independence is a free distribution designed by users for the users and particularly those who are left out by present distributions. From LWN Distribution List


The presence of a virus within a computer system or on a disk. The infection may not be obvious to the user; many viruses for example, reamin in the background until a specific time and date, when they display prank messages or erase data. See Trojan horse and worm. From QUECID

Infobot (or mailbot)

An email address that automatically returns information requested by the user. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology


The first process to run after the system boots and always has a process id of 1. It is responsible for starting the system in single user mode or spawning a shell to read the startup files. It opens ports that are designated as login ports and spawns getty processes for each on. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


The first process to run immediately after the operating system loads. It starts the system in single-user mode or spawns a shell to read the startup files, and opens ports designated as login ports. From I-gloss


To prepare hardware or software to perform a task a serial port is initialised using the MODE command to set the baud, parity, data, and stop bit values, for example. In some programs, initialising can be setting a counter or variable to zero before running a procedure. From QUECID

Input/output (I/O) redirection

In DOS and UNIX, the routing of a progam's output to a file or device, or the routing of a progam's input from a file rather than the keyboard. From QUECID

Interactive Media

Frequency assignment that allows for a two-way interaction or exchange of information. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology


A loose confederation of networks around the world, the networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the U.S. Government ARPAnet project, and is specifically designed to have no central governing authority or 'root', node. From KADOWKEV


A worldwide network of networks. It si also the network of networks that connects more than three million computers (called hosts). The Internet is the virtual space in which users send and receive email, login to remote computers (telnet), browse databases of information (gopher, World Wide Web, WAIS), and send and receive programs (ftp) contained on these computers. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology


n. The mother of all networks. First incarnated beginning in 1969 as the ARPANET, a U.S. Department of Defense research testbed. Though it has been widely believed that the goal was to develop a network architecture for military command-and-control that could survive disruptions up to and including nuclear war, this is a myth; in fact, ARPANET was conceived from the start as a way to get most economical use out of then-scarce large-computer resources. As originally imagined, ARPANET's major use would have been to support what is now called remote login and more sophisticated forms of distributed computing, but the infant technology of electronic mail quickly grew to dominate actual usage. Universities, research labs and defense contractors early discovered the Internet's potential as a medium of communication between humans and linked up in steadily increasing numbers, connecting together a quirky mix of academics, techies, hippies, SF fans, hackers, and anarchists. The roots of this lexicon lie in those early years. Over the next quarter-century the Internet evolved in many ways. The typical machine/OS combination moved from DEC PDP-10s and PDP-20s, running TOPS-10 and TOPS-20, to PDP-11s and VAXes and Suns running Unix, and in the 1990s to Unix on Intel microcomputers. The Internet's protocols grew more capable, most notably in the move from NCP/IP to TCP/IP in 1982 and the implementation of Domain Name Service in 1983. It was around this time that people began referring to the collection of interconnected networks with ARPANET at its core as "the Internet". The ARPANET had a fairly strict set of participation guidelines - connected institutions had to be involved with a DOD-related research project. By the mid-80s, many of the organizations clamoring to join didn't fit this profile. In 1986, the National Science Foundation built NSFnet to open up access to its five regional supercomputing centers; NSFnet became the backbone of the Internet, replacing the original ARPANET pipes (which were formally shut down in 1990). Between 1990 and late 1994 the pieces of NSFnet were sold to major telecommunications companies until the Internet backbone had gone completely commercial. That year, 1994, was also the year the mainstream culture discovered the Internet. Once again, the killer app was not the anticipated one - rather, what caught the public imagination was the hypertext and multimedia features of the World Wide Web. Subsequently the Internet has seen off its only serious challenger (the OSI protocol stack favored by European telecom monopolies) and is in the process of absorbing into itself many of the proprietary networks built during the second wave of wide-area networking after 1980. It is now (1996) a commonplace even in mainstream media to predict that a globally-extended Internet will become the key unifying communications technology of the next century. See also the network and Internet address. From Jargon Dictionary

Internet (Upper case I)

The vast collection of inter-connected networks that are connected using the TCP/IP protocols and that evolved from the ARPANET of the late 60's and early 70's. The Internet connects tens of thousands of independent networks into a vast global internet and is probably the largest Wide Area Network in the world. From Matisse

Internet account

Purchased through an Internet service provider, the account assigns a password and email address to an individual or group allowing access to the Internet. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology

Internet server

A computer that stores data that can be accessed via the Internet. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology

Internet site

A computer connected to the Internet containing information that can be accessed using an Internet navigation tool such as ftp, telnet, gopher, or a Web browser. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology


The Internic provides the primary directory and registration services for the American part of the Internet. From KADOWKEV

Interpreted Language

Unlike a compiled program, which is converted from source code to an executable one time, by a compiler, and then run from its binary form, an interpreted program is converted to binary on the fly each time it is run, by an interpreter program. Interpreted languages (and thus their programs) tend to be slower than compiled and p-code languages/programs, and generally have limited authorization to low-level operating system functions or direct hardware access. On the other hand, they do not require compilers (which can be expensive), are often included along with operating systems, and are usually easier to program than compiled languages. Examples of interpreted languages are BASIC, Perl, Python and REXX/Object REXX. From I-gloss

Interpreted language

An interpreted language depends on an interpreter program that reads the source code and translates it on the fly into computations and system calls. The source has to be re-interpreted (and the interpreter present) each time the code is executed. Interpreted languages tend to be slower than compiled languages, and often have limited access to the underlying operating system and hardware. On the other hand, they tend to be easier to program. See Compiled language and P-code language. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


Interrupts are signals sent by devices which are received by the operating system and then processed. A device driver is responsible for handling the information that is received. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

Intimate (iPAQ)

The Intimate project is a Debian based Linux distribution for the Compaq iPAQ. It combines work being done by the Familiar Project with Debian package management. From LWN Distribution List


A private network inside a company or organization that uses the same kinds of software that you would find on the public Internet, but that is only for internal use. Compare with extranet. From Matisse


descriptive term being used for the implementation of Internet technologies within a corporate organisation, rather than for external connection to the global Internet. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

Intrusion detection

The ability to detect people trying to compromise your system. Intrusion detection is divided into two main categories, host based, and network based. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


A protocol allowing to carry TCP/IP traffic between two IrDA peers in an efficient fashion. It is a thin layer, passing PPP packets to IrTTP and vice versa. It uses PPP in synchronous mode, because IrTTP offer a reliable sequenced packet service (as opposed to a byte stream). In fact, you could see IrNET as carrying TCP/IP in a IrDA socket, using PPP to provide the glue. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


Ivrix is a project aimed at creating a free Linux distribution with complete Hebrew support. From LWN Distribution List


sources for drivers for the i2c bus The i2c bus is used by many modern motherboards to provide hardware health monitoring data, like temperature and fan speed. The i2c drivers are used by the lm-sensors package to access this data. Note that i2c drivers are available in recent versions of the linux kernel, but the drivers in this package may be more up to date. This package contains the source for the i2c kernel modules. The kernel sources must be installed to compile these modules. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


English-Spanish translation dictionary. English to Spanish (and viceversa) translation dictionary. It can be used both in X and text mode and has a learning function that can be used to add more information to the provided dictionary. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Dell Inspiron and Latitude laptop utilities This is a collection of utilities to control Dell Inspiron and Latitude laptops. It includes programs to turn the fan on and off, to read fan status, CPU temperature, BIOS version and to handle the volume buttons and Fn-keys. The package includes also a small Tk applet, designed to be swallowed in the gnome panel, which monitors the CPU temperature and comtrols automatically the fans accordingly to user defined thresholds. The programs require the kernel module i8k.o which can be compiled from the package sources or found in Linux kernel 2.4.14 and later versions. The kernel module has been tested only on Inspiron 8000 laptops but it should work on any Inspiron and Latitude laptops. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


An American English dictionary for ispell. This is the americanmed+ dictionary, as supplied with the source for ispell. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Intel Binary Compatibility Specification Module The iBCS Emulator runs binaries for other Unixes. Emulations provided: * Sparc Solaris * i386 BSD (386BSD, FreeBSD, NetBSD, BSDI/386) - very alpha, very old. * SVR4 (Interactive, Unixware, USL, Dell etc.) * SVR3 generic * SCO (SVR3 with extensions for symlinks and long filenames) * SCO OpenServer 5 * Wyse V/386 (SVR3 with extensions for symlinks) * Xenix V/386 (386 small model binaries only) Subsystems emulated: * SYSV IPC * /dev/socksys socket interface as used by the Lachman STREAMS based networking implementation. * BSD and Wyse V/386 system call socket interface. * /dev/spx STREAMS device (limited server support). * XTI/TLI transports for TCP, UDP and related protocols - client only (outgoing connections). Accepting connections untested. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


ISDN MPPP bandwidth on demand daemon ibod is a ISDN MPPP bandwidth on demand daemon designed to operate in conjunction with isdn4linux. The program monitors inbound and outbound traffic on the ISDN interface. When the required bandwidth exceeds the capacity for the current number of ISDN B-channels, more (slave) channels are connected according to the MPPP protocol. When the traffic decreases, the slave channel(s) are disconnected. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Viewer for the International Beacon Project Ibp shows which of the beacons of the International Beacon Project is transmitting now. The user is presented with a list of Beacons with the current beacon highlighted. In a separate graphical window the position and short/long path to the beacon can be seen. The list can be viewed in either single or multiband mode, a Maidenhead locator, when used as an argument, shows distance and azimuth to each beacon. You will need an accurate clock because the beacons transmit at 10 second intervals. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The Brazilian Portuguese dictionary for ispell. This is the Brazilian Portuguese dictionary for ispell as put together by Ricardo Ueda Karpischek <[email protected]>. Current status is good enough to be used for daily needs. This dictionary is being developed in a structured way. Verbs are treated apart by a specific software, a verb conjugator (conjugue). Names are partitioned into semantic classes to make vocabulary completion and revision easier. See http://www.ime.usp.br/~ueda/br.ispell/ for more information. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A British English dictionary for ispell. This is the britishmed+ dictionary, as supplied with the source for ispell. Because of the way this dictionary is built it contains many American spellings as well as British spellings (e.g. both "analyze" and "analyse" are considered valid). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Synchronise mobile phone address books. From whatis


"cat" a mailbox from an IMAP source From whatis


The Catalan dictionary for ispell This is the Catalan dictionary for ispell as put together by Ignasi Labastida i Juan <[email protected]> from a list of words by Joan Dolg. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


ICE authority file utility From whatis


Break the iceberg So, uh, there's a bunch of penguins on an iceberg in Antarctica. You have been selected to catch them so they can be shipped to Finland, where they are essential to a secret plot for world domination. In order to trap the penguins, you'll need to break the iceberg into small chunks. (They're afraid of water, for no apparent reason. Ah well. "The Matrix" had more plot holes than this, and it still was a hit.) You do this by melting lines in the ice with Special High-Tech GNU Tools. Once 80% or more of the iceberg is gone, the remaining chunks are small enough for shipping. Of course, if you manage to get rid of more than that, you'll save on postage, thus earning you exponential amounts of Geek Cred (a.k.a. "score"). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Icecast is an Internet based broadcasting system based on the Mpeg Layer III streaming technology. It was originally inspired by Nullsoft's Shoutcast and also mp3serv by Scott Manley. The icecast project was started for several reasons: a) all broadcasting systems were pretty much closed source, non-free software implementations, b) Shoutcast doesn't allow you to run your own directory servers, or support them, and c) we thought it would be a lot of fun. Icecast is almost completely Shoutcast compatible as far as we've been able to determine. WinAmp can both send encoded streams as well as stream music from icecast. Icecast can also use the yp.shoutcast.com directory services and adds the ability to use other directory services. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Configuration tool for icewm A nice, graphical configuration tool for the icewm window manager. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Editor for IceWM menus IceMC is a Qt-based application that configures your IceWM menus and toolbar. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A graphical menu editor for IceWM IceMe is a graphical menu and shortcut editor for the IceWM window manager, written in Python and GTK+. You can edit menu entries with drag and drop as well as cut and paste. Both the default menu and the local menu in the users home directory can be edited. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Yet another configuration tool for IceWM Another GUI-based configuration tool for the IceWM window manager, including easy selection of fonts and other config options. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A wonderful Win95-OS/2-Motif-like window manager Window Manager for X Window System. Can emulate the look of Windows'95, OS/2 Warp 3,4, Motif. Tries to take the best features of the above systems. Features multiple workspaces, opaque move/resize, task bar, window list, mailbox status, digital clock. Fast and small. Extra themes are available from the icewm-themes package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


An ICQ2000 client for GTK+ Ickle is an ICQ client which is able to communicate with ICQ servers using the new ICQ2000 protocol. This offers much better reliability than the older ICQ99 protocol. ickle has a constantly improving interface, now supporting history browsing, and much more. Ickle currently supports: * Sending/Receiving normal messages * Sending/Receiving URLs * Sending/Receiving SMS messages * Retrieving away messages This version is compiled without gnome support, for gnome support install the package `ickle-gnome'. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Intelligent C-like MAKEr, or the ICce MAKE utility Icmake is a hybrid between a 'make' utility and a 'shell script' language. Originally, it was concocted to provide a useful tool for automatic program maintenance and system administrative tasks on MS-DOS platforms. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Interpret ICMP messages. Icmpinfo is a tool for looking at the ICMP messages received on the running host. It can be used to detect and record 'bombs' as well as various network problems. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


ICMP packet builder icmpush is a tool that builds ICMP packets fully customized from command line. It supports the following ICMP error types: Redirect, Source Quench, Time Exceeded, Destination Unreach and Parameter Problem. And the following ICMP information types: Address Mask Request, Timestamp, Information Request, Echo Request, Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


animate an icosahedron or other polyhedron From whatis


Software control for ICOM radios This program allows you to control many types of ICOM radio (transceivers and receivers) from the serial port on your computer. You need a CI-V interface circuit to connect the radio to the computer (to convert between RS-232 and TTL), which can be easily found on the web. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Interactive spelling checking From whatis


Icom PCR-1000 command line control icomlib is the ghetto.org PCR-1000 control suite. It consists of a library, command line programs, and a QT widget GUI application. This software controls an ICOM PCR-1000 receiver via a serial interface. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Icom PCR-1000 control shared libraries icomlib is the ghetto.org PCR-1000 control suite. It consists of a library, command line programs, and a QT widget GUI application. This software controls an ICOM PCR-1000 receiver via a serial interface. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Libraries for Icon, a high-level programming language Ideal for both complex nonnumerical applications and for situations where users need quick solutions with a minimum of programming effort, Icon is a high-level, general purpose programming language with a syntax similar to Pascal and C. Its applications include: rapid prototyping, analyzing natural languages, generating computer programs, and artificial intelligence. (From the back cover of the book "The Icon Programming Language," by Griswold and Griswold.) This package contains the Icon program library, a library of Icon procedures and programs contributed by Icon users. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Compiler for Icon, a high-level programming language Ideal for both complex nonnumerical applications and for situations where users need quick solutions with a minimum of programming effort, Icon is a high-level, general purpose programming language with a syntax similar to Pascal and C. Its applications include: rapid prototyping, analyzing natural languages, generating computer programs, and artificial intelligence. (From the back cover of the book "The Icon Programming Language," by Griswold and Griswold.) This package contains the Icon compiler. It generates programs that generally run faster than those of the icont/iconx Icon interpreter. On the other hand, the Icon compiler takes much longer to compile programs and is more memory-hungry than the iconx/icont pair. As such, the compiler is probably only useful to speed up the execution of large Icon programs once they are fully developed and debugged. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Interpreter for Icon, a high-level programming language Ideal for both complex nonnumerical applications and for situations where users need quick solutions with a minimum of programming effort, Icon is a high-level, general purpose programming language with a syntax similar to Pascal and C. Its applications include: rapid prototyping, analyzing natural languages, generating computer programs, and artificial intelligence. (From the back cover of the book "The Icon Programming Language," by Griswold and Griswold.) This package contains the Icon translator, which converts Icon source code into `ucode` that can then be executed with the help of the iconx program. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Convert encoding of given files from one encoding to another From whatis


perform character set conversion From whatis


Executor for Icon, a high-level programming language Ideal for both complex nonnumerical applications and for situations where users need quick solutions with a minimum of programming effort, Icon is a high-level, general purpose programming language with a syntax similar to Pascal and C. Its applications include: rapid prototyping, analyzing natural languages, generating computer programs, and artificial intelligence. (From the back cover of the book "The Icon Programming Language," by Griswold and Griswold.) This package contains the Icon executor, iconx, which is needed to execute interpreted Icon programs. If you are starting from Icon source code (as opposed to precompiled `ucode' files), you will also need the icont package, which converts your Icon source into a program that iconx can execute. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


interpret or compile Icon programs From whatis


Extract MS Windows icons and cursors Icoutils is a set of programs that deal with MS Windows icons and cursors. Resources such as icons and cursors can be extracted from MS Windows executable and library files with ``wrestool''. Conversion of these files to XPM images is done with ``icotool''. ``extresso'' automates these tasks with the help of special resource scripts. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


International Components for Unicode (non locale data) ICU is a C++ and C library that provides robust and full-featured Unicode and locale support. The library provides calendar support, character set conversions, language-sensitive collation, date and time formatting, support for more than 140 locales, message catalogs and resources, message formatting, normalization, number and currency formatting, time zones support, transliteration, word, line and sentence breaking, etc.... This package contains the Unicode data, converters and aliases data, and timezone data. It also contains the tools needed to manipulate these data. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The Czech dictionary for ispell. This is the Czech dictionary for ispell. Author: Petr Kolar <[email protected]> From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A UNIX command that identifies the user account under which it is executed, including UID, GID, groups, and associated names. Key point: This is often the first command a hacker will run on the system when the hacker breaks in remotely. The hacker will remotely compromise a service that is running under either root account, a special account setup for that service (e.g. the majordomo service runs under a user account called "majordomo"), or a user's account. The hacker is hoping they have achieved root access immediately. If not, the hacker will have to run a local exploit in order to elevate privileges. The other popular command hackers might execute is id. Example: Running id as root on one of my systems results in: uid=0(root) gid=0(root) groups=0(root),1(bin),2(daemon),3(sys),4(adm),6(disk),10(wheel),11(floppy) From Hacking-Lexicon


print real and effective UIDs and GIDs From whatis


Fast, high-capacity, identifier database tool. Actually, the term `identifier' is too limiting--`mkid' stores tokens, be they program identifiers of any form, literal numbers, or words of human-readable text. Database queries can be issued from the command-line, or from within emacs, serving as an augmented tags facility. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


An ID3 Tag Editor A command-line based program that can list, modify, or delete ID3 tags from a file. ID3 tags are a way of identifying streaming music files. You can store Artist, Album, Title, Track, Year, and Genre in a tag, as well as a 28-character comment. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Another id3 tag editor A command-line program that allows you to add/edit/remove id3 tags on mp3 files. This one will, if run with just the name of a file to edit, allow you to change the tags interactively. Like other id3 tag editors, it can still be used in scripts easily. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


id3 tagger and renamer Tool used to rename batches of mpeg3 files by reading the ID3 tag at the end of the file which contains the song name, artist, album, year, and a comment. The secondary function of id3ren is a tagger, which can create, modify, or remove ID3 tags. The id3 fields can be set on the command line, entered interactively, or "guessed" from the path and the filename. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A command line editor for id3 tags. A simple and complete editor for id3 tags. Highly recommened for scripting and bulk operations where you need to edit id3 tags from scripts. Can also be used to read id3 tags. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A command line id3v2 tag editor Adds/Modifies/Removes/Views id3v2 tags, converts/lists id3v1 tags From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The Danish dictionary for ispell. This is the Danish dictionaries, to be used with ispell to check and correct spelling in Danish texts. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


S.M.A.R.T. status checking tool for IDE hard disk drives ide-smart performs various non-destructive tests on a SMART (Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology) capable IDE device. SMART provides near future failure prediction by monitoring different attributes (listed as IDs) of the device. Your BIOS and hardware need to support SMART to use this package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


identify RCS keyword strings in files From whatis


An advanced ident daemon ident2 is an advanced, configurable ident daemon. You can set it to lie, not lie, or not return any response at all, and it is per-user configurable (e.g. if user daniel was IRCing, it'd use ~daniel/.ident for its config, if user kim was IRCing, it'd use ~kim/.ident). The admin can specify whether users can configure the type of return they want or not. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


TCP/IP IDENT protocol server From whatis

identd / auth

The identd (also known as auth) service on UNIX can be used to identify the owner of a TCP connection. As the auth name implies, it was originally intended to be used as some sort of authentication mechanism. Nowadays, it is most commonly used simply as a way of logging who does what activity. Example: When you connect to a UNIX-based mail server, it will usually attempt a reverse connection back to you on the identd port 113. Its goal is simply to log which user was attempting access to the server. From Hacking-Lexicon


view properties and settings of IDE drives From whatis


OMG IDL font-locking for Emacs This module adds font-lock highlighting to the Emacs IDL-mode. This will be useful for people doing CORBA stuff, but it is not related to the Interactive Data Language. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


An IDE for Python (v1.5) using Tkinter IDLE is an Integrated Development Environment for Python (v1.5). IDLE is written using Tkinter and therefore quite platform-independent. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


An IDE for Python using Tkinter (default version) IDLE is an Integrated Development Environment for Python. IDLE is written using Tkinter and therefore quite platform-independent. This package is a dependency package, which depends on Debian's default Python version (currently v2.1). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


make process 0 idle From whatis


A tool for testing network intrusion detection systems. idswakeup is a Bourne shell script invoking hping2 (required) and iwu (part of this package) to generate false alarms in order to check if a network intrusion detection system works all right. idswakeup requires no configuration and includes many common attack simulations. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The Dutch dictionary for ispell, in new (August 1996) spelling. A Dutch spelling dictionary for the spelling checker ispell. The dictionary contains 119996 roots, which expand to 227480 words. For a simple word list, see the wdutch package instead. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The Esperanto dictionary for ispell. This is the the Esperanto dictionary, to be used with the ispell program, version 3.1.04 and following. The dictionary is based on the words from Plena Ilustrita Vortaro, with additional country/language names. It accepts Latin-3, `cx' and `^c' forms. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The Faroese dictionary for ispell. This is the Faroese dictionaries, to be used with ispell to check and correct spelling in Faroese texts. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Fidonet Technology transport package Ifcico is a FidoTech mailer for connecting to other nodes via the phone or the Internet. This version includes the "tx" patches and other misc patches. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


configure a network interface From whatis


take a network interface down From whatis


Attach and detach slave interfaces to a bonding device. This is a tool to attach and detach slave network interfaces to a bonding device. A bonding device will act like a normal Ethernet network device to the kernel, but will send out the packets via the slave devices using a simple round-robin scheduler. This allows for simple load-balancing, identical to "channel bonding" or "trunking" techniques used in switches. The kernel must have support for bonding devices for ifenslave to be useful. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Internet to Fidonet gateway The program can act as a gateway between email and netmail and Usenet newsgroups and echomail. This version includes the "tx" patches and other misc patches. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Printer filter for HP LaserJet printers ifhp is a highly versatile print filter for BSD based print spoolers. It can be configured to handle text, PostScript, PJL, PCL, and raster printers, supports conversion from one format to another, and can be used as a stand-alone print utility. It is the primary supported print filter for the LPRng print spooler. It provides access to printer features like duplex printing, paper tray selection and strong accounting using the printer's internal page counter. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A medium-size Finnish dictionary for Ispell This is a medium-size version of the Finnish dictionary, to be used with ispell to check and correct spelling in Finnish texts. Since Ispell is not really good at spell checking the kind of languages such as Finnish, this dictionary may not be as useful as the dictionaries for other languages. This dictionary recognizes roughly 1.9 million words and word forms. Ispell requires about 10 megabytes of memory when using this dictionary. For most uses, this version of the Finnish dictionary is recommended. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Internet to Fidonet gateway The package contains common files needed by ifcico and ifgate packages. This version includes the "tx" patches and other misc patches. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


print identifiers that a package uses in C preprocessor conditionals From whatis


ifplugd is a Linux daemon which will automatically configure your ethernet device when a cable is plugged in and automatically unconfigure it if the cable is pulled. This is useful on laptops with onboard network adapters, since it will only configure the interface when a cable is really connected. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


The French dictionary for ispell (Hydro-Quebec version). This is a French dictionary, to be used with the ispell program, version 3.1.04 and following. The dictionary contains roughly 50,000 roots, which expand to about 220,000 words. This is the Martin Boyer and Hydro-Quebec version. You may prefer to use the GUTenberg version installed by the ifrench-gut package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


one line per message summary of IMAP mailbox From whatis


bring a network interface up From whatis


High level tools to configure network interfaces This package provides the tools ifup and ifdown which may be used to configure (or, respectively, deconfigure) network interfaces, based on the file /etc/network/interfaces. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


online image gallery generator iGal is a Perl-based program that can generate and publish an entire online picture show (HTML slides, thumbnails and index page included) with just one command line invocation. If you've got a directory (or several) full of image files that are waiting to be put online and shared with friends, then iGal is for you. iGal is well documented, flexible, and configurable through command line options and HTML templates, specific to each gallery. Generated slide shows include a JavaScript trick to preload the next image in the slideshow - ideal for slow links. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The German dictionary for ispell. This is the German dictionary for ispell as put together by [email protected] This dictionary refers to the old German orthography. For the new orthography see ingerman. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The Hungarian dictionary for ispell. This is the Hungarian dictionary for ispell made by NEMETH Laszlo <[email protected]> home: http://www.szofi.hu/gnu/magyarispell From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Internet/Intranet Input Method Emacs Client Framework IIIMECF conforms IIIM Protocol Specification defined by Sun Microsystems, and consists of a library to create IIIM awarded applications and a simple input method library controlled by IIIM server(s). (This input-method is denoted by "iiimcf-sc" hereafter.) From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The italian dictionary for ispell. Questo dizionario, da usarsi con il programma ispell, contiene oltre 185.000 parole italiane. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Real-time software synthesizer based on the Soundfont2 specifications. IIWU Synth is made of two applications: iiwusynth and iiwuplay. iiwusynth reads and handles MIDI events from the MIDI input device, it is the software analogue of a MIDI synthesizer. iiwuplay is a MIDI file player that allows to render a MIDI file using a Soundfont. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Interactive spelling checking From whatis


Illuminator Distributed Visualization Library Demo This little library provides contour surface viewing for PETSc's 3-D distributed array objects using the Geomview viewer. This package contains a demonstration program "chts" (Cahn-Hilliard timestep). With mpich, you can run it in parallel using "mpirun -np X /usr/bin/chts" where X is the number of processes (optimally equal to the number of processors), as long as process 0 has access to your X display. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Illuminator Distributed Visualization Library This little library provides contour surface viewing for PETSc's 3-D distributed array objects using the Geomview viewer. This package contains the shared libs. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Internet Message This package provides a series of user interface commands (im* commands) and backend Perl5 libraries to integrate Email and NetNews user interface. They are designed to be used both from Mew and on command line. The folder style for Mew is exactly the same as that of MH. So, you can replace MH with this package without any migration works. Moreover, you are able to operate your messages both by IM and MH with consistent manner. If you want to use RPOP protocol support, You should install perl-suid package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Image manipulation programs. Imagemagick is a set of programs to manipulate various image formats (JPEG, TIFF, PhotoCD, PBM, XPM, etc...). All manipulations can be achieved through shell commands as well as through a X11 graphical interface (display). Possible effects: colormap manipulation, channel operations, thumbnail creation, image annotation, limited drawing, image distortion, etc... This package suggests a postscript interpreter (gs) to read postscript files. It will however function happily without it (as long as you don't want to read postscript). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


C preprocessor interface to the make utility From whatis


copy or move messages from an IMAP inbox to a local mailbox From whatis


Internet Message Access Protocol server From whatis


A tool for creating client-side image maps A simple (yet useful and free) tool for creating client-side image maps, supporting GIF and JPEG images. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


copy mailboxes between IMAP servers From whatis


A console jabber client IMcom is a text based jabber client written in python. IMcom has the look and feel of micq and is a good replacement for micq users who want to use a free instant messaging system. See http://www.jabber.org for more information on the jabber instant messaging system. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Add WIDTH and HEIGHT attributes to IMG tags in HTML files. The imgsizer script automates away the tedious task of creating and updating the extension HEIGHT and WIDTH parameters in HTML IMG tags. These parameters help many browsers (including Netscape) to multi-thread image loading, instead of having to load images in strict sequence in order to have each one's dimensions available so the next can be placed. This generally allows text on the remainder of the page to load much faster. The package needs either the imagemagick package or both the file and libjpeg-progs packages. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A timestamping utility for webcam images imgstamp is a utility that "watermarks" a JPEG image with a line of text. It can stamp the text onto the image with a variety of styles, fonts, and orientations. It can also upload the stamped image to an FTP server, which is useful for webcam scripts. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


PalmPilot/III Image Conversion utility This program can convert, compress, and decompress 4-bit grayscale images for displaying on the PalmPilot. It can take any pbm, pnm, pgm file generated by the netpbm package and convert it into a suitable image for the Pilot. A suitable viewer for the Pilot or PalmIII that is freeware can be found at http://www.strout.net/pilotsoft/spec/index.html. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Imlib is a display depth independent image loading and rendering library. Imlib is designed to simplify and speed up the process of loading images and obtaining X Window System drawables. Imlib provides many simple manipulation routines which can be used for common operations. Install imlib if you need an image loading and rendering library for X11R6. You may also want to install the imlib-cfgeditor package, which will help you configure Imlib. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


Imlib is a display depth independent image loading and rendering library. Imlib is designed to simplify and speed up the process of loading images and obtaining X Window System drawables. Imlib provides many simple manipulation routines which can be used for common operations. Install imlib if you need an image loading and rendering library for X11R6, or if you are installing GNOME. You may also want to install the imlib-cfgeditor package, which will help you configure Imlib. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


Configuration program for Imlib and GDK-Imlib This package contains imlib_config, a GTK app that will allow the user to set all of Imlib's properties. It writes to the global imrc or the users. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Imlib is an imaging library for X and X11 Imlib is a low-level Xlib interface for X programmers. It allows easier access to many graphics formats and can write to them as well. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Web Based IMAP Mail Program. A set of PHP3 scripts that implement an IMAP based webmail system. Assuming you have an account on a server that supports IMAP, you can theoretically use an installation of IMP to check your mail from anywhere that you have web access. IMP does not require an IMAP server to be running on the machine you install it on unless you are intending to have it use the current machine for it's IMAP connections. (If you are connecting to a remote server for your mail than you don't need IMAP) IMP requires a database to be running if you want to use the extended features such as the addressbook, and preferences. It currently uses PHPLib for the database interface so as long as PHPLib supports your database of choice your good to go. This package is designed to support PostgreSQL and MySQL directly. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


WYSIWYG Publishing & Presentation for use With/without Web browser ImPress is a WYSIWYG layout program designed especially for Linux. It allows you to create presentations and Postscript documents using fully scalable graphics similar to programs like Macromedia Freehand, Corel Draw, Adobe Illustrator and Visio. It is different from raster graphic packages like gimp, Adobe PhotoShop and Jasc's PaintShop Pro in that it deals with graphical objects which can be manipulated on a canvas rather than just layers of paint. For more information: http://www.ntlug.org/~ccox/impress/index.html From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Program to support the "wheel" on some new mice Various new mice, including the Microsoft IntelliMouse, and the Logitech MouseMan+, Wheel Mouse, and others, now have a "wheel" button in the middle of them. This wheel button acts both as a standard button (by pressing it), and a wheel, which under MS Windows may be used for scrolling windows around. This program supports the wheel scrolling operation by one of two means: 1. Some newer X servers support mapping the wheel to buttons 4 and 5, which imwheel then captures and supports, 2. Using a patched version of gpm, the normal mouse events are passed on to the X server through /dev/gpmdata (gpm's standard "repeater" mode), and in addition wheel events are sent to another pipe, /dev/gpmwheel. imwheel picks up these events, and translates them. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


biff server From whatis


remote user information server From whatis


Internet File Transfer Protocol server From whatis


a small daemon that can be used to test Ident servers From whatis


remote user communication server From whatis


- POP3 server (v4.0) From whatis


remote user communication server From whatis


DARPA telnet protocol server From whatis


DARPA Trivial File Transfer Protocol server From whatis


A single measured cyber-attack. The problem with "incidents" is that it is often hard to quantify exactly what is going on. Sometimes "incidents" are detected that are actually due to networking anamolies that have nothing to do with hacking. Therefore, an "incident" starts life when something is detected. As time goes on, the incident will be updated with more information, such as grouping together related attacks. From Hacking-Lexicon

incident team

A team within a company who is responsible for responding to cyber-attacks. Key point: The following are useful resources to such a team: CERT (Computer Emergency Response Team) The oldest incident organization, established in response to the Morris Worm. CIAC (Computer Incident Advisory Capability) Organization similar to CERT setup by the U.S. DoE (Department of Energy). http://www.securityfocus.com/ They have an INCIDENTS mailing list companion to their BUGTRAQ mailing list where people discuss incidents they've seen. From Hacking-Lexicon


C language source code formatting program The `indent' program changes the appearance of a C program by inserting or deleting whitespace. `indent' also provides options for controlling the alignment of braces and declarations, program indenting, and other stylistic parameters, including formatting of both C and C++ comments. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Indent is a GNU program for formatting C code, so that it is easier to read. Indent can also convert from one C writing style to adifferent one. Indent understands correct C syntax and tries to handle incorrect C syntax. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


changes the appearance of a C program by inserting or deleting whitespace. From whatis


The indexhtml package contains the HTML page and graphics for awelcome page shown by your Web browser, which you will see after you have successfully installed Red Hat Linux. The webpage provided by indexhtml tells you how to register your RedHat software and how to get support. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


Berkeley daemon program that listens for connection requests or messages for certain ports and starts server programs to perform the services associated with those ports. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


The subsystem in UNIX responsible for starting most of the network services. This program works from the principle that one service can listen for incoming traffic on a socket, and when such traffic appears, it can launch the appropriate service to handle it. This allows a single box to support many services without actually having them all run at the same time. The file /etc/inetd.conf configures this service. Key point: A common backdoor technique is to place a root shell program in inetd.conf. From Hacking-Lexicon


internet super-server From whatis


A replacement for the C News inews program. This package contains a feature-enhanced and faster version of inews, written in Perl. It replaces the inews provided by C News. New features include MIME encoding and header syntax checks. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


NNTP client news injector, from InterNetNews (INN). `inews' is the program that newsreaders call when the user wishes to post an article; it does a few elementary checks and passes the article on to the news server for posting. This version is the one from Rich Salz's InterNetNews news transport system (which is also available as a Debian package). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Standalone GNU Info documentation browser The Info file format is an easily-parsable representation for online documents. This program allows you to view Info documents, like the ones stored in /usr/share/info. Much of the software in Debian comes with its online documentation in the form of Info files, so it is most likely you will want to install it. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The GNU project uses the texinfo file format for much of its documentation. The info package provides a standalone TTY-based browser program for viewing texinfo files. You should install info, because GNU's texinfo documentation is a valuable source of information about the software on your system. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


Read info files with a WWW browser info2www lets you read info files with a WWW browser. It requires a HTTP server with CGI support. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


read Info documents From whatis


compare or print out terminfo descriptions From whatis


Emacs mode for editing Inform files This is an (X)Emacs mode for editing Inform source code. Inform source is used when writing games for the Z-Code virtual machine (aka Infocom). This package will add an editing mode to your favorite Emacsen for editing these files. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


convert a terminfo description into a termcap description From whatis


New German orthography dictionary for ispell This is a dictionary for ispell for the new German orthography. It is based on the famous hkgerman dictionary (using the old German orthography) which was put together by Heinz Knutzen and is available as the Debian package igerman. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Metafont, a language for font and logo design From whatis


MetaPost, a system for drawing pictures From whatis


extended unicode TeX From whatis


'init' process is the first user level process started by the kernel. init has many important duties, such as starting getty (so that users can log in), implementing run levels, and taking care of orphaned processes. This chapter explains how init is configured and how you can make use of the different run levels. init is one of those programs that are absolutely essential to the operation of a Linux system, but that you still can mostly ignore. Usually, you only need to worry about init if you hook up serial terminals, dial-in (not dial-out) modems, or if you want to change the default run level. When the kernel has started (has been loaded into memory, has started running, and has initialized all device drivers and data structures and such), it finishes its own part of the boot process by starting a user level program, init. Thus, init is always the first process (its process number is always 1). The kernel looks for init in a few locations that have been historically used for it, but the proper location for it is /sbin/init. If the kernel can't find init, it tries to run /bin/sh, and if that also fails, the startup of the system fails. When init starts, it completes the boot process by doing a number of administrative tasks, such as checking filesystems, cleaning up /tmp, starting various services, and starting a getty for each terminal and virtual console where users should be able to log in. After the system is properly up, init restarts getty for each terminal after a user has logged out (so that the next user can log in). init also adopts orphan processes: when a process starts a child process and dies before its child, the child immediately becomes a child of init. This is important for various technical reasons, but it is good to know it, since it makes it easier to understand process lists and process tree graphs. init itself is not allowed to die. You can't kill init even with SIGKILL. There are a few variants of init available. Most Linux distributions use sysvinit (written by Miquel van Smoorenburg), which is based on the System V init design. The BSD versions of Unix have a different init. The primary difference is run levels: System V has them, BSD doesn't. From Linux Administrator's Guide


process control initialization From whatis


text formatting and typesetting From whatis


The initscripts package contains the basic system scripts used to boot your Mandrake Linux system, change run levels, and shut the system down cleanly. Initscripts also contains the scripts that activate and deactivate most network interfaces. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


Handles the switching of various initialization files of emacsen. Initz handles the switching of various startup initialization files of emacsen provided for various environment. According to the environment (maybe emacs version, OS type or OS versions) Initz reads appropriate init files provided by the user in several directories, one for one environment. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


News transport system `InterNetNews' by the ISC and Rich Salz This is INN version 1.X, provided for sites which are not ready to upgrade to 2.X yet. New installations of INN should use Debian's inn2 package instead. The news transport is the part of the system that stores the articles and the lists of which groups are available and so on, and provides those articles on request to users. It receives news (either posted locally or from a newsfeed site), files it, and passes it on to any downstream sites. Each article is kept for a period of time and then deleted (this is known as `expiry'). By default Debian's INN will install in a fairly simple `local-only' configuration. In order to make use of the services provided by INN you'll have to use a user-level newsreader program such as trn. The newsreader is the program that fetches articles from the server and shows them to the user, remembering which the user has seen so that they don't get shown again. It also provides the posting interface for the user. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


News transport system `InterNetNews' by the ISC and Rich Salz This package provides INN 2.X, which is Debian's preferred news transport system for new installations. The 'inn' package still exists for sites running INN 1.X who are not prepared to upgrade yet. The news transport is the part of the system that stores the articles and the lists of which groups are available and so on, and provides those articles on request to users. It receives news (either posted locally or from a newsfeed site), files it, and passes it on to any downstream sites. Each article is kept for a period of time and then deleted (this is known as `expiry'). By default Debian's INN will install in a fairly simple `local-only' configuration. In order to make use of the services provided by INN you'll have to use a user-level newsreader program such as trn. The newsreader is the program that fetches articles from the server and shows them to the user, remembering which the user has seen so that they don't get shown again. It also provides the posting interface for the user. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


This is the INN feeder program `innfeed.' This is a program that sends a newsfeed to one or more remote hosts through NNTP. It can handle multiple connections to multiple remote hosts. It is an alternative to `nntplink' (of which there is no Debian package) or the inn-provided `send-nntp' (which is slow). From Debian 3.0r0 APT

innominate Bootable Business Card

A bootable rescue disc on a business card sized CD. Web site in German. A CD-based distribution. From LWN Distribution List


Extensible 3d modeler Innovation3D or shorthand I3D is a 3d modeling program. Besides basic polygonal modeling and support for model animation, it also features support for NURBS curves and surfaces. Innovation3D has an extensible design with the help of plugins. These plugins allow for support of a variety of file formats or may even extend the functionality of Innovation3D. A set of plugins is already available in the innovation3d-plugins package. If you would like to develop more plugins yourself, you should install the innovation3d-dev package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A data structure holding information about files in a Unix file system. There is an inode for each file and a file is uniquely identified by the file system on which it resides and its inode number on that system. Each inode contains the following information: the device where the inode resides, locking information, mode and type of file, the number of links to the file, the owner's user and group ids, the number of bytes in the file, access and modification times, the time the inode itself was last modified and the addresses of the file's blocks on disk. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


An inode is the address of a disk block. When you see the inode information through ls, ls prints the address of the first block in the file. You can use this information to tell if two files are really the same file with different names (links). A file has several components: a name, contents, and administrative information such as permissions and modification times. The administrative information is stored in the inode (over the years, the hyphen fell out of "i-node"), along with essential system data such as how long it is, where on the disc the contents of the file are stored, and so on. There are three times in the inode: the time that the contents of the file were last modified (written); the time that the file was last used (read or executed); and the time that the inode itself was last changed, for example to set the permissions. Altering the contents of the file does not affect its usage time and changing the permissions affects only the inode change time. It is important to understand inodes, not only to appreciate the options on ls, but because in a strong sense the inodes are the files. All the directory hierarchy does is provide convenient names for files. The system's internal name for the file is its i-number: the number of the inode holding the file's information. From UNIX Progamming Environment

inode number

a unique number associated with each filename. This number is used to look up an entry in the inode table which gives information on the type, size, and location of the file and the userid of the owner of the file. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


The Norwegian dictionary for ispell This is the Norwegian dictionary, to be used with ispell to check and correct spelling in Norwegian texts. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Data entered into a computer system to be processed by a program. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

insert mode

In vi, the mode that allows you to type new text in front of existing text in a file; terminate this mode by pressing ESC. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


Graphical debugger based on gdb Insight is a tight graphical user interface to gdb written in Tcl/Tk. It provides a comprehensive interface that enables users to harness most of gdb's power. It's also probably the only up-to-date UI for gdb version 5.0 From Debian 3.0r0 APT


install loadable kernel module 0 From whatis


copy files and set attributes From whatis


create or update entry in Info directory From whatis


expand a given keymap and install it as boot-time keymap From whatis


install a Master Boot Record manager From whatis


Used internally by the Debian menu system. It is a program to facilitate the generate the menu-related startup files for the various window managers etc. From whatis


create or update entry in SGML catalog file From whatis


[Linux community since c.1998] Common portmanteau word for "installation festival"; Linux user groups frequently run these. Computer users are invited to bring their machines to have Linux installed on their machines. The idea is to get them painlessly over the biggest hump in migrating to Linux, which is initially installing and configuring it for the user's machine. From Jargon Dictionary


install a new kernel image From whatis


Track installation of local software Installwatch is used to track the changes made during the installation of local (i.e. non-deb) software. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A file integrity verification program like tripwire Integrit helps you determine whether an intruder has modified your system. Without the use of integrit, a sysadmin wouldn't know if the programs used for investigating the system are trojan horses or not. Integrit works by creating a database that is a snapshot of the most essential parts of the system. You put the database somewhere safe, and then later you can use it to make sure that noone has made any illicit modifications to your system. Integrit's key features are the small memory footprint, the design with unattended use in mind, intuitive cascading rulesets for the paths listed in the configuration file, the possibility of XML or human-readable output and simultaneous check and update. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


One of the major areas of infosec, integrity is the area concerned with making sure that messages/information are "correct" and haven't been subtly changed or tampered with by an adversary. Analogy: We write the dollar amount on personal checks both as numbers as well as words. This prevents somebody from altering the value, such as adding an extra digit to the number in order to extract $1000 from you rather than the authorized $100. Key point: We use cryptographic hashes as a way of fingerprinting documents and detecting when they are changed. The two most popular hashes are SHA-1 and MD5. Key point: Typical attacks against integrity include modification, insertion, deletion, and replay of information. Contrast: The terms integrity and authenticity are widely used to mean the same thing. In other situations, they have subtly different meanings (especially law). The term integrity generally describes defenses against malicious alteration of a message once it has been sent, whereas authenticity also implies some validation of the sender of the message to protect against forgeries. Contrast: Another way looking at integrity is system integrity. The concern is maintaining the integrity of the computer itself, rather than a message that goes across the wire. In this context, the goals are to prevent files from being modified or programs from being installed on the system. One of the focuses of system integrity is making sure that legitimate, authorized users do not make unauthorized modifications to the system. Programs like tripwire check the integrity of systems by maintaining a table of hashes for all files, and detecting which files change. See also: Integrity is often mentioned along with other key security concepts such as confidentiality, authentication, and non-repudiation. From Hacking-Lexicon


Daemon to use the RNG on i810 motherboards This daemon feeds data from a random number generator to the kernel's random number entropy pool, after first checking the data to ensure that it is properly random. The i810_rng kernel module is required to use this package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A converter from NASM assembly language to GAS Intel2GAS is a converter that will convert assembler source files written for NASM to files that can be assembled using the GNU Assembler (GAS), on the i386 platform. It provides support for basic MMX instructions as well. From Debian 3.0r0 APT

interactive logon (network logon)

Microsoft Windows has two destinctive ways of logging onto a machine. An interactive logon is where you log onto your machine locally (sitting in front of it), whereas a network logon is the process of connecting to the file server remotely across the network. Normally, both logons happen simultaneously after entering the username/password only once, so users typically don't perceive much difference between the two logons. Key point: Network logons can be disabled for administrators. This prevents people from stealing passwords and remotely administering the machine. This makes security easier because the server can be controlled via physical security. Contrast: Unix has similar concepts. A local logon is through the "console". Often, root access will be denied to remote logons. Both Windows and Unix have the concept of remotely logging on via one user account, then using that account to locally upgrade to root/administrator. From Hacking-Lexicon

interactive processing

Performance of tasks on a computer system that involves continual exchange of information between the computer and a user; the opposite of batch processing. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


ick - Compiler for the Intercal language This package is an implementation of the language INTERCAL, legendary for its perversity and horribleness, designed by Don Woods and James Lyon, who have since spent more than twenty years trying to live it down. This version adds COME FROM for extra flavor. Comes with language manual and examples including possibly the entire extant body of INTERCAL code. This implementation was created by Eric S. Raymond during a fit of lunacy from which he has since mostly recovered. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


e-commerce and general HTTP database display system Interchange is a database access and retrieval system focused on e-commerce. It allows customers to select items to buy from catalog pages. The program tracks user information in sessions and interacts with a HTTP server through sockets. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Foundation Store, a sample Interchange catalog The Foundation store is a demo catalog which you can use to build your Interchange applications from. While the Foundation store is designed to be relatively easy to start with, it is still a full-featured demonstration of a number of Interchange capabilities. Once you understand the Foundation store and how it works you are well on your way to understanding the Interchange software. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Interchange administration interface (UI) With the Interchange administration interface, called UI, you are able to perform several useful operations like page edit, user's administration and view reports on an Interchange catalog. From Debian 3.0r0 APT

internet (Lower case i)

Any time you connect 2 or more networks together, you have an internet - as in inter-national or inter-state. From Matisse


1. [techspeak] n. On a computer, an event that interrupts normal processing and temporarily diverts flow-of-control through an "interrupt handler" routine. See also trap. 2. interj. A request for attention from a hacker. Often explicitly spoken. "Interrupt -- have you seen Joe recently?" See priority interrupt. 3. Under MS-DOS, nearly synonymous with `system call', because the OS and BIOS routines are both called using the INT instruction (see interrupt list) and because programmers so often have to bypass the OS (going directly to a BIOS interrupt) to get reasonable performance. From Jargon Dictionary


This tool automatically extracts translatable strings from oaf, glade, bonobo ui, nautilus theme, .desktop, and other data files and puts them in the po files for internationalization. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


utility scripts and assorted auto magic for internationalizing XML Automatically extracts translatable strings from oaf, glade, bonobo ui, nautilus theme and other XML files into the po files. Automatically merges translations from po files back into .oaf files (encoding to be 7-bit clean). I can also extend this merging mechanism to support other types of XML files. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A formal term describing the act of compromising a system. Contrast: intrusion prevention Protect the system, such as using access control. intrusion detection Second line of defense, detecting either failed attempts to compromise the system or often successful ones. intrusion recovery After a system has been compromised in a security incident, what steps need to be taken to recover the system (such as restoring from backups). Intrusion recovery is related to general disaster recovery. Contrast: physical intrusion Given enough time, somebody with physical access to a computer will be able to break in. One way would be to turn the power off and boot from a floppy or CD-ROM. Another way would be to remove the disk drive from the machine. local intrusion Users who can log on to the machine with one user account can often attack the system in order to gain root/administrator privileges. This is more often a concern for Unix systems than Windows. Note that even though it is called a "local" intrusion, the user may still be remotely connected to the computer. remote intrusion An intrusion where the attacker does not have any other access to the box except to be able to send packets at it. Most of what people think of "hacking" on the Internet is remote intrusions. From Hacking-Lexicon


Automatic IP configuration detection for laptops A utility to locate current network address via arp requests and perform heavy reconfigurations based on its findings. "intuitively" is intended for laptop users or people who use their machines in different networks all the time. It is meant to be run from the PCMCIA network initialization scripts or the command line. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Open Inventor is an object-oriented 3D toolkit offering a comprehensive solution to interactive graphics programming problems. It presents a programming model based on a 3D scene database that simplifies graphics programming. It includes a large set of objects such as cubes, polygons, text, materials, cameras, lights, trackballs, handle boxes, 3D viewers, and editors can speed up your programming and extend your 3D program's capabilities. For more information see http://oss.sgi.com/projects/inventor/. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


executes System-V style init script actions From whatis


A keyboard-friendly window manager with tiled windows Ion, based on PWM, is a keyboard-friendly window manager with a very text-editorish interface and no overlapping windows. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Resolve IPs to hostnames in web server logs This script is a drop-in replacement for the logresolve.pl script distributed with the Apache web server. ip2host has the same basic design of forking children to handle the DNS resolution in parallel, but multiplexes the communication to minimize the impact of slow responses. This results in a significant speed improvement (approximately 10x faster), and the performance degrades more gracefully as the DNS timeout value is increased. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


IPv6 packet filter administration From whatis


Restore IPv6 Tables From whatis


Save IPv6 Tables From whatis


IP accounting configuration and statistics tool Allows easy configuration of the Linux kernel's IP accounting features. It can also read this information from the kernel, store it and summarise it. If you use linux 2.3 or 2.4, you need ipchains compatibility in your kernel as ipac does not support the new kernel natively yet. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Dictionaries for ChaSen Dictionaries for ChaSen. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Utility to automatically add masquerade entries This program allows linux masquerading available in 2.0 series kernels to work with programs such as RealAudio which don't send out a packet on all ports they wish to receive on. For 2.2 series kernels see ipmasqadm instead. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


IP firewall administration From whatis


Network firewalling for Linux 2.2.x This package allows you to control how programs on your system may access the network, and how programs on other systems may access yours via the network. This package fully replaces ipfwadm by wrapping it for old fashioned users and for old scripts. Firewalling HOWTO can be found in doc-linux-* package. Linux ipchains is a rewrite of the Linux IPv4 firewalling code (which was mainly stolen from BSD) and a rewrite of ipfwadm, which was a rewrite of BSD's ipfw, I believe. It is required to administer the IP packet filters in Linux kernel versions 2.1.102 and above. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


inserts and deletes rules from the kernel's packet filtering section. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


restore IP firewall chains from stdin From whatis


save IP firewall chains to stdout From whatis


Dyndns.org client to register your dynamic IP address The Dynamic DNS service allows you to alias a dynamic IP address to a static hostname, allowing your computer to be more easily accessed from various locations on the Internet. This is a simple Python script to register your dynamic IP address using the NIC V2.0 protocol. The script is very easy to use and supports multiple methods for determining the external IP (parsing interfaces on the local machine, web based IP detection, direct support for devices from Linksys, Netgear, Draytek, Netopia, HawkingTech, Watchgard, Cayman, Nexland, ZyXEL, SMC, Compex, UgatePlus, DLink and Cisco). It also supports the dyndns offline mode. Starting with version 1.4.1 ipcheck uses https by default and will fall back to http if a timeout occurs. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


provide information on ipc facilities From whatis


provide information on ipc facilities From whatis


A bandwidth analysis tool IPFM counts how much data was sent and received by specified hosts through an Internet link. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


IP firewall and accounting administration From whatis


Linux 2.0.x firewalling tools Ipfwadm is a utility to administer the IP accounting and IP firewall services offered by the Linux kernel. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


IP firewall administration From whatis


Tcpdump-like utility that prints detailed header information. Ipgrab is a network debugging utility not unlike tcpdump except that it prints out detailed header field information for data link, network and transport layers. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


IP over IP Encapsulation Daemon This daemon provides an alternative to the kernel-resident support for IP encapsulation links. It is better suited for situations where there are many encapsulation connections to be managed, such as is the case for amateur radio interconnection of network 44. Also, because the daemon is outside the kernel, it provides an excellent environment for experimenting with alternate mechanisms for distributing encapsulation routing updates. If you need one encapsulation link, use the kernel's built-in support. If you need a lot of encapsulation links, give this daemon a try. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Securely initializes IP Masquerade forwarding/firewalling This package contains scripts to initialize IP Masquerade for use as a firewall. IP Masquerade is a feature of Linux that allows an entire network of computers to be connected to another network (usually the Internet) with only one network address on the other network. IP Masquerade is often referred to as NAT (Network Address Translation) on other platforms. By default, this package configures the system as a basic forwarding firewall, with IP spoofing and stuffed routing protection. The firewall will allow hosts behind the firewall to get to the Internet, but not allow connections from the Internet to reach the hosts behind the firewall. However, ipmasq now features a very flexible framework where you can override any of the predefined rules if you so choose. It also allows you to control if the rules are reinterpreted when pppd brings a link up or down. This package should be installed on the firewall host and not on the hosts behind the firewall. IP Masquerade requires the kernel to be compiled with masquerading support (please see documentation for specific kernel options required). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


IP Masquerading additional modules administration From whatis


Utility for configuring extra masquerading functionality Ipmasqadm is used to configure extra masquerading funcionality, usually provided by additional kernel modules. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A cursel iptables/iproute2 GUI ipmenu is an iptables/iproute2 GUI in cursel (an ncurses library), for all those of you who still prefer the console. It's very easy to use, yet powerful and flexible. You can configure both iptables (packet filtering, mangling, NAT) and iproute2 (routing, etc) with a single GUI! From Debian 3.0r0 APT


IPMI control tools This package contains ipmi_ctl, a commandline tool to query and manipulate the IPMI (Intelligent Platform Management Interface) functionality of an Intel-based machine. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The polish dictionary for ispell. This is the polish dictionary, to be used with the ispell program, version 3.1.04 and following. The dictionary contains roughly 140,000 roots, which expand to about 1,400,000 words. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


POP2 and POP3 servers from UW This package contains the POP2 and POP3 servers which were formerly part of the University of Washington IMAP package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


POP2 and POP3 servers from UW This package contains the POP2 and POP3 servers which were formerly part of the University of Washington IMAP package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The portuguese dictionary for ispell. This is the portuguese dictionary for ispell as put together by Jose Joao Almeida, <[email protected]> and Ulisses Pinto. See http://www.di.uminho.pt/~jj/pln/ for more information. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


IP protocols logger ippl is a configurable IP protocols logger. It currently logs incoming ICMP messages, TCP connections and UDP datagrams. It is configured with Apache-like rules and has a built-in DNS cache. It has been developed to replace iplogger. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


PPP daemon for syncPPP over ISDN If you want to connect to the internet over ISDN with an internal ISDN card, you will need this. Also needed for allowing dialins from Windows PCs over ISDN. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Trivial command-line integer print utility iprint is a simple utility to print out the octal, hexadecimal, and or ascii values of the characters fed to it on the command line. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Professional tools to control the networking in Linux kernels This is `iproute', the professional set of tools to control the networking behavior in kernels 2.2.x and later. At least, the options CONFIG_NETLINK and CONFIG_RTNETLINK must be compiled in the running kernel From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The iproute package contains networking utilities (ip, tc and rtmon, for example) which are designed to use the advanced networking capabilities of the Linux 2.2.x kernels and later, such as policy routing, fast NAT and packet scheduling. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


IP Subnet Calculator for console. The IP Subnet Calculator is a tool that allows network administrators to make calculations that will assist in subnetting a network. You give the network class and subnet bits and you get back the maximum number of subnets, maximum number of hosts per subnet, a bimap showing the breakdown of network bits, subnet bits, and host bits, the decimal and hexadecimal class netmask, the decimal and hexadecimal subnet mask and lists subnets and host information. CIDR support and reverse engineer the network information for a particular interface (e.g. eth0, ppp0). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


IP packet filter administration From whatis


IP packet filter administration tools for 2.4.4+ kernels netfilter and iptables are the framework inside the Linux 2.4.x kernel which enable packet filtering, network address translation (NAT) and other packet mangling. netfilter is a set of hooks inside the linux 2.4.x kernel's network stack which allows kernel modules to register callback functions called every time a network packet traverses one of those hooks. iptables is a generic table structure for the definition of rulesets. Each rule within an IP table consists out of a number of classifiers (matches) and one connected action (target). netfilter, iptables and the connection tracking as well as the NAT subsystems together build the whole framework. IMPORTANT NOTES: System security is a discipline that cannot be achieved by simply installing the iptables package -- the iptables package is NOT a firewall package. Also, misused rulesets can easily disallow you access to remote and local (yes, even localhost) network services. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The iptables utility controls the network packet filtering code in the Linux kernel. If you need to set up firewalls and/or IP masquerading, you should install this package. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


Restore IP Tables From whatis


Save IP Tables From whatis


Interactive Colorful IP LAN Monitor IPTraf is an ncurses-based IP LAN monitor that generates various network statistics including TCP info, UDP counts, ICMP and OSPF information, Ethernet load info, node stats, IP checksum errors, and others. Note that since 2.0.0 IPTraf requires a kernel >= 2.2 From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The iputils package contains basic utilities for monitoring a network, including ping. The ping command sends a series of ICMP protocol ECHO_REQUEST packets to a specified network host to discover whetherthe target machine is alive and receiving network traffic. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


The iputils package contains ping, a basic networking tool. The ping command sends a series of ICMP protocol ECHO_REQUEST packets to as pecified network host and can tell you if that machine is alive and receiving network traffic.ipv6calc is a small utility which formats and calculates IPv6 addresses in different ways. It extends the existing address detection on IPv6 initscript setup or make life easier in adding reverse IPv6 zones to DNSor using in DNS queries like nslookup -q=ANY `ipv6calc -r 3ffe:400:100:f101::1/48` See also here for more details: http://www.bieringer.de/linux/IPv6/ From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


a small utility for manipulating IPv6 addresses. ipv6calc is a small utility which formats and calculates IPv6 addresses in different ways. host -t any `ipv6calc -r 3ffe:400:100:f101::1/48` See also here for more details: http://www.bieringer.de/linux/IPv6/ From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Linux Virtual Server support programs The Linux Virtual Server is a highly scalable and highly available server built on a cluster of real servers. The architecture of the cluster is transparent to end users, and the users see only a single virtual server. This package provides some support programs necessary to implement a virtual server under Linux. With the addition of the mon and heartbeat packages it is possible to implement a complete high-availability solution for Linux. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Utilities to configure the kernel ipx interface. Utilities to configure the kernel IPX interface. The kernel has to be compiled with IPX support. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


IPX RIP/SAP daemon ipxripd is a RIP/SAP daemon program for Linux. It makes your Linux computer act as an IPX router. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (astronomy/imaging) IRAF is the "Image Reduction and Analysis Facility". The main IRAF distribution includes a good selection of programs for general image processing and graphics, plus a large number of programs for the reduction and analysis of optical and IR astronomy data (the "noao" packages). Other external or layered packages are available for applications such as data acquisition or handling data from other observatories and wavelength regimes such as the Hubble Space Telescope (optical), EUVE (extreme ultra-violet), or ROSAT and AXAF (X-ray). These external packages are distributed separately from the main IRAF distribution but can be easily installed. The IRAF system also includes a complete programming environment for scientific applications, which includes a programmable Command Language scripting facility, the IMFORT Fortran/C programming interface, and the full SPP/VOS programming environment in which the portable IRAF system and all applications are written. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The Interactive Ruby. The irb is acronym for Interactive RuBy. It evaluates Ruby expression from the terminal. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Undernet IRC Server daemon This is ircu, the Undernet Internet Relay Chat daemon, which allows interactive character based communication between people connected to this server with IRC clients. It is based on the latest stable version which can be downloaded from http://coder-com.undernet.org/. This version is compiled for network usage but it can also run standalone. You can modify it's behaviour with reconfiguring/rebuilding. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Internet Relay Chat client The ircII program is a full screen, termcap based interface to Internet Relay Chat. It gives full access to all of the normal IRC functions, plus a variety of additional options. This Version is able to display mIRC colors. It supports "/encrypt -cast" From Debian 3.0r0 APT


IrDA(TM) (Infrared Data Association) is an industry standard for wireless, infrared communication between devices. IrDA speeds range from 9600 bps to 4 Mbps. IrDA can be used by many modern devices including laptops, LAN adapters, PDAs, printers, and mobile phones. The Linux-IrDA project is a GPL'd implementation, written from scratch, of the IrDA protocols. Supported IrDA protocols includeIrLAP, IrLMP, IrIAP, IrTTP, IrLPT, IrLAN, IrCOMM, and IrOBEX. The irda-utils package contains a collection of programs that enable the use of IrDA protocols. Most IrDA features are implemented in the kernel, so IrDA support must be enabled in the kernel before any IrDA tools or programs can be used. Some configuration outside the kernelis required, however, and some IrDA features, like IrOBEX, areactually implemented outside the kernel. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


Web-based asset tracking system for IT departments and help desks IRM is a powerful web-based asset tracking system built for IT departments and help desks. It keeps detailed information about each computer, as well as a complete history and TODO repair list tracking. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A Multimedia Audio Jukebox application. With irmp3 you can control mpg321 (currently, other players are planned) to play songs, lists, and lists of play lists.. irmp3 features 'environments' that you can set to play a certain type of music, alarms, can be controlled over the network, via remote control (requires LIRC) and a number of other useful features, including LCD display and keypad input support via LCDProc. It is most useful for those building MP3 jukeboxes with remote or keypad controls. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


IRC file distribution bot iroffer is a fileserver for irc (commonly referred to as a DCC bot). It uses the DCC feature or irc to send files to other users. iroffer will connect to an irc server and let people request files from it. iroffer is not a script, it is a standalone executable written in c++. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


An IRC client from the author of yagirc, Timo Sirainen. It has a text, GTK and GNOME interface (with integration to the GNOME panel). Irssi's features include configurability, smart nick completion, DCC resuming, support for plugins and perl scripting. This package includes plugins, documentation, config files, help files and themes for the irssi IRC client. At this moment, for compatibility reasons, these files are usable only by irssi-gtk and irssi-gnome. Plugins, documentation etc. for the text-mode version are included in irssi-text. The GTK and GNOME versions of irssi haven't been developed since early 2000, and currently lack much of irssi-text's functionality. Other irssi packages are: irssi-text: text-mode version of the irssi IRC client irssi-gnome: GNOME version of the irssi IRC client irssi-gtk: GTK version of the irssi IRC client irssi-scripts: Perl scripts for irssi-text From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Russian dictionary for ispell This package contains a list of Russian words and an affix file to be used with a well-known ispell spelling checker. Dictionaries contain now over 90,100 basic words and produce over 892,000 related words From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Interactive System Activity Grapher for sysstat. This package includes the isag command, which graphically displays the system activity data stored in a binary data produced by a sar command from a sysstat package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


ISA Plug-And-Play configuration utilities. This program is suitable for all systems, whether or not they include a PnP BIOS. In fact, a PnP BIOS adds some complications because it may already activate some cards so that the drivers can find them, and these tools can unconfigure them, or change their settings causing all sorts of nasty effects. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The isdn4k-utils package contains a collection of utilities needed for configuring an ISDN subsystem. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


support for active ISDN cards and CAPI If you have an active ISDN card, you will need things like firmware and the means to load that firmware into that card. This is contained in this package. Also CAPI stuff is contained in this package (currently only certain active cards support CAPI). See /usr/share/doc/isdnactivecards/* for more information. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Start and Stop ISDN connections and display status. This is a small X based program that allows for easy activation and deactivation of the demand-dialing feature of the Linux-ISDN subsystem. It can also be used to initiate connections without using the demand-dialing feature. It displays a symbolized traffic light. When the light is red, no demand-dialing is possible; when it is yellow, demand-dialing has been enabled but there is currently no connection using any of the ISDN network devices; when it is green, there is at least one active connection using an ISDN network device. You can interactively switch between red and yellow/green by clicking with the left mouse button into the window; the right mouse button pops up a menu to select between different actions --- this can be used if you want to connect to different providers. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


ISDN eurofile transfer tool If you want to send / receive files over an ISDN line with the eurofile system, you need this package. Not used much outside of Germany I believe (and not much there either). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


ISDN connection logger isdnlog logs all ISDN connections, and can calculate the cost of calls. If sufficient data is available, it can even recommend which alternate carrier would have been cheaper for a given call. For countries where calls are charged per discrete unit, it can disconnect the line just before the next unit starts. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Most important ISDN-related packages and utilities. Note that for an external ISDN adapter, you do NOT need this package or any of the related ones. This is only for use with an internal ISDN adapter. Choosing this package will select the most frequently used components. The current version of isdnutils is split up into component packages, to make it easier to fine-tune what is installed; hardly anyone needs everything. However, it's not possible to automatically select what is needed This is a transitional package to ease upgrading, and choosing this selects the most important new packages. After upgrading, this package can be safely removed. The component packages selected by this are: isdnutils-base basic set of ISDN utilities. ipppd for networking over ISDN with syncPPP. isdnlog for logging ISDN calls (and much more). isdnutils-xtools for X ISDN apps (currently only xisdnload and xmonisdn) isdnvboxserver ISDN answering machine, things needed on the server system. isdnvboxclient ISDN answering machine, client side (vbox). Not selected (although dselect will suggest some) are: isdnutils-doc for extensive documentation (basic docs are of course included with each package). isdneurofile file transfer over ISDN with the special eurofile protocol. pppdcapiplugin a plugin for the normal ppp daemon that uses CAPI to communicate over ISDN. isdnactivecards firmware for mostly active ISDN cards, and other related tools. libcapi20 library package needed by CAPI applications (will be selected automatically when needed). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


ISDN utilities, the basic (minimal) set These utilities are the basic set of ISDN utilities that you need when you have an ISDN card installed. For complete functionality comparable to the old isdnutils package, you also need the following packages: ipppd for networking over ISDN with syncPPP isdnlog for logging ISDN calls (and much more) isdnutils-xtools for X ISDN apps (currently only xisdnload and xmonisdn) isdnutils-doc for extensive documentation (basic docs are of course included with each package) isdnvboxserver ISDN answering machine, things needed on a server system isdnvboxclient ISDN answering machine, client side (vbox) From Debian 3.0r0 APT


ISDN utilities that use X These are the graphical utilities for ISDN, xmonisdn and xisdnload. They provide, each in their own way, a visual indication of the status of the ISDN lines, so that it is directly obvious when there is a connection, for example. This has been separated out of the main isdnutils package so that if you don't run X but do need ISDN, you don't have to include the X libraries unnecessarily. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


ISDN answering machine, client and server Let your debian system be your answering machine! Messages can be accessed remotely, automatically emailed, etc. This package is a helper to install both the client (with which you listen to the messages) and the server (with which the messages are recorded) parts of the software. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


ISDN answering machine, client Let your debian system be your answering machine! Messages can be accessed remotely, automatically emailed, etc. This is the client part of the software, with which you can listen to the messages. Those messages are recorded on a system with the server part of the software (isdnvboxserver); that system may be elsewhere, as long as it can be connected to via a network. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


ISDN answering machine, server Let your debian system be your answering machine! Messages can be accessed remotely, automatically emailed, etc. This is the server part of the software. This is what needs to be installed on the system with the ISDN card. To actually listen to the recorded messages you need the client package (isdnvboxclient) somewhere, not necessarily on the same system. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


An interactive line selection tool for ASCII files iSelect is an interactive line selection tool for ASCII files, operating via a full-screen Curses-based terminal session. It can be used either as an user interface frontend controlled by a Bourne-Shell/Perl/Tcl backend as its control script or in batch mode as a pipeline filter (usually between grep and the final executing command). For more information, please visit http://www.engelschall.com/sw/iselect/ From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Test the integrity of an IP Stack with semi-random packets ISIC (and components) is intended to test the integrity of an IP Stack and its component stacks (TCP, UDP, ICMP et. al.) It does this by generating controlled random packets. You can use ISIC for testing if a firewall leaks packets, or how well an IDS functions. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The Spanish dictionary for ispell. This is the Spanish dictionary for ispell as put together by Santiago Rodriguez <[email protected]> and Jesus Carretero <[email protected]>. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


International Ispell (an interactive spelling corrector) Ispell corrects spelling in plain text, LaTeX, sgml/html/xml, and nroff files. [x]Emacs and jed have nice interfaces to ispell, and ispell works from many other tools and from the command line as well. No dictionaries are included in this package. Ispell looks in /usr/lib/ispell/default.{aff,hash} and in /usr/share/dict/words by default. Those files may be provided, respectively, by an ispell-dictionary package and a wordlist package. (You must have an ispell dictionary before you can use ispell; a wordlist is only required for ispell's (L)ookup command.) This ispell package supports either the "new-style" idict-<language> dictionaries or the "old-style" i<language> dictionaries. As of February 2001, only old-style dictionaries are available, because the dictionaries-common standards and package have not been finalized. When dictionaries-common and the idict-<language> dictionaries become available, this version of ispell will be able to use them. (For more information, please see the dictionaries-common package and ispell's Debian changelog). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


format of ispell dictionaries and affix files From whatis


Bash script to select a new ispell default dictionary. From whatis


The Swedish dictionary for ispell. This is the Swedish dictionary, to be used with ispell to check and correct spelling in Swedish texts. The dictionary contains approximately 120,000 words. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Synchronize a local maildir with a remote IMAP4 mailbox A command line application which synchronizes a local maildir-style mailbox with a remote IMAP4 mailbox, suitable for use in IMAP-disconnected mode. Multiple copies of the remote IMAP4 mailbox can be maintained, and all flags are synchronized. Features: * Fast mode for fetching new mail only * Supports imaps: (port 993) TLS/SSL connections * Supports STARTTLS (RFC2595) for confidentiality * Supports NAMESPACE (RFC2342) * Supports CRAM-MD5 (RFC2095) for authentication From Debian 3.0r0 APT


[Incr Tcl] OOP Extension for TCL - Run-Time Package. [incr Tcl] is an object-oriented extension of the Tcl language. It was created to support more structured programming in Tcl. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Simple shell for [incr Tcl] From whatis


Simple shell for [incr Tcl] From whatis


[Incr Tk] OOP Extension for TCL - Run-Time Package. [incr Tk] is a set of [Incr Tcl] base classes for creating mega-widgets. Onc such set of mega-widgets is provided in the [Incr Widgets] package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


[Incr Tk] OOP Extension for TCL - Run-Time Files. [incr Tk] is a set of [Incr Tcl] base classes for creating mega-widgets. Onc such set of mega-widgets is provided in the [Incr Widgets] package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Simple windowing shell for [incr Tcl] / [incr Tk] From whatis


Simple windowing shell for [incr Tcl] / [incr Tk] From whatis


Hebrew Package for the babel system and LaTeX2e A support package for the Hebrew language. Based on the old LaTeX 2.09 hebrew.sty and is backward compatible with it. A babel-based language switching interface is also supported. Includes Hebrew support for babel/LaTeX 2e (heblatex), Hebrew fonts, (hebfonts), examples of hebrew documents (hebexmpl) and documentation. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


[Incr Widgets] OOP Extension for TCL - Run-Time Files. [incr Widgets] is a set of high-level mega-widgets built using [incr Tk]. It has more than 50 widget classes, and can be used right out of the box to create various user interface components. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


notify user when mail arrives by blinking keyboard leds Ixbiff blinks the keyboard LEDs when new mail arrives. The keyboard LEDs used depend upon the daemon's configuration. For obvious reasons only three mailboxes can be checked. Currently, ixbiff is Linux specific and requires root access. Ixbiff supports the standard UNIX mbox format as well as qmail's Maildir format. From Debian 3.0r0 APT