S/MIME (RFC 2311)

S/MIME largely replaces PEM (Privacy Enhanced E-mail). MIME defined a common way that an e-mail message could contain binary attachements, and therefore integrates better into e-mail systems than PEM. PEM was never widely implemented, whereas S/MIME can be found in most popular e-mail readers. From Hacking-Lexicon

SAM (Security Access Monitor)

On Microsoft Windows 2000 (and Windows NT), all the user account information is stored within the SAM. It exists as a single file on the disk. The SAM is the primary target when hackers break into a system because it can be run through a password cracker. Key point: The SAM file is located in the path %systemroot%/system32/config/SAM However, a backup is also stored in the location %systemroot%/repair/sam._ as well as on any repair disk generated. (Note: if new repair disks haven't been created, then you'll likely only be able to see the Administrator's password there). Hackers usually go after the "repair" versions because they are not locked by the operating system. Tools: pwdump/pwdump2 Dumps the current password information using Windows registry calls. Must have administrative access for this to work. The data is written in a format for crack programs. samdump Reads the password information from the SAM file in a format suitable for inputting into crack programs. l0phtcrack The most popular utility for cracking Windows passwords. All these tools are available at http://www.l0pht.com/. History: The original version of WinNT allowed the password hashes to be easily retrieved, making cracking easy. In SP3, an optional utility called SYSKEY was added that encrypts the hashes. In order to decrypt them, the administrator needs to either type in the passphrase at boot time, store the passphrase on a floppy, or put the passphrase in the registry (dramatically reducing security, of course). Whatever way is used to boot the system, the keys are then stored in unencrypted format in memory, so administrative access can still read them (using the pwdump2 utility). SYSKEY is optional on WinNT, but is always running on Win2k. Key point: The PASSPROP and PASSFILT utilities can be used to enforce the choice of better passwords. From Hacking-Lexicon

SATAN (Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks)

A vulnerability scanning tool designed to hunt for many ways into a system. Much hyped at the time; people feared that it would give a powerful tool into the hands of hackers everywhere. In practice, it was a dud: it was much to "noisy", was already outdated by the time it was released, was impossible to setup, and hasn't been really maintained. From Hacking-Lexicon

SATAN (Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks)

Program designed to assess the security status of a computer or local area network (LAN) connected to the Internet. The program determines whether Internet-related software is misconfigured in a way that could render the system vulnerable to a cracker. The program is controversial because intruders as well as system administrators can use it to find loopholes. The controversy deepened when the program's authors, Dan Farmer and Wietse Venema, made the program publicly available through the Internet. From QUECID

SCO Linux

The SCO Group was formerly known as Caldera International. The company now provides a variety of Linux and Unix solutions. SCO is the North American UnitedLinux partner. Caldera OpenLinux 3.1.1 was released January 2002. SCO Linux 4.0, Powered by UnitedLinux was released at the end of 2002. Now it is no longer available, and moved to the historical section on May 28, 2003. Distribution development is not all that active. From LWN Distribution List

SCSI disks

SCSI (pronounced scuzzy) stands for Small Computer System Interface. SCSI is a ribbon, a specification, and an electronic protocol for communication between devices and computers. Like your IDE ribbons, SCSI ribbons can connect to their own SCSI hard disks. SCSI ribbons have gone through some versions to make SCSI faster, the latest ``Ultra-Wide'' SCSI ribbons are thin, with a dense array of pins. Unlike your IDE, SCSI can also connect tape drives, scanners, and many other types of peripherals. SCSI theoretically allows multiple computers to share the same device, although I have not seen this implemented in practice. Because many UNIX hardware platforms only support SCSI, it has become an integral part of UNIX operating systems. SCSIs also introduce the concept of LUNs (which stands for Logical Unit Number), Buses, and ID. These are just numbers given to each device in order of the SCSI cards you are using (if more than one), the SCSI cables on those cards, and the SCSI devices on those cables--the SCSI standard was designed to support a great many of these. The kernel assigns each SCSI drive in sequence as it finds them: /dev/sda, /dev/sdb, and so on, so these details are usually irrelevant. An enormous amount should be said on SCSI, but the bare bones is that for 90% of situations, insmod <pci-scsi-driver> is all you are going to need. You can then immediately begin accessing the device through /dev/sd? for disks, /dev/st? for tapes, /dev/scd? for CD-ROMs, or /dev/sg? for scanners. [Scanner user programs will have docs on what devices they access.] SCSIs often also come with their own BIOS that you can enter on startup (like your CMOS). This will enable you to set certain things. In some cases, where your distribution compiles-out certain modules, you may have to load one of sd_mod.o, st.o, sr_mod.o, or sg.o, respectively. The core scsi_mod.o module may also need loading, and /dev/ devices may need to be created. From Rute-Users-Guide


Simple Direct Media Layer (SDL) is a cross-platform multimedia library designed to provide fast access to the graphics frame buffer and audio device. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


Set Group ID: a file attribute which allows a program to run with specific group privileges no matter who executes it. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

SGID (set group ID)

The SGID permission causes a script to run with its group set to the group of the script, rather than the group of the user who started it. It is normally considered extremely bad practice to run a program in this way as it can pose many security problems. Later versions of the Linux kernel will even prohibit the running of shell scripts that have this attribute set.

SHA-1 (United States Government Secure Hash Algorithm, FIPS 180-1, ANSI 9.30-2, ISO/IEC 10118-3)

SHA-1 is a popular hash algorithm. It converts an input file or message into a "unique" 160-bit fingerprint. This fingerprint is believed to be "unique"; while it is theoretically possible that two inputs could hash to the same fingerprint, it is nearly statistically impossible. Contrast: SHA-1 is currently (year 2001) considered to be the strongest hash function available. It has a larger size (160-bits vs. 128-bits) and has underground thorough scrutiny without discovery of weaknesses (such as MD5). On the other hand, it is one of the slower hash algorithms. History: SHA-1 is a slight variation of SHA. It adds a one-bit shift at one stage in order to overcome a theoretical weakness. SHA was based upon MD4, enhanced to overcome known weaknesses and increase the length to 160-bits. See also: integrity From Hacking-Lexicon


Secure hypertext transfer protocol - developed by Enterprise Integration Technologies to ensure security with commercial transactions on the Internet. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

SHTTP (Secure Hyper Text Transport Protocol)

A secure, encrypted version of HTTP used for financial transactions and other private information sent via the Internet. From I-gloss

SHTTP (Secure Hypertext Transport Protocol)

An extension of the World Wide Web's HyperText Transport Protocol (HTTP) that supports secure commercial transactions on the Web. Secure HTTP provides this support in two ways by assuring vendors that the customers attempting to buy the vendors' wares are who they say they are (authentication) and by encrypting sensitive information, such as credit-card numbers , so that it cannot be intercepted while en route. Secure HTTP was developed by Enterprise Integration Technology (EIT) and the National Center Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), with subsequent commercial development by Terisa system. Netscape communications developed a competing security technology , the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol. The two security protocols are incompatible, and for a time it was feared that no single widely accepted security protocol would emerge. In early 1995, however Netscape invested heavily in Terisa Systems and announced that it would integrate Secure HTTTP and SSL to provide the Web community with a single security protocol that will work with any security-capable browser. From QUECID


/sig/ n. (also common as a prefix in combining forms) A Special Interest Group, in one of several technical areas, sponsored by the Association for Computing Machinery; well-known ones include SIGPLAN (the Special Interest Group on Programming Languages), SIGARCH (the Special Interest Group for Computer Architecture) and SIGGRAPH (the Special Interest Group for Computer Graphics). Hackers, not surprisingly, like to overextend this naming convention to less formal associations like SIGBEER (at ACM conferences) and SIGFOOD (at University of Illinois). From Jargon Dictionary

SLI mode

SLI means "Scanline Interleave"In this mode, two Pixelfx are connected and render in alternate turns, one handling odd, the other handling even scanlines of the actual output. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


Acronym for Serial Line Internet Protocol, SLIP is a serial packet protocol used to connect a remote computer to the Internet using modems or direct serial lines, SLIP requires an Internet provider with special SLIP accounts or a shell account a SLIP emulator such as TIA(tm) or SLiRP. From KADOWKEV


Serial Line Internet Protocol - A communication method that allows a personal computer to connect directly to the Internet using a standard telephone line. It preceded PPP as the means through which access to the Internet could be achieved. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)

A standard for using a regular telephone line (a serial line) and a modem to connect a computer as a realInternet site. SLIP has largely been replaced by PPP. From Matisse

SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)

Allows a computer to connect to the Internet using a modem and telephone line--similar to PPP. Users then navigate the Internet using software on their own computer. This is in contrast to using a dialup teminal connection, where a user is forced to navigate the Net using a text-based set of menus. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology

SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)

Predecessor of PPP. Allows a user to connect to the Internet directly over a high-speed modem. From Glossary of Distance Education and Internet Terminology

SLIP (Serial Linux Internet Protocol)

One of two standards specifying how a workstation or personal computers can link to the Internet by means of a dialup connection (the other standard is the Point-to-Point Protocol [PPP] . SLIP defines the transport of data packets through an asynchronous telephone line. Therefore, SLIP enables computers not directly connected to local area networks (LANs) to be fully connected to the Internet. This mode of connectivity is far superior to shell access (a dialup, text-only account on a UNIX computer) because it enables you to use the Internet tools of your choice (such as a graphical Web browser to run more than one Internet application at a time and to download data directly to your computer, with no intermediate storage required. From QUECID


Introduction This is the SMB HOWTO. This document describes how to use the Server Message Block (SMB) protocol, also called the Session Message Block, NetBIOS or LanManager protocol, with Linux using Samba. Although this document is Linux-centric, Samba runs on most Unix-like operating systems. This document is maintained by David Wood ( [email protected]). Additions, modifications or corrections may be mailed there for inclusion in the next release. Much more Samba documentation is available at the Samba Web site, located at http://www.samba.org/. There is a tremendous amount of information there; please have a look before asking for help! You also might try the comp.protocols.smb newsgroup. The SMB protocol is used by Microsoft Windows 3.11, NT and 95/98 to share disks and printers. Using the Samba suite of tools by Andrew Tridgell ( [email protected]), UNIX (including Linux) machines can share disk and printers with Windows hosts. The smbfs tools by Paal-Kr. Engstad ( [email protected]) and Volker Lendecke ( [email protected]) enable Unix machines to mount SMB shares from Windows or Samba hosts. There are four basic things that one can do with Samba: Share a Linux drive with Windows machines. Access an SMB share with Linux machines. Share a Linux printer with Windows machines. Share a Windows printer with Linux machines. All of these are covered in this document, plus a few other odds and ends. Disclaimer: The procedures and scripts either work for the author or have been reported to work by the people that provided them. Different configurations may not work with the information given here. If you encounter such a situation, please e-mail the author with suggestions for improvement in this document. Please note that for Windows 3.x machines to access SMB shares, they must have a TCP/IP stack and the Win32s DLLs. Both of these are available on Microsoft's Web site ( http://www.microsoft.com). As of the writing of this version of the HOWTO, Microsoft are reportedly requiring a subscription to the Microsoft Software Developers Network (MSDN) to download the TCP/IP-32 stack for Windows 3.x from their Web site. Since this software used to be free, many older copies are in existance and may be acquired from friends and user group contacts. From SMB-HOWTO


SMB is the protocol used by Microsoft for file and print sharing. SMB stands for Server Message Block, though that doesn't really mean anything. SMB runs on top of NetBIOS, though in Win2k it can bypass NetBIOS. History: SMB was originally developed for DOS machines. It was later upgraded so that OS/2 machines could act as servers for DOS machines. The protocol was later upgraded for Windows (Wfw = Windows for Workgroups) and Windows NT. Still later upgrades have been added for Windows 2000. This constant evolution and need for backwards compatibility has led to many security holes within the protocol. The most severe is the need for "LAN Manager" authentication. Key point: SMB is an application layer protocol and can run over many different transports, including TCP/IP. A common problem is that home-users enable SMB over TCP/IP, allowing anybody on the Internet to access their hard-disk. They should instead install a local-only transport such as NetBEUI for SMB, which will allow file access among local machines, but not remote machines across the Internet. Key point: SMB-sniffers can read the encrypted password info off the wire and send them to password crackers. From Hacking-Lexicon

SMDS (Switched Multimegabit Data Service)

A standard for very high-speed data transfer. From Matisse

SME Server

Once known as e-smith, this server and gateway distribution is now owned by Mitel Networks, and called SME Server. Mitel released version 5.5 of the SME Server on July 3, 2002. The SME Server version 5.6 developer release came out January 15, 2003. SME Server 6.0 Beta 2 developer release came out June 20, 2003. From LWN Distribution List

SMP (Symmetric Multi-Processing)

From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


An acronym for Simple Mail Transport Protocol, which defines the mechanism for exchanging mail across a network. This protocol is described in RFC number 821. From KADOWKEV

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

Key point: Virtually all e-mail exchanged on the Internet is through SMTP. Key point: The most common exploits for SMTP involve spammers trying to relay mail through high-speed mail servers. From Hacking-Lexicon

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

SMTP is the Internet standard for the transferring of electronic mail messages. An SMTP server acts as a central 'post office' for addressing mail to all users within wide area and local area networks. From Faculty-of-Education

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)

The main protocol used to send electronic mail from server to server on the Internet. SMTP is defined in RFC 821 and modified by many later RFC's. From Matisse


Simple Network Management Protocol. An Internet protocol. Allows nodes to determine which services another nodes offer. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)

A method for keeping track of various hardware devices, such as printers, connected to a network. SNMP can tell network administrators when printers are low on paper or toner, or when a paper jam has occurred. SNMP seems destined to be replaced by die Microsoft at Work standard or the Desktop Management Interface (DMI) standard. From QUECID

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)

A set of standards for communication with devices connected to a TCP/IP network. Examples of these devices include routers, hubs, and switches.

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)

The Internet infrastructure is composed of lots of hardware scattered around the place. SNMP is the method that allows someone to "manage" all that equipment. By the word "manage" I mean do things like monitor the amount of traffic flowing through the equipment, trigger when faults occur, change the configuration of equipment remotely, and so forth. Key point: Most equipment comes with default passwords (aka. community strings) of public and private. These allow you to read information from the device (traffic, temperature, voltage, etc.) and re-configure it. Key point: A common technique is to traceroute to a victim's dial-up machine thereby discovering the IP address of the hardware they've dialed into. Then, you can send SNMP commands with the "private" community strings telling the hardware to hang-up on the victim. Also, spammers have used this technique to find the true login name of the user. From Hacking-Lexicon

SNMP is defined in RFC 1089. From Matisse

SOA (Start of Authority)

In DNS, the SOA record is the "root" record for a domain (or "zone"). Hack: If you control the SOA for a reverse mapping, you can spoof the reverse lookup for an IP address. Let's say that you controlled the DNS server for, you can choose to return any domain name you want. This can be used to subvert a number of systems that rely upon reverse lookups, such as older /etc/hosts.equiv files (specifically, the older istrusted() function call). From Hacking-Lexicon


SOCKS is a service that allows internal machines behind a firewall/proxy/gateway access to the Internet. Rather than talking to the target machine, clients communicate with the SOCKS server and ask it to relay data to the target machine out on the Internet. Most web-browsers and FTP clients have SOCKS support built in; SOCKS clients can also be installed on client computers to automatically redirect traffic through the socks gateway. Key point: SOCKS servers are frequently misconfigured allowing both outside and inside people to use them. This means that if a hacker wants to hide where they come from, the hacker scans the Internet for SOCKS proxies, then funnel their data through the proxies they find. When victims trace back to the hacker's IP address, they find the open SOCKS server instead. Key point: Abuse through SOCKS servers has become so common on IRC networks that many of them (dalnet, undernet) have begun scanning clients to see if they are running an open SOCKS proxy. They deny access to anybody coming into the networks through such a proxy. Note that users can still use closed proxies (i.e. those available only to internal users). Key point: SOCKS servers listen by default on TCP port 1080. Real world: Most browsers support SOCKS, which you can see in the "proxy" settings configuration tab. You can download generic SOCKS clients and servers from http://www.socks.nec.com/. SOCKS v5 is specified in RFRC 1928. From Hacking-Lexicon

SOT Linux

SOT Finnish Software Engineering Ltd. provides a very popular distribution (once known as Best Linux) with excellent language support for many languages. SOT Linux 2002 was released April 24, 2002. From LWN Distribution List


Structured Query Language is a language for manipulating data in relational databases. It has a very simple grammar and is a standard with wide industry support. SQL-based databases have become the core of the classical client/server database concept. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

SQL (Structured Query Language)

A specialized language for sending queries to databases. Most industrial-strength and many smaller database applications can be addressed using SQL. Each specific application will have its own slightly different version of SQL implementing features unique to that application, but all SQL-capable databases support a common subset of SQL. A example of an SQl statement is: SELECT name,email FROM people_table WHERE contry='uk'. From Matisse

SQL (Structured Query Language)

In database management systems, an IBM-developed query language widely used in mainframe and minicomputer systems. SQL is gaining acceptance on local area networks (LANs). SQL is an elegant and concise query language with only 30 commands. The four basic Commands (SELECT, UPDATE, DELETE, and INSERT) correspond to the four basic function d data manipulation (data retrieval data modification, data deletion, and data insertion, respectively). SQL queries approximate the structure of an English natural-language query. A data table consisting of columns (corresponding to data fields and rows (corresponding to data records) displays a query's results. See table oriented database management program. From QUECID

SQL (Structured Query Language)

The language used for manipulating records and fields (rows and columns) in a relational database. Sometimes erroneously pronounced "sequel". From I-gloss


The Secure Shell, or SSH, provides a way of running command line and graphical applications, and transferring files, over an encrypted connection, all that will be seen is junk. It is both a protocol and a suite of small command line applications, which can be used for various functions. SSH replaces the old Telnet application, and can be used for secure remote administration of machines across the Internet. However, it also has other features. SSH increases the ease of running applications remotely by setting up X permissions automatically. If you can log into a machine, it allows you to run a graphical application on it, unlikt Telnet, which requires users to have an understanding of the X authentication mechanisms that are manipulated through the xauth and xhost commands. SSH also has inbuilt compression, which allows your graphic applications to run much faster over the network. SCP (Secure Copy) and SFTP (Secure FTP) allow transfer of files over the remote link, either via SSH's own command line utilities or graphical tools like Gnome's GFTP. Like Telnet, SSH is cross-platform. You can find SSH server and clients for Linux, Unix and all flavours of Windows, BeOS, PalmOS, Java and embedded Oses used in routers. From Advanced Linux Pocketbook

SSI (Server-Side Includes)

From Rute-Users-Guide


Provides a "secure" (i.e. encrypted connection) between the web-browser and the web-server so that the data cannot be sniffed. SSL is used primarily for HTTP, but can also be used for other protocols such as FTP or Telnet. SSL provides three key features: digital-signatures to verify the identity of both the client and server, encryption to prevent the eavesdropping of data, and hashing to protect the integrity of the data. Key point: Web servers have a certificate signed by a trusted certificate authority (CA). This certificate allows the client and the server to generate random keys for the session and to exchange them securely (to defend against man-in-the-middle attacks). The generated random key is used to encrypt the rest of the contents of the connection, usually using RC4. U.S. export controls attempts to limit products used abroad to only 40-bits of key length, which can easily be broken. Key point: In SSL, the server first authenticates itself with the client (a technique that makes it more likely that e-commerce vendors are reputable). Therefore, if you want to set up your own SSL-based web server, you need to get a signed certificate from a CA. Furthermore, if you are outside the U.S., you will find it difficult to find one for 128-bits, though the Chaos Computer Club in Germany manages nicely. Key point: The chief reason SSL isn't used more widely is because it creates a huge performance hit on servers. In particular, the biggest hit comes from handling the public keys in the certificate, though normal encryption/decryption also plays a role. Hardware acceleration for both the public key cryptography and symmetric cryptography are becoming more and more popular. History: SSL was originally developed by Netscape to promote e-commerce. It is also known under the IETF standard name of TLS (Transport Layer Security) and the URL https://. History: In 1996, Netscape's implementation was found to be deeply flawed (i.e. crackable) because of problems in the random number generator. It seeded the generator with the time in seconds and milliseconds as well as the PID (process ID) and PPID (parent process ID). Since these numbers are easy to guess, it gives the random symmetric session key a complexity of roughly 20-bits, which can be easily be brute forced. Subsequent sessions are not re-seeded, which means the discovery of the PRNG seed only needs to be discovered once. Point: SSL allows the encryption algorithm to be negotiated (also known as the "cipher"). Some possible ciphers for SSL are: RC2 with 40-bit keys. RC4 with 40-bit keys. RC4 with 128-bit keys. DES with 40-bit keys. DES with 56-bit keys. Triple-DES with 112/168-bit keys. IDEA with 128-bit keys. Fortezza with 96-bit keys. Point: SSL handshake details: Negotiate cipher Exchange keys Authenticate the server Authenticate the client Authenticate previously exchanged data. From Hacking-Lexicon

SSL (Secure Socket Layer)

A protocol designed by Netscape Communications to enable encrypted, authenticated communications across the Internet. From Matisse

SSL (Secure Socket Layer)

An Internet security standard proposed by Netscape Communications and incorporated into its Netscape Navigator browser and Netscape Commerce Server software. Unlike its chief competition, Secure HyperText Transport Protocol (Secure HTTP), SSL is application-independent it with all Internet tools, not just the World Wide Web (WWW). Applications that use SSL use public key encryption to ensure that, while information is being conveyed through the Internet, no one can intercept that information. Netscape Communications has released the SSL specification to the Internet community as an open standard. Terisa Systems is currently developing a hybrid SSL/Secure H'TTP specification that ensures that any browser with security features can access any secure Web site. See public key cryptography. security The protection of data so unauthorized users cannot examine or copy it. Mainframe computer systems ensured security by keeping the computer and its mass storage media under lock and key, and allowing access only through remote terminals equipped with displays but no disk drives. Although some experts argue that personal computer local area networks (LANs) should be set up the same way, the excessive centralization of mainframe computer systems was one of the main reasons for the development of personal computers. Concern for security shouldn't prevent a manager from distributing computing power-and computing autonomy-to subordinates. Sufficiently advanced data encryption and password-protection schemes can foil even the most skilled and determined hacker. From QUECID


Standard error. A special type of output used for error messages. The file descriptor for STDERR is 2.


Standard input. User input is read from STDIN. The file descriptor for STDIN is 0.


Standard output. The output of scripts is usually to STDOUT. The file descriptor for STDOUT is 1.


Set User ID: a file attribute which allows a program to run as a specific user no matter who executes it. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

SUID (set user ID)

The SUID permission causes a script to run as the user who is the owner of the script, rather than the user who started it. It is normally considered extremely bad practice to run a program in this way as it can pose many security problems. Later versions of the Linux kernel will even prohibit the running of shell scripts that have this attribute set.


The first packet sent across a TCP connection is known as a "SYN" or "synchronize" packet. For example, when you contact http://www.robertgraham.com, the first packet your systems out will be a SYN packet to the HTTP port 80 on www.robertgraham.com. Your browser is telling the web server that it wants to connect. Key point: Most packet-filtering firewalls work by blocking the SYN packets. This stops connections from being initiated. You can still scan behind these firewalls using ACK or FIN packets, but you will not be able to connect to any of those machines. See also: SYN flood, three-way-handshake, TCP From Hacking-Lexicon

SYN flood

A SYN flood is a type of DoS attack. A SYN packet notifies a server of a new connection. The server then allocates some memory in order to handle the incoming connection, sends back an acknowledgement, then waits for the client to complete the connection and start sending data. By spoofing large numbers of SYN requests, an attacker can fill up memory on the server, which will sit their waiting for more data that never will arrive. Once memory has filled up, the server will be unable to accept connections from legitimate clients. This effectively disables the server. Key point: SYN floods exploit a flaw in the core of the TCP/IP technology itself. There is no complete defense against this attack. There are, however, partial defenses. Servers can be configured to reserve more memory and decrease the amount of time they wait for connections to complete. Likewise, routers and firewalls can filter out some of the spoofed SYN packets. Finally, there are techniques (such as "SYN cookies") that can play tricks with the protocol in order to help distinguish good SYNs from bad ones. From Hacking-Lexicon


A lot of emphasis has been placed on peaceful coexistence between UNIX and Windows. Unfortunately, the two systems come from very different cultures and they have difficulty getting along without mediation. ...and that, of course, is Samba's job. Samba <http://samba.org/> runs on UNIX platforms, but speaks to Windows clients like a native. It allows a UNIX system to move into a Windows ``Network Neighborhood'' without causing a stir. Windows users can happily access file and print services without knowing or caring that those services are being offered by a UNIX host. All of this is managed through a protocol suite which is currently known as the ``Common Internet File System,'' or CIFS <http://www.cifs.com>. This name was introduced by Microsoft, and provides some insight into their hopes for the future. At the heart of CIFS is the latest incarnation of the Server Message Block (SMB) protocol, which has a long and tedious history. Samba is an open source CIFS implementation, and is available for free from the http://samba.org/ mirror sites. Samba and Windows are not the only ones to provide CIFS networking. OS/2 supports SMB file and print sharing, and there are commercial CIFS products for Macintosh and other platforms (including several others for UNIX). Samba has been ported to a variety of non-UNIX operating systems, including VMS, AmigaOS, and NetWare. CIFS is also supported on dedicated file server platforms from a variety of vendors. In other words, this stuff is all over the place. From Rute-Users-Guide


Samba adds Windows-networking support to UNIX. Whereas NFS is the most popular protocol for sharing files among UNIX machines, SMB is the most popular protocol for sharing files among Windows machines. The Samba package adds the ability for UNIX systems to interact with Windows systems. Key point: The Samba package comprises the following: smbd The Samba service allowing other machines (often Windows) to read files from a UNIX machine. nmbd Provides support for NetBIOS. Logically, the SMB protocol is layered on top of NetBIOS, which is in turn layered on top of TCP/IP. smbmount An extension to the mount program that allows a UNIX machine to connect to another machine implicitly. Files can be accessed as if they were located on the local machines. smbclient Allows files to be access through SMB in an explicity manner. This is a command-line tool much like the FTP tool that allows files to be copied. Unlike smbmount, files cannot be accessed as if they were local. smb.conf The configuration file for Samba. From Hacking-Lexicon


a suite of programs which work together to allow clients to access to a server's filespace and printers via the SMB (Session Message Block) protocol. This means that you can redirect disks and printers to Unix disks and printers from Lan Manager clients, Windows for Workgroups 3.11 clients, Windows NT clients, Linux clients and OS/2 clients. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

Sampling rate

The frequency with which a recording device, such as a sound board, takes readings of the sound it is recording. High-quality sound boards, like the equipment used to record audio compact disks, hae sampling rates of 44.1 kilohertz (KHz) or higher. Although sound boards with lower sampling rates might be adequate for recording simple noises or even voice clips, they are not adequate for recording music. From QUECID

Scalable font

A screen or printer font that you can enlarge or reduce to any size, within a specified range, without introducing unattractive distortions. Outline font technology is most commonly used to provide scalable fonts, but other technologies - including stroke fonts, which form characters from a matrix of lines - are sometimes used. From QUECID


A small, uniform Lisp dialect with clean semantics, developed initially by Guy Steele and Gerald Sussman in 1975. Scheme uses applicative order reduction and is lexically scoped. It treats both functions and continuations as first-class objects. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


A set of commands stored in a file. Used for automated, repetitive, execution. (Also, see RC File.) From I-gloss


Scrudgeware is currently under development. As a GNU/Linux distribution, ScrudgeWare is being designed with several goals in mind. First and foremost is to be built 100% from GPL (or other freely licensed) software. Second, NO BLOAT. Scrudgeware will try to build a simple ("bare bones") system on which the user can add any software they choose. From LWN Distribution List

Scyld Beowulf

The Scyld Beowulf Cluster Operating System software distribution is the second generation of Beowulf clustering. The system advances clustering technology, providing significant benefits over existing systems. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. From LWN Distribution List

Search Engine

A (usually web-based) system for searching the information available on the Web. Some search engines work by automatically searching the contents of other systems and creating a database of the results. other search engines contains only material manually approved for inclusion in a database, and some combine the two approaches. From Matisse


A segment of one of the concentric tracks encoded on a floppy or hard disk during a low-level format. In IBM PC-compatible computing, a sector usually contains 512 bytes of information. See cluster. From QUECID

Securepoint Firewall & VPN Server

The Securepoint Firewall & VPN server is a high end firewall and VPN solution for protecting your Internet gateway. Securepoint can also be used with existing firewalls and to protect interconnected locations or divisions and lets you create and manage VPN tunnels. Languages supported: English, German, Russian, and Korean. A 'secured' distribution. From LWN Distribution List

Security Certificate

A chunk of information (often stored as a text file) that is used by the SSL protocol to establish a secure connection. From Matisse


In a disk drive, to locate a specific region of a disk and to position the read/write head so that the computer can retrieve data or program instructions. From QUECID

Sentry Firewall

Sentry Firewall CD-ROM is a Linux based bootable CD-ROM suitable for use as an inexpensive and easy to maintain Firewall or IDS (Intrusion Detection System) Node. The system is designed to be immediately configurable for a variety of different operating environments via a configuration file located on a floppy disk or a local hard drive. Version 1.2.0 was released March 27, 2002. Version 1.4.0-beta2 was released October 25, 2002. A CD-based distribution. From LWN Distribution List


Little hooks on the ends of characters. For example, the letter i in a font such as Times Roman has serifs protruding from the base of the i and the head of the i. Serif fonts are usually considered more readable than fonts without serifs. There are many different types of serif fonts. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


A computer, or a software package, that provides a specific kind of service to client software running on other computers. The term can refer to a particular piece of software, such as a WWW server, or to the machine on which the software is running, e.g. "Our mail server is down today, that's why e-mail isn't getting out." A single server machine can (and often does) have several different server software packages running on it, thus providing many different servers to clients on the network. Sometimes server software is designed so that additional capabilities can be added to the main program by adding small programs known as servlets. From Matisse

Server optimized Linux

SoL (Server optimized Linux) is a Linux distribution completely independent from other Linux distributions. It was built by antitachyon from the original source packages and is optimized for heavy-duty server work. It contains all common server applications, and features XML boot and script technology that makes it easy to configure and make the server work. SoL 13.37 was released April 22, 2002 (initial Freshmeat announcement). Version 16.00 was released March 17, 2003. A diskless version, SoL-diag 1.1, was introduced March 3, 2003. A desktop version, SoL-Desktop 0.2, was released March 27, 2003. From LWN Distribution List

Serverdisk diskette distro

Serverdisk diskette distro is a Linux floppy disk distribution which includes FTP and HTTP servers. Just a small server, not intended to be a rescue disk or standalone firewall. The initial version, 0.1, was released September 19, 2002. A floppy-based distribution. From LWN Distribution List


A small computer program designed to be add capabilities to a larger piece of server software. Common examples are "Java servlets", which are small programs written in the Java language and which are added to a web server. Typically a web server that uses Java servlets will have many of them, each one designed to handle a very specific situation, for example one servlet will handle adding items to a "shopping cart", while a different servlet will handle deleting items from the "shopping cart." From Matisse


A complete interaction period between the user and the operating system, from login to logoff. From I-gloss


ShareTheNet lets you share your low cost Internet connection across your network. Using ShareTheNet, all of the computers on your network can do their own work on the Internet as though they have their own connection. ShareTheNet allows just about any network software to use the Internet and its ultra-secure. Distribution development is not all that active. From LWN Distribution List

Shared memory pixmaps

They are 2 dimensional arrays of pixels in a format specified by the X server, where the pixmap data is stored in the shared memory segment. See MIT-SHM. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


A form of commercial software, where it is offered as "try before you buy". If the customer continues to use the product after a short trial period, they are required to pay a specified, usually nominal, fee. (Also, see Open Source and Public Domain.) From I-gloss


A text-mode window containing a command line interface to the operating system. From I-gloss


One of several command line interfaces available on Unix machines, some common shells include Bourne shell, ksh, and tcsh. From KADOWKEV

Shell Prompt

The user input area of a shell. Whereas in a DOS shell the command prompt is designated by a Greater Than (>) symbol, in Linux it is usually a Percent (%) symbol, Dollar sign ($) or other special character, depending on the shell used. (Also, see Command Prompt.) From I-gloss

Shell Script

A script designed to be run automatically when a shell is started. From I-gloss

Shell Scripting

Shell Scripting and hence computer programming is merely the idea of getting a number of commands to be executed, that in combination do some unique powerful function. From Rute-Users-Guide


used to inform processes of unexpected external events such as a time out or forced termination of a process. A signal consists of prescribed message with a default action embedded in it. Each signal has a unique number associated with it. An example is SEGV, segmentation violation. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

Simply GNUstep

Simply GNUstep is a Linux/GNU distribution aimed at providing an OpenStep feeling from bootup on. This is a stripped down distribution, providing ease of use. (Think OS X for x86). InterimDeveloperRelease-1 came out on August 14, 2002. Version 1 was released September 9, 2002. From LWN Distribution List


Skolelinux is a Norwegian distribution for educational use, as a server with thin clients. From LWN Distribution List

Slackware Linux

The Slackware project is volunteer based and well established, with a loyal following. Supports x86 only. Slackware 9.0 was released March 19, 2003. From LWN Distribution List

Slackware Live CD

Slackware Live CD is a bootable CD containing a Linux operating system. It runs Linux directly from CDROM without installing. The live CD described here is based on Slackware Linux distribution and is downloadable as an ISO. There are also all the scripts and source code needed to build your own live CD. Version was released June 1, 2003. A CD-based distribution. From LWN Distribution List

Slash (/)

The symbol used in file pathnames, instead of the backslash (\) used in the DOS/Windows and OS/2 operating systems. From I-gloss

Small Linux

A Small Kernel Project; Small Linux has been used (console based) on a 386 laptop with 2 meg of ram and a 40 meg hard drive. Small Linux 0.8.1 is the current version, released December 6, 2001. From LWN Distribution List


A high-level declarative programming language and programming environment that treates computations as objects that send messages to one another. SmallTalk encourages the programmer to define objects in terms relevant to the intended application. The language is highly extensible because it enables you to create objects, which can be reused, quite easily. SmallTalk inspired HyperTalk, the software command language of HyperTalk, an application provided with every Macintosh produced since 1987. In this new guise, SmallTalk fulfills its goal of making programming more accessible; tens of thousand of Macintosh users have learned how to program in HyperTalk. See object-orientated-programming language. From QUECID


SmoothWall was first released to the world in July 2000 as a hardened internet firewall device. Products include Smoothwall Server and Smoothwall GPL. Smoothwall GPL 2.0 beta1 (metro) was released August 28, 2002. Smoothwall GPL 1.0 was released December 10, 2002. Smoothwall 2.0 beta 4 was released January 24, 2003. A 'secured' distribution. From LWN Distribution List

SnapGear Embedded Linux

SnapGear Embedded Linux is a 100% free distribution supporting several processors (with an emphasis, perhaps, on MMU-less processors - the principal developers of uClinux are at SnapGear). SnapGear adds development expertise, toolchain, library and multi-architecture support to create a complete embedded development environment. The initial release is dated April 16, 2003. From LWN Distribution List


An Internet address that combines an IP address (the four-part numerical addrss that uniquely identifies a prticular computer on the Internet) and a port number (which identifies a prticular Internet application, such as File Transfer Protocol [FTP], Gopher, or the World Wide Web [WWW]). See well-known port. From QUECID

Soft Links

To demonstrate a soft link, try the following: touch myfile; ln -s myfile myfile2; ls -al; cat > myfile; a few lines of text; ^D; cat myfile; cat myfile2; Notice that the ls -al listing has the letter l on the far left next to myfile2, and the usual - next to myfile. This indicates that the file is a soft link (also known as a symbolic link or symlink) to some other file. A symbolic link contains no data of its own, only a reference to another file. It can even contain a reference to a directory. In either case, programs operating on the link will actually see the file or directory it points to. One of the common uses of symbolic links is to make mounted (see Section 19.4) file systems accessible from a different directory. For instance, you may have a large directory that has to be split over several physical disks. For clarity, you can mount the disks as /disk1, /disk2, etc., and then link the various subdirectories in a way that makes efficient use of the space you have. Another example is the linking of /dev/cdrom to, say, /dev/hdc so that programs accessing the device file /dev/cdrom (see Chapter 18) actually access the correct IDE drive. From Rute-Users-Guide


This distribution was created by the original Sorcerer GNU/Linux author, Kyle Sallee. Sources are downloaded directly from software authors' homepages and mirrors. Then, they are compiled with the architecture and optimizations that the system administrator specifies. Finally, it is installed, tracked, and archived for easy removal and upgrades. Sorcerer has both both command line and menu driven package mangement programs. A public beta, not backward compatible with previous releases of SGL, was made available April 14, 2002. From LWN Distribution List


An operation that rearranges data so it is specified ascending or descending order, usually alphabetically or numerical. From QUECID

Source Code

Programming commands in their raw state as input by a programmer. Some programming languages allow the commands to be executed on the fly by a program interpreter. Other languages require the commands to be compiled into executable programs (binaries) before they can be used. In the UNIX/Linux world, some software is distributed as source code only; other packages include both source and binaries; still others are distributed in binary format only. From I-gloss

Source Mage GNU/Linux

Currently called Source Mage GNU/Linux, this project was created by members of the Sorcerer GNU/Linux team after that project was pulled by its creator in March 2002. Sorcery 0.1.3 was released into cvs on March 26, 2002. An up-to-date, working test ISO was released May 30, 2002. Sorcery version was released August 25, 2002. From LWN Distribution List

Source code

In a high-level programming language, the typed program instructions that progammers write before the program is compiled or interpreted into machine language instructions the computer can execute. From QUECID


A new phenomenon in the free software community is the SourceForge web site, http://www.sourceforge.net/. Developers can use this service at no charge to host their project's web site, FTP archives, and mailing lists. SourceForge has mushroomed so rapidly that it has come to host the better half of all free software projects. From Rute-Users-Guide

Spaghetti code

A poorly organised prorgam that results from excessive use of GOTO statements, making the program almost impossible to read and debug. The cure is to use a well-structured programming language, such as QuickBASIC, C, or Pascal, that offers a full set of control structures. See structured programming From QUECID

Spam (or Spamming)

An inappropriate attempt to use a mailing list, or USENET or other networked communications facility as if it was a broadcast medium (which it is not) by sending the same message to a large number of people who didn?t ask for it. The term probably comes from a famous Monty Python skit which featured the word spam repeated over and over. The term may also have come from someone?s low opinion of the food product with the same name, which is generally perceived as a generic content-free waste of resources. (Spam. is a registered trademark of Hormel Corporation, for its processed meat product.) From Matisse

Spectra Linux

Finnish company Probatus Oy makes Spectra Linux. Designed for workstation and server use, this distribution comes with lots of extras, including the Probatus Spectra SDK application development environment, which supports all most common operating systems. Initial public release on April 17, 2002. From LWN Distribution List


Splack is a volunteer effort set up to continue work on the now defunct Slackware Sparc port. They try to track the official Slackware for Intel tree, which is the original Linux distribution. Slackware is based on the KISS (Keep It Simple - Stupid) principle, which makes it easy to maintain for anyone with a bit of Unix experience. Not a lot of point & click setup tools here. Splack v-y1test was released September 30, 2001. From LWN Distribution List

Spool (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line)

To send data to a program that queues up the information for later use (for example, the print spooler). From I-gloss

Spool files

Systems services like lpd, innd, sendmail, and uucp create intermediate files in the course of processing each request. These are called spool files and are stored somewhere under the /var/spool/ directory, usually to be processed and then deleted in sequence. From Rute-Users-Guide

Stallman, Richard

The founder of the GNU project, launched in 1984 to develop the free operating system GNU (an acronym for GNU's Not Unix''), and thereby give computer users the freedom that most of them have lost. GNU is free software: everyone is free to copy it and redistribute it, as well as to make changes either large or small. Richard Stallman is the principal author of the GNU C Compiler, a portable optimizing compiler which was designed to support diverse architectures and multiple languages. The compiler now supports over 30 different architectures and 7 programming languages. Stallman also wrote the GNU symbolic debugger (GDB), GNU Emacs, and various other GNU programs. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


Stampede is a development project whose goal is to create the definitive Linux distribution for novice and experienced users alike. It aims to be fast, stable, secure, and to create new innovations and spur new growth of the Linux operating system in a world otherwise saturated with bloated, yet feature-lacking distributions. Stampede development has been on hiatus since March 1, 2002. From LWN Distribution List

Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)

A means of describing markup languages, such as the HyperText Markup Language (HTML), the markup language widely used on the World Wide Web (WWW) . SGML is an open, international standard defined by the International Standards Organization (ISO). From QUECID


The practice of hiding one piece of information within another. One example is putting an invisible digital watermark in a digitized photograph. From I-gloss


A sequence of characters, as in a "search string". From I-gloss

SuSE Linux

German firm SuSE Linux AG, is the European UnitedLinux partner. SuSE provides a variety of versions of its very popular distribution. SuSE Linux 8.2 became generally available April 14, 2003. For business customers SuSE offers Enterprise Linux 8 and SuSE Linux Desktop. From LWN Distribution List


SuperRescue is a single very large bootable system-on-a-disk. It's based on the observation that the vast majority of systems allow you to do so much more than the minimal system. Therefore, it isn't for everything, but for most desktop systems, it provides a much nicer rescue environment than your average rescue floppy. This version furthermore uses transparent compression to fit about 1.4 GB of software onto a single CD in usable form. A CD-based distribution. From LWN Distribution List


Usually synonymous with root operator. From I-gloss


The term used by newbies to descripbe exploring the Internet, usually through a World-Wide-Web browser, a metaphor from real surfing. From KADOWKEV


To temporarily move data (programs and/or data files) from random access memory to disk storage (swap out), or back (swap in), to allow more programs and data to be processed than there is physical memory to hold it. Also called Virtual Memory. From I-gloss

Swap Space

Where swapped data is temporarily stored on disk. Linux uses a dedicated disk partition for swap space, rather than a specific swap file. From I-gloss

Symbolic link

An alias or shortcut to a program or file. From I-gloss


To force all pending input/output to the disk drive. From I-gloss


The SysVinit package contains a group of processes that control the very basic functions of your system. SysVinit includes the init program, the first program started by the Linux kernel when the system boots. Init then controls the startup, running and shutdown of all other programs. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


The UNIX/Linux System Logger, where all system messages or errors are stored. From I-gloss

Sysop (System Operator)

Anyone responsible for the physical operations of a computer system or network resource. For example, a System Administrator decides how often backups and maintenance should be performed and the System Operator performs those tasks. From Matisse


System-Down::Rescue is a free downloadable live distribution. It is designed to recover damaged file-systems, copying the data around other physical discs or networks, or burning them on a CD-ROM, using cdrecord. It features a working hardware detection system. Initial version 1.0.0pre4 was released June 9, 2003. A 'special purpose/mini' distribution. From LWN Distribution List


Sed to Perl translator From whatis


Player for MOD and S3M music files This is a tracker music player. It is capable of playing S3M files in addition to 4,6, and 8 track MOD files. It supports dsp output and the Gravis Ultrasound. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Manage the output device on S3 Savage chips Depending on the Savage chip this utility can be used to switch between LCD, CRT and TV output. Additionally one can choose between NTSC, NTSCJ and pal TV signal format. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


An Object-Oriented Compiler Framework SableCC is an object-oriented framework that generates compilers (and interpreters) in the Java programming language. This framework is based on two fundamental design decisions. Firstly, the framework uses object-oriented techniques to automatically build a strictly typed abstract syntax tree that matches the grammar of the compiled language and simplifies debugging. Secondly, the framework generates tree-walker classes using an extended version of the visitor design pattern which enables the implementation of actions on the nodes of the abstract syntax tree using inheritance. These two design decisions lead to a tool that supports a shorter development cycle for constructing compilers. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


an XSL processor fully implemented in C++ Sablotron is an XSL processor fully implemented in C++. The goal of this project is to create a reliable and fast XSLT processor conforming to the W3C specification, which is available for public and can be used as a base for multiplatform XML data distribution systems. This package includes Sablotron binaries, which need libsablot0 to work. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Fighter plane simulator. SABRE is an on-going game development for the Linux Operating System, worked on as a labor of love by flight-simulation enthusiasts. For now, SABRE is focusing on the older jets and piston-engined fighters of the Korean War / Cold War era. Featured are F-86 SabreJet, MiG-15, F-84 ThunderJet, F-51 Mustang, and Yak-9. All of the planes in the game can be flown by the player as well as the computer pilots. This package contains the svgalib binary. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Fighter plane simulator. SABRE is an on-going game development for the Linux Operating System, worked on as a labor of love by flight-simulation enthusiasts. For now, SABRE is focusing on the older jets and piston-engined fighters of the Korean War / Cold War era. Featured are F-86 SabreJet, MiG-15, F-84 ThunderJet, F-51 Mustang, and Yak-9. All of the planes in the game can be flown by the player as well as the computer pilots. This package contains binaries and data common to both svgalib and X version of sabre. Homepage: http://sabre.cobite.com/ From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Login accounting Performs login accounting, just like the ac program but with totals, per day and per users. Also performs average usage and hourly profiling. Tons of other options. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


finger client wrapper that protects against nasty stuff from finger servers From whatis


safely copy stdin to a file safecat is a program which implements Professor Daniel Bernstein's maildir algorithm to copy stdin safely to a file in a specified directory. It can be used to write mail messages to a qmail-style maildir, or to write data to a "spool" directory reliably. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


the plan9 text editor -- ed with a gui and multi-file editing sam -d can be used without X (with an ed-like interface -- but with more powerful regular expressions, the capacity to edit multiple files with a single command, and unlimited undo). Files can be added to an exiting sam session using the B command. sam without the -d option is an graphical editor with pop-up menus and a point+click interface. You'll want to read sam's manual page to use the full power of sam, but you can probably figure out how to do basic editing with a minimum of trial and error. If you have a Plan 9 terminal, you can use the Plan 9 terminal with sam to edit unix files, but not vice-versa; the Plan 9 authentication scheme does not honor remote execution requests from a non-Plan 9 system. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A LanManager like file and printer server for Unix. The Samba software suite is a collection of programs that implements the SMB protocol for unix systems, allowing you to serve files and printers to Windows, NT, OS/2 and DOS clients. This protocol is sometimes also referred to as the LanManager or NetBIOS protocol. This package contains all the components necessary to turn your Debian GNU/Linux box into a powerful file and printer server. Currently, the Samba Debian packages consist of the following: samba - A LanManager like file and printer server for Unix. samba-common - Samba common files used by both the server and the client. smbclient - A LanManager like simple client for Unix. swat - Samba Web Administration Tool samba-doc - Samba documentation. smbfs - Mount and umount commands for the smbfs (kernels 2.0.x and above). libpam-smbpass - pluggable authentication module for SMB password database libsmbclient - Shared library that allows applications to talk to SMB servers libsmbclient-dev - libsmbclient shared libraries winbind: Service to resolve user and group information from Windows NT servers It is possible to install a subset of these packages depending on your particular needs. For example, to access other SMB servers you should only need the smbclient and samba-common packages. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Samba-client provides some SMB clients, which complement the built-in SMB filesystem in Linux. These allow the accessing of SMB shares, and printing to SMB printers. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


Samba-server provides a SMB server which can be used to provide network services to SMB (sometimes called "Lan Manager") clients. Samba uses NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NetBT) protocols and does NOT need NetBEUI (Microsoft Raw NetBIOS frame) protocol. Samba-2.2 features working NT Domain Control capability andincludes the SWAT (Samba Web Administration Tool) that allows samba's smb.conf file to be remotely managed using your favourite web browser. For the time being this is being enabled on TCP port 901 via xinetd. SWAT is now included init's own subpackage, samba-swat. Users are advised to use Samba-2.2 as a Windows NT4 Domain Controller only on networks that do NOT have a WindowsNT Domain Controller. This release does NOT as yet have Backup Domain control ability. Please refer to the WHATSNEW.txt document for fixup information. This binary release includes encrypted password support. Please read the smb.conf file and ENCRYPTION.txt in the docs directory for implementation details. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


Simple Algebraic Math Library A C library for symbolic calculations, accompanied by some application programs (samuel, factorint, induce), and Python bindings. The library provides an object-oriented framework for defining and handling mathematical types, and implements the most common data types of computer algebra: integers, reals, fractions, complex numbers, polynomials, tensors, matrices, etc. The application programs consist of an interactive symbolic calculator (samuel), a programming language (induce) and a program to factorize integers (factorint). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A "sandbox" is a mode of running a program that prevents it from having full access to the rest of the system. This is especially important for mobile code such as Java. A client can trust the code automatically downloaded from a web-site if the code runs in a sandbox and cannot harm the rest of the system. Key point: Sandboxes are being used more and more often for servers. This puts walls between different components that can help stop (or slow down) an intruder that has broken into one part of the system. The most important technique is to run services as a user account rather than an administrator/root account. For example, Microsoft's IIS creates a special user account (named "IUSR_XXXX" where XXXX is the system name) that the web-server runs under. When somebody breaks into the web-server, they still cannot gain control over the full system (unless they run some sort of local exploit in order to break out of this sandbox). Example: Example sandboxes are: user accounts As described above, running services under a user account prevents an intruder from gaining control over the entire machine. jail/chroot These utilities limit the view of the filesystem from a program. A program that runs under a chroot environment can only its own subdirectory, but no other parts of the filesystem. virtual machine The technique used by Java is to create an entirely separate "virtual" machine. A Java program has absolutely no access to the real machine except in a few places. A more extensive version of this is software like VMware or SoftPC that creates an entire virtual computer. Using VMware, you can boot a Linux or Windows virtual machine under the real machines. If an intruder compromises the virtual machine, he/she still cannot access the real machine. From Hacking-Lexicon


an alarm clock, which is designed as a sand-glass Sanduhr is an alarm clock for the X Window System which uses (and requires) the GNOME desktop environment. It has an extensive manual and a complete CORBA interface. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Scanner graphical front-ends This package includes scanner graphical front-end xscanimage, and xcam, for acquiring images continuously from cameras. An alternative to xscanimage called xsane is packaged separately. The scanner front-ends use SANE. SANE stands for "Scanner Access Now Easy" and is an application programming interface (API) that provides standardized access to any raster image scanner hardware (flatbed scanner, hand-held scanner, video- and still-cameras, frame-grabbers, etc.). The SANE standard is free and its discussion and development is open to everybody. The current source code is written for UNIX (including Linux) and is available under the GNU public license (commercial application and backends are welcome, too, however). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


SANE (Scanner Access Now Easy) is a sane and simple interface to both local and networked scanners and other image acquisition devices like digital still and video cameras. SANE currently includes modules for accessing a range of scanners, including models from Agfa SnapScan, Apple,Artec, Canon, CoolScan, Epson, HP, Microtek, Mustek, Nikon, Siemens, Tamarack, UMAX, Connectix, QuickCams and other SANE devices via network. For the latest information on SANE, the SANE standard definition, and mailing list access, see http://www.mostang.com/sane/ This package does not enable network scanning by default; if you wish to enable it, install the saned package and set up the sane-net backend. This package contains the backends for different scanners. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


find SCSI and USB scanners and their device files From whatis


SANE network daemon From whatis


The Anomy Mail Sanitizer - an email virus scanner The Anomy sanitizer is what most people would call "an email virus scanner". That description is not totally accurate, but it does cover one of the more important jobs that the sanitizer can do for you - it can scan email attachments for viruses. Other things it can do: Disable potentially dangerous HTML code, such as javascript, within incoming email. Protect you from email-based break-in attempts which exploit bugs in common email programs (Outlook, Eudora, Pine, ...). Block or "mangle" attachments based on their file names. This way if you don't *need* to receive e.g. visual basic scripts, then you don't have to worry about the security risk they imply (the ILOVEYOU virus was a visual basic program). This lets you protect yourself and your users from whole classes of attacks, without relying on complex, resource intensive and outdated virus scanning solutions. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A utility for displaying and processing astronomical images. SAOimage (pronounced S-A-0-image) is a utility for displaying astronomical images wich runs under the X11 window environment. Image files can be read directly, or image data may be passed through a named pipe (Unix) or a mailbox (VMS) from IRAF display tasks. SAOimage provides a large selection of options for zooming, panning, scaling, coloring, pixel readback, display blinking, and region specification. User interactions are generally performed with the mouse. Capability of reading IRAF 2.11 .imh files added. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A minimal but configurable X11R6 window manager Sapphire is a window manager for X11R6. It is fairly minimal in what it provides on screen: one toolbar, the usual window borders and a popup menu from the root window. It supports themes as X resource files, and the menu is editable. If you install the 'menu' package, you'll get an automatically-updated 'Debian' submenu of installed programs. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


An interpreter for AGI resources Sarien decodes and plays games written for the Sierra On-Line Adventure Game Interpreter (AGI) system, such as Leisure Suit Larry in the Land of the Lounge Lizards, Space Quest I and II, and King's Quest I to IV. Currently AGI versions 2 and 3 are recognized; support for older AGI v1 games is not available. You need the files from the original games. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Sash is a simple, standalone, statically linked shell which includes simplified versions of built-in commands like ls, dd and gzip. Sash is statically linked so that it can work without shared libraries, so it is particularly useful for recovering from certain types of system failures. Sash can also be used to safely upgrade to new versions of shared libraries. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


Stand-alone shell. sash serves as an interactive substitute for /bin/sh, for use when /bin/sh is unusable. It's statically linked, and inludes many standard utilities as builtins (type "help" at the prompt for a reference list). If you've installed sash before rendering your system unbootable, and you have some knowledge of how your system is supposed to work, you might be able to repair your system using init=/bin/sash at the boot prompt. Some people also prefer to have sash available as the shell for a root account (perhaps an under an alternate name such as sashroot) Configuration support is included for people who want this. Note: sash is not intended to serve as /bin/sh, and has few of the interactive features present in bash or ksh. It's designed to be simple and robust, for people who need to do emergency repair work on a system. Also note: sash doesn't include a built-in fsck -- fsck is too big and complicated. If you need fsck, you'll have to get at least one partition or disk working well enough to run fsck. More generally, sash is but one tool of many (backups, backup recovery tools, emergency boot disks or partitions, spare parts, testing of disaster plans, etc.) to help you recover a damaged system. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Programs for manipulating the SASL users database This is the Cyrus SASL API implementation. It can be used on the client or server side to provide authentication. See RFC 2222 for more information. This package contains common binary files for plugin modules. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Programs for manupulating the SASL users database This is the Cyrus SASL API implentation, version 2. See package libsasl2 and RFC 2222 for more information. This package contains common binary files for plugin modules. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


SMTP defence software against spam SAUCE (Software Against Unsolicited Commercial Email) sits between the Internet and your existing Mail Transfer Agent (e.g. Exim). It does a number of checks on incoming mail, including being able to blacklist senders and their sites automatically when they mail special `spam bait' addresses. This is an ALPHA version and should be used by experts only. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The University of Cincinnati's free VHDL 93 Analyzer This is the analyzer and intermediate representation for a free VHDL simulation system from the University of Cincinnati's Experimental Computation Laboratory. "scram", SAVANT's analyzer, converts VHDL into the AIRE intermediate standard form. AIRE is designed to be extensible by the user so that they can easily insert their own back ends. SAVANT includes a VHDLpublishing back end and a C++ publishing back end. The generated C++ can be compiled and linked against the TyVis library to allow end to end sequential or parallel simulation of VHDL. This version of the Debian package supports only sequential simulation - future releases should support parallel simulation as well. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Saves the current GNOME session (or terminates it) From whatis


save a log file From whatis


A highly configurable window manager for X11. Sawfish is an extensible window manager using an Emacs Lisp-like scripting language--all window decorations are configurable, the basic idea is to have as much user-interface policy as possible controlled through the Lisp language. This is no layer on top of twm, but a wholly new architecture. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A highly configurable window manager for X11 and Gnome. Sawfish is an extensible window manager using an Emacs Lisp-like scripting language--all window decorations are configurable, the basic idea is to have as much user-interface policy as possible controlled through the Lisp language. This is no layer on top of twm, but a wholly new architecture. This package contains the capplets to configure Sawfish in the Gnome control center, and the Gnome support. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Catalog support and wrapper the Saxon XSLT Processor This package provides a simple front-end to Saxon for processing XML source files with XSL stylesheets. Catalog support is provided by an extension class to Norm Walsh's Arbortext Catalog Classes. A wrapper script for general saxon usage is also included. This package works well for processing DocBook XML sources. Author: Jirka Kosek <[email protected]> Homepage: http://www.kosek.cz/xml/saxon/ From Debian 3.0r0 APT


speaks the current date through your sound card Says the current date and uptime through your sound card. Requires you have a sound output device available. Also includes au2raw, a sox wrapper which converts a .au file to a .raw file. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


speaks the current time through your sound card Say the current time through your sound card. Requires you have a sound output device available. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Steel Bank Common Lisp, a fork from CMUCL SBCL is a Common Lisp compiler with a transparent build process, that aims for correctness and ANSI compliance. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Smart Boot Manager (SBM) is a full-featured boot manager. Smart Boot Manager (SBM) is an OS independent and full-featured boot manager with an easy-to-use user interface. The main goals of SBM are to be absolutely OS independent, flexible and full-featured. It has all of the features needed to boot a variety of OSes from several kinds of media, while keeping its size no more than 30K bytes. In another words, SBM does NOT touch any of your partitions, it totally fits into the first track (the hidden track) of your hard disk! It's capabilities: * Automatically searches drivers and partitions * Powerful Boot Schedule * Booting from CD-ROM * Swapping driver ID * Auto Delay Boot * Sending keystrokes to the operating system * Easy Customized Theme file * Password protection * Y2k bug work-around for old BIOSes From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Tool for building Debian binary packages from Debian sources sbuild builds binary packages from source. It can do its work in chroots so both stable and unstable environments can be used on the same machine. It's also useful for figuring out a package's build dependencies. sbuild is part of the wanna-build build system used by most architectures to build packages for Debian. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Text-based spreadsheet with VI-like keybindings "Spreadsheet Calculator" is a much modified version of the public- domain spread sheet sc, which was posted to Usenet several years ago by Mark Weiser as vc, originally by James Gosling. It is based on rectangular table much like a financial spreadsheet. Its keybindings are familiar to users of 'vi', and it has most features that a pure spreadsheet would, but lacks things like graphing and saving in foreign formats. It's very stable and quite easy to use once you've put a little effort into learning it. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


scalable Cyrillic fonts This package includes Cyrillic Type1 fonts for the following font families: Times, Helvetica, Courier, Avant Garde, Palatino, New Century Schoolbook, Bookman Light and Teams. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


scalable Cyrillic fonts for TeX This package makes the fonts from the package scalable-cyrfonts available to TeX. It installs all needed TeX font metric files, virtual fonts, font definitions and some style packages. Please read the file /usr/share/doc/scalable-cyrfonts-tex/README.Debian. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


scalable Cyrillic fonts for X This package makes the fonts from the package scalable-cyrfonts available to the X server or font server. For proper reencoding it needs capable X server or font server. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Scalable Linear Algebra Package ScaLAPACK is the parallel version of LAPACK. It depends on PVM or MPI. This package provides the tester applications. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Scalable Linear Algebra Package ScaLAPACK is the parallel version of LAPACK. It depends on PVM or MPI. This package provides the tester applications. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Scalable Linear Algebra Package ScaLAPACK is the parallel version of LAPACK. It depends on PVM or MPI. This package provides the tester applications. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Test data for ScaLAPACK testers. The ScaLAPACK tester in scalapack-lam-test or scalapack-mpich-test need some data provided by this package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Scalable Linear Algebra Package ScaLAPACK is the parallel version of LAPACK. It depends on PVM or MPI. This package provides the shared libraries, it depends on the LAM implementation of MPI. Also included: PBLAS, Parallel Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Scalable Linear Algebra Package ScaLAPACK is the parallel version of LAPACK. It depends on PVM or MPI. This package provides the shared libraries, it depends on the MPICH implementation of MPI. Also included: PBLAS, Parallel Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Scalable Linear Algebra Package ScaLAPACK is the parallel version of LAPACK. It depends on PVM or MPI. This package provides the shared libraries needed to run applications. Also included: PBLAS, Parallel Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms. From Debian 3.0r0 APT

scan (scanner)

This word is overused to the point that it is frequently confusing what people are talking about. The problem is that a scanner can be either active or passive. Example: There are variations of virus scanners: background scanner Scans for viruses continuously in the background. on-access scanner Scans a file for viruses whenever it is accessed. on-demand scanner Scans the hard disk looking for viruses whenever told to by the user. From Hacking-Lexicon


Portscan detector for Linux. Scandetd is a portscan detector. By default, it logs incoming TCP connections to the host. If a second connection happens within 1 second, it too is logged to syslog. If scandetd recognizes this pattern as a portscan and sends mail to (by default) root@localhost. Scandetd will also attempt to recognize OS fingerprinting probes. It will attempt to determine the tool being used, at this point Queso or NMAP. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Generate summaries from Apache error logs This program allows people to parse Apache error_log files from multiple sources and present a summary of the frequency of error messages in one of a variety of different formats (text, html, xml, pdf). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


scan an image From whatis


A portscan detecting tool Scanlogd is a daemon written by Solar Designer to detect portscan attacks on your machine. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Mail scanner for Postfix This program is invoked from the .forward file of a user and scans the incoming mails for .vbs .exe .com .bat, and similar attachments. If a message is clean, it is inserted into the users qmail-style Maildir or it is spooled to the users mbox. Otherwise, it is bounced. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


scan/probe PCI buses From whatis


A CSV-based image sorter and verifier ScanSort allows one to sort and verify images based upon information contained in comma-separated-value (CSV) files. It is designed for use by those who collect series of scans from Usenet, the WWW, etc for which a CSV file containing the image names, sizes, CRCs, etc is available. In addition to its image-sorting capabilities, ScanSort can also help manage CSV collections, create lists of images for trading, etc. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


get SSH server versions for an entire network The scanssh protocol scanner scans a list of addresses and networks for running SSH protocol servers and their version numbers. The scanssh protocol scanner supports random selection of IP addresses from large network ranges and is useful for gathering statistics on the deployment of SSH protocol servers in a company or the Internet as whole. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


scan TV channels for stations This utility can scan a channel set for TV stations and write the ones found into a xawtv config file (which is also read by some other utilities like fbtv). It also tries to extract the station names from vbi data. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Chess database Shane's Chess Information Database is a chess database application with a graphical user interface. With it you can browse databases of chess games, edit games and search for games by various criteria. Scid uses its own compact and fast database format, but can convert to and from PGN. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Scientific graphics and data manipulation (Gtk version) SciGraphica is a scientific application for data analysis and technical graphics. It pretends to be a clone of the popular commercial (and expensive) application "Microcal Origin". It fully supplies plotting features for 2D charts. This package is non-Gnome version. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Scientific graphics and data manipulation (shared files) SciGraphica is a scientific application for data analysis and technical graphics. It pretends to be a clone of the popular commercial (and expensive) application "Microcal Origin". It fully supplies plotting features for 2D charts. This package contains shared files, like pixmaps and examples. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Scientific graphics and data manipulation (Gnome version) SciGraphica is a scientific application for data analysis and technical graphics. It pretends to be a clone of the popular commercial (and expensive) application "Microcal Origin". It fully supplies plotting features for 2D charts. This package is Gnome version. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


widget for scientific plotting The SciPlot Widget is a widget capable of plotting cartesian or polar graphs, including logarithmic axes in cartesian plots. The widget is subclassed directly from the Core widget class, which means that it does not depend upon any other widget set. It may be freely used with Athena, Motif, or the Open Look/Xview widget sets. (There is optional Motif support that causes the widget to be subclassed from XmPrimitive. See the man page.) Features provided in the widget include automatic scaling, legend drawing, axis labeling, PostScript output, multiple plotted lines, color support, user font specification, dashed lines, symbols drawn at points, logarithmic scales on one or both axes in cartesian plots, and degrees or radians as angles in polar plots. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Lightweight GTK-based Programming Editor GTK-based Programming with with syntax highlighting support for many languages. Also supports folding sections, exporting highlighted text into colored HTML and RTF. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


a collection of SNMP command line management tools The scli package was written in order to have small and efficient command line utility to monitor and configure network devices and host systems. The scli package is based on the SNMP management protocol and it utilizes a MIB compiler called smidump to generate C stub code. In fact, virtually no SNMP knowledge is required in order to extend the scli programs with new features. In other words, the slogan for this little package is: "After more than 10 years of SNMP, I felt it is time for really useful command line SNMP monitoring and configuration tools. ;-)" (description taken from upstream sources) scli replaces the stools package From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A gtk-based MUD-client. Sclient is a graphical MUD-client for X that tries to be small, fast, and to use as little CPU as possible. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Exchange data with Siemens mobile phones SCMxx is a console program that allows you to exchange certain types of data with mobile phones made by Siemens. Some of the data types that can be exchanged are logos, ring tones, vCalendars, phonebook entries, and SMS messages. It works with the S25, S35i, M35i and C35i, SL45, S45 and ME45 and probably others. You need a serial connection (either cable or infrared) to your mobile phone in order to use SCMxx. It basically uses the AT command set published by Siemens (with some other, additional resources). See the website http://www.hendrik-sattler.de/scmxx for details. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A replacement for Make Scons is able to build files from other files, based on the dependency DAG. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Interpreter for Adventure International games ScottFree reads and executes TRS-80 format Scott Adams data files. It is possible to run other formats either by writing a loader for that format or a converter to TRS-80 format. Most Adventure International Games are distributed as shareware and are available from ftp://ftp.gmd.de/if-archive/scott-adams/ From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The Scotty and Tkined Network Management Tools. Scotty is a set of Tcl extensions to retrieve status information about TCP/IP networks. The extensions include commands to send icmp packets a la ping, to lookup hostnames, to query the portmapper and mount daemons. Also included are generic tcp/udp extensions as well as commands to query the domain name service for a, ptr, hinfo, mx and soa records and commands to query ntp server. log messages can be written by using the syslog command. The perhaps most interesting extension is an interface to the SNMPv1, SNMPv2C and SNMPv3 protocols. Tkined is a small but nice network management station. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


secure copy (remote file copy program) From whatis

screaming tty

n. [Unix] A terminal line which spews an infinite number of random characters at the operating system. This can happen if the terminal is either disconnected or connected to a powered-off terminal but still enabled for login; misconfiguration, misimplementation, or simple bad luck can start such a terminal screaming. A screaming tty or two can seriously degrade the performance of a vanilla Unix system; the arriving "characters" are treated as userid/password pairs and tested as such. The Unix password encryption algorithm is designed to be computationally intensive in order to foil brute-force crack attacks, so although none of the logins succeeds; the overhead of rejecting them all can be substantial. From Jargon Dictionary


A GNOME website development environment SCREEM is a tag-based Web page editor which aims not only to aid in creating Web pages, but also to provide useful site maintenance facilities, including automatic link updating and site upload facilities. SCREEM has more than just the usual HTML tags, with features for including Javascript, PHP, cascading style sheets, etc within your site. It is written for use with the GNOME (http://www.gnome.org) desktop environment From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A terminal multiplexor with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation. screen is a terminal multiplexor that runs several separate "screens" on a single physical character-based terminal. Each virtual terminal emulates a DEC VT100 plus several ANSI X3.64 and ISO 2022 functions. Screen sessions can be detached and resumed later on a different terminal. Screen also supports a whole slew of other features. Some of these are: configurable input and output translation, serial port support, configurable logging, multi-user support, and utf8 charset support. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The screen utility allows you to have multiple logins on just one terminal. Screen is useful for users who telnet into a machine or are connected via a dumb terminal, but want to use more than just one login. Install the screen package if you need a screen manager that can support multiple logins on one terminal. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


n. [Atari ST demoscene] One demoeffect or one screenful of them. Probably comes from old Sierra-style adventures or shoot-em-ups where one travels from one place to another one screenful at a time. From Jargon Dictionary


screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal emulation From whatis

screen name

n. A handle sense 1. This term has been common among users of IRC, MUDs, and commercial on-line services since the mid-1990s. Hackers recognize the term but don't generally use it. From Jargon Dictionary


Document Production System Scribe is a programming language designed for the production of electronic documents. With Scribe one can: - Produce HTML web pages. - Produce PS files. - Produce Info files (documentation files suitable for Emacs). - Produce man pages (Unix documentation format). One may also: - Translate Texinfo files into HTML. - Upload Scribe page on an Apache server and dynamically expanse it into HTML when loaded by client. (This feature is not built for the current Debian version.) Scribe is implemented in Bigloo Scheme. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


a free software desktop publishing program Scribus is a free software layout program for GNU/Linux similar to a couple of proprietary programs from Adobe and Quark. Unlike other programs Scribus uses only Type1 fonts of the X-Server. Therefore there is no fiddling around with installing extra fonts. For this reason the number of fonts is a little bit limited, but you can be sure that your monitor shows exactly the same as the printed output is. Documentation for this package is available in either French, German or English. Please choose your appropriate scribus-doc-XX documentation package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


German documentation for Scribus Scribus is a free software layout program for GNU/Linux similar to a couple of proprietary programs from Adobe and Quark. These are the documentation files in German. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


English documentation for Scribus Scribus is a free software layout program for GNU/Linux similar to a couple of proprietary programs from Adobe and Quark. These are the documentation files in English. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


French documentation for Scribus Scribus is a free software layout program for GNU/Linux similar to a couple of proprietary programs from Adobe and Quark. These are the documentation files in French. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


make typescript of terminal session From whatis


Programs written to take advantage of a particular exploit. Key point: Elite hackers write scripts, script-kiddies run scripts. Misunderstanding: A lot of "scripts" are written in scripting languages like PERL, but a lot are distributed in C/C++ source form as well. Contrast: 0-day exploit. From Hacking-Lexicon


A free electronic cataloging system for documentation. It stores metadata specified by the http://www.ibiblio.org/osrt/omf/ (Open Source Metadata Framework) as well as certain metadata extracted directly from documents (such as the table of contents). It provides various functionality pertaining to this metadata to help browsers, such as sorting the registered documents or searching the metadata for documents which satisfy a set of criteria. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


ScrollKeeper is a cataloging system for documentation. It manages documentation metadata (as specified by the Open Source Metadata Framework (OMF)) and provides a simple API to allow help browsers to find, sort, and search the document catalog. It can also communicate with catalog servers on the Net to search for documents which are not on the local system. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


An advanced ircII-based IRC client ScrollZ is advanced IRC client based on ircII code. It adds features normally found in ircII scripts like Toolz, PhoEniX, GargOyle or Lice. The main difference between these scripts and ScrollZ is the code. Where ircII scripts take a lot of disk and memory space and run slow, ScrollZ only takes a couple of extra kilobytes compared to stock ircII client yet runs faster than any ircII script. This was accomplished by using C code instead of ircII scripting language. This reduces memory and CPU usage and code tends to run way faster. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


command line screen capture utility scrot (SCReen shOT) is a simple commandline screen capture utility that uses imlib2 to grab and save images. Multiple image formats are supported through imlib2's dynamic saver modules. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A `scheme' interpreter designed for writing system programs. Scsh has a high-level process notation for doing shell-script like tasks: running programs, establishing pipelines and I/O redirection. Scsh embeds this process notation within a full Scheme implementation. The process notation is realized as a set of macro definitions, and is carefully designed to allow full integration with standard Scheme code. Scsh isn't Scheme-like; it is Scheme. At the scripting level, scsh also has an Awk design, also implemented as a macro that can be embedded inside general Scheme code. Scsh additionally provides the low-level access to the operating system normally associated with C. The current release provides full access to POSIX, plus important non-POSIX extensions, such as complete sockets support. "Complete POSIX" means: fork, exec & wait, sockets, full read, write, open & close, seek & tell, complete file-system access, including stat, chmod/chgrp/chown, symlink, FIFO & directory access, tty & pty support, file locking, pipes, select, file-name pattern-matching, time & date, environment variables, signal handlers, and more. Please be aware that several of the other scheme implementations being distributed as Debian GNU/Linux packages also provide much of the similar system programming functionality. It is wisest to try them all and explore. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Add or remove SCSI devices by rescanning the bus. scsiadd allows you to add or remove SCSI devices without having to restart the computer. This is *NOT* a substitute for powering down to connect or disconnect hardware unless it's specifically designed to be hot swappable. Use it to enable the external SCSI drive you only use occasionally so is powered off when the machine first boots, or to rescan the bus after moving hot-swap drives around. scsiadd will also try to prevent you from doing anything to disrupt drive names that are in use. Similar functionality is available by echoing text to /proc/scsi/scsi From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Collection of tools for SCSI hardware management This package is a collection of tools for manipulating SCSI hardware: scsiinfo: displays SCSI drive low-level information and modifies SCSI drive settings, scsidev: makes permanent SCSI LUN -> devicename connections, scsifmt: low-level SCSI formatter, sraw: benchmarks raw SCSI I/O rates bypassing the buffer cache, scsistop: low-level SCSI drive start/stop program, scsi-spin: program to manually spin up and down a SCSI device. Be aware that these tools require some knowledge of what are they doing to be used properly, not causing damage to your system. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Small Device C Compiler SDCC is a C compiler for the Intel MCS51 family, AVR and Z80 microcontrollers. The package includes the compiler, assemblers and linkers, and a core library. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Micro-controller simulator for SDCC uCsim is a microcontroller simulator. It is extensible to support different microcontroller families. Currently it supports Intel MCS51 family. Atmel AVR core is working now and Z80 support is under development. This package also include the source debugger for SDCC. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Simple Document Parser SDF (Simple Document Format) is a freely available document development system which generates high quality outputs in a variety of formats from a single source. The output formats supported include PostScript(tm), PDF, HTML, plain text, POD, man pages, LaTeX, MIF, SGML, Windows(tm) help, RTF, MIMS F6 help and MIMS HTX help. If the idea of specifying documents in a logical manner via a simple markup language sounds appealing, SDF may be useful to you. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Emacs-Lisp program to view dictionaries Sdic is an emacs interface to English-Japanese dictionaries and Japanese-English dictionaries. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


GENE95 dictionaries for sdic (installer) This package installs the GENE95 English-Japanese dictionary to use with sdic. Although this package can install a Japanese-English dictionary derived the GENE95 English-Japanese dictionary, I would prefer to use the Japanese-English dictionary installed through sdic-edict. Before installing this package, you have to get gene95.lzh or gene95.tar.gz or gene95.tar.bz2. You can get these files from http://www-nagao.kuee.kyoto-u.ac.jp/member/tsuchiya/sdic/index.html From Debian 3.0r0 APT


find differences between two files and merge interactively From whatis


script to get information about the installed version of SDL From whatis


An Mbone Conference Scheduling and Booking System.(SDR) Sdr is a Session Directory designed for announcing and scheduling multimedia conferences on the Mbone - the multicast backbone of the Internet. Sdr is loosely modelled on sd - LBL's Mbone Session Directory. Sdr extends the sd model in a number of ways, particularly in the degree of detail about the timing and resources required by a conference, and in the provision of a much more flexible interface for querying the existence of sessions or of any sessions that may potentially clash with a new session. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A Gnome front end for GnuPG Seahorse is a Gnome front end for GnuPG - the Gnu Privacy Guard program. It is a tool for secure communications and data storage. Data encryption and digital signature creation can easily be performed through a GUI and Key Management operations can easily be carried out through an intuitive interface. From Debian 3.0r0 APT

search path

A list of directories in which a given user's commands may be found. Each time the user enters a command at the keyboard, the shell searches the list to find the command. You can execute only those commands that belong to the directories in your search path. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


Fly aircraft to Search (for) and Rescue people in distress. Tired of scores indicating things destroyed or lives snuffed? Try something different -- fly a helicopter around and rescue people in distress. If you were in trouble wouldn't you want someone to rescue you? This game is intended for players of all audiences, but especially for mature players who want to get away from the violence and still retain a level of precise challenge. Flight difficulty can be lowered for beginners (regardless of mission type), and graphics minimized to suit slower computers (minimum Pentium 166 with no graphics acceleration). This package has been configured to depend on libjsw for joystick support and libY2 for sound support. However, neither a joystick nor sound support is necessary to enjoy the game. http://wolfpack.twu.net/SearchAndRescue/ From Debian 3.0r0 APT


search Debian & Usenet archives & Packages files searchgoo searches Google's Usenet archives; similar in function to dejasearch. searchdeb & searchgeo search the Debian & Geocrawler mailing list archives. Geocrawler archives Debian mailing lists and many others. The advantage these have over the web page forms is they download message bodies unattended. ppack parses the Packages, available & status files to show orphans, packages that need updating, those that belong to a chosen maintainer, anomalies in package status, popcon results and more. Useful for keeping track of chroot status. diffdirs shows the files that are different in two directories, tarballs, zip files, debs or any combination of two of these. From Debian 3.0r0 APT

secondary storage

A nonvolatile storage medium such as a disk drive that stores program instructions and data even after you switch off the power. Synonymous with auxiliary storage. See primary storage. From QUECID


A Tcl/Tk GUI for SSH and SCP. SecPanel serves as a graphical user interface for managing and running SSH (Secure Shell) and SCP (Secure Copy) connections. SecPanel is not a new implementation of the Secure Shell protocol or the ssh software-suite. SecPanel sits on top of SSH software-suites and supports the commercial SSH and the OpenBSD's free SSH implementation. You may get information about these programs at http://www.ssh.com and at http://www.openssh.com respectively. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


PAM security policy configuration tool This tool allows you to manipulate the PAM configuration files for each "service" you have created to use PAM. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Views and sets PAM security policies. From whatis

security through obscurity

(alt. `security by obscurity') A term applied by hackers to most OS vendors' favorite way of coping with security holes -- namely, ignoring them, documenting neither any known holes nor the underlying security algorithms, trusting that nobody will find out about them and that people who do find out about them won't exploit them. This "strategy" never works for long and occasionally sets the world up for debacles like the RTM worm of 1988 (see Great Worm), but once the brief moments of panic created by such events subside most vendors are all too willing to turn over and go back to sleep. After all, actually fixing the bugs would siphon off the resources needed to implement the next user-interface frill on marketing's wish list -- and besides, if they started fixing security bugs customers might begin to expect it and imagine that their warranties of merchantability gave them some sort of right to a system with fewer holes in it than a shotgunned Swiss cheese, and then where would we be? Historical note: There are conflicting stories about the origin of this term. It has been claimed that it was first used in the Usenet newsgroup in comp.sys.apollo during a campaign to get HP/Apollo to fix security problems in its Unix-clone Aegis/DomainOS (they didn't change a thing). ITS fans, on the other hand, say it was coined years earlier in opposition to the incredibly paranoid Multics people down the hall, for whom security was everything. In the ITS culture it referred to (1) the fact that by the time a tourist figured out how to make trouble he'd generally gotten over the urge to make it, because he felt part of the community; and (2) (self-mockingly) the poor coverage of the documentation and obscurity of many commands. One instance of deliberate security through obscurity is recorded; the command to allow patching the running ITS system (escape escape control-R) echoed as $$^D. If you actually typed alt alt ^D, that set a flag that would prevent patching the system even if you later got it right. From Jargon Dictionary


Secure Virtual Private Network (secvpn) builds a VPN based on ssh and ppp as described in the Linux VPN HOWTO. (Please look there for further informations) All necessary routing on the secvpn hosts will be done by secvpn. Secvpn will try to reestablish broken connections automatically. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Sed (Stream EDitor) is a stream or batch (non-interactive) editor. Sed takes text as input, performs an operation or set of operations onthe text, and outputs the modified text. The operations that sed performs (substitutions, deletions, insertions, etc.) can be specified in a script file or from the command line. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


The GNU sed stream editor. sed reads the specified files or the standard input if no files are specified, makes editing changes according to a list of commands, and writes the results to the standard output. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


execute programs via entries in the mailcap file From whatis

seek time

In a secondary storage device, the time that it takes the read/write heads reach the correct location on the disk. See access time. From QUECID


a satellite location program Seesat5 uses the NORAD sgp4 algorithm to compute the location of a satellite. Many different filtering methods are provided by Seesat5 so that only those satellites that might actually be viewed are presented in the report. This report includes bearing and elevation with respect to the observer's location as well as other information of interest to the observer. Although an observer would find no use for it, the program can be made to report the location even when it is below the horizon. For radio satellites like the Oscar series knowing when it comes above the horizon is some of the interesting information this program can provide. From Debian 3.0r0 APT

segmentation fault

An error in which a running program attempts to access memory not allocated to it and core dumps with a segmentation violation error. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

segmentation fault

n. [Unix] 1. [techspeak] An error in which a running program attempts to access memory not allocated to it and core dumps with a segmentation violation error. This is often caused by improper usage of pointers in the source code, dereferencing a null pointer, or (in C) inadvertently using a non-pointer variable as a pointer. The classic example is: int i; scanf ("%d", i); /* should have used &i */ 2. To lose a train of thought or a line of reasoning. Also uttered as an exclamation at the point of befuddlement. From Jargon Dictionary


Fullscreen file-selection and execution tool sel displays a listing of files like a file-manager. You can move around using the arrow-keys and run a command given on the command-line on the selected file with the <RETURN> - key. If you've installed the terminfo- library delivered with ncurses, sel will use colors. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Insert X-Face mail header with viewing and selecting a bitmap. Insert X-Face Mail/News header with viewing and selecting a bitmap. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Select a window manager at X startup selectwm is a simple but robust program that will let you pick a window manager (or other executable) to run at X startup, and optionally after a window manager exits. It uses the GTK+ toolkit, and includes options like a timer to start the default window manager, and modification of the window manager list from within selectwm. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Policy config files and management for NSE Security Enhanced Linux /etc/selinux contains the policy files, checkpolicy will check the policy. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A lexer, parser-generator, and parser written in elisp The Semantic Bovinator's goal is to provide an intermediate API for authors of language agnostic tools who want to deal with languages in a generic way. It also provides a simple way for Mode Authors, who are experts in their language, to provide a parser for those tool authors, without knowing anything about those tools. The Semantic Bovinator is made up of these important pieces: - lexer: Converts a language into a token stream - parser: Converts a token stream into a stream of nonterminals defined by the language. - parser-generator: Converts a language definition into a table usable by the parser. (Written using the Semantic Bovinator) - Language Definitions: Parsers already existing for the parser generator language (Bovine Normal Form), Emacs Lisp, and C. - speedbar browser: Code for browsing a generated nonterminal list with Speedbar. - Documentation generator: Identifies inline documentation in source code, and can convert it to texinfo. It can also create inline documentation. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Library to provide MIME feature for GNU Emacs. SEMI is a library to provide MIME feature for GNU Emacs. MIME is a proposed internet standard for including content and headers other than (ASCII) plain text in messages. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Simple Asynchronous File Transfer Sendfile is an asynchronous file transfer service for the Internet, like the sendfile facility in Bitnet: Any user A can send files to another user B without B being active in any way. The existing standard file transfer (ftp) is a synchronous service: The user must have access to an account on the sending and on the receiving site, too. Sendfile for Unix, which is an implementation of the SAFT protocol (Simple Asynchronous File Transfer) now offers you a true asynchronous file transfer service for the Internet. Virtually any form of file can be sent, including encrypted ones. The SAFT protocol will be submitted as an RFC in the near future. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A commandline tool to allow sending arbitrary IP packets. SendIP has a large number of command line options to specify the content of every header of a RIP, TCP, UDP, ICMP or raw IPv4 and IPv6 packet. It also allows any data to be added to the packet. Checksums can be calculated automatically, but if you wish to send out wrong checksums, that is supported too. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A powerful, efficient, and scalable Mail Transport Agent. Sendmail is an alternative Mail Transport Agent (MTA) for Debian. It is suitable for handling sophisticated mail configurations, although this means that its configuration can also be complex. Fortunately, easy thing can be done easily, and complex things are possible, even if not easily understood ;) Sendmail is the *ONLY* MTA with a Turing complete language under the covers ! Sendmail provides Security and SPAM/UCE/UBE protection via several means: - STARTTLS(SSL) RFC2487 encryption for mail reception/delivery. - STARTTLS(SSL) authentication (certificate based) for access/relay control. - SMTP AUTH (SASL/PAM) authentication for access/relay control. - ACCESS database (by IP/host) for access/relay control. - Use of varied Realtime Blackhole Lists (RBL) to prevent access. - Integration of LOGCHECK rules to fine-tune logging. - Inboard POSIX Regular Expression processing of *all* headers. - Ability (via MILTER) to scan/change headers *and* body of *ALL* mail A site may utilize zero, one, or more MILTERs. - Reduced SUID exposures by running SGID smmsp/mail where possible. Sendmail provides Performance and Scalability by: - Allowing multiple queues, with the ability to tune both interval and queue runners on a queue by queue basis. - Providing (a Debian exclusive) an easy to configure means of queue-aging to improve throughput by not continually retrying failed deliveries. - Allowing most all maps/databases to be obtained via LDAP; reducing the number of used databases and simplifying the maintenance of Sendmail. - Reducing the file I/O where possible by buffering files in memory. Sendmail provides site enhanced site configuration/customization by: - Allowing the listener (usually port 25) to run as a daemon or via INETD. - Allowing the queue runner (mail delivery) to run as a daemon or via CRON. - Automagically updating configuration and databases on upgrades. - Providing a Turing complete language for site customization of mail handling. - Providing a means (MILTER) for a site to scan/change all email - both incoming and outgoing. A site can write their own MILTER, or may use any of those found on internet. To write your own MILTER, you'll need to install the optional milter-dev package. - Providing extensive documentation via the sendmail-doc (optional) package. - Providing an inboard Mail Delivery Agent (MDA) (mail.local), but supporting procmail, mailagent, maildrop, or deliver automatically if installed. Sendmail will also deliver to anythings else (cyrus, etc) if asked to. Sendmail includes *no* Mail User Agents (MUA), you'll have to pick from the plethora of available MUAs (pine, mutt, vm, etc.) This package supports REGEX, DB, NIS, NIS+, LDAP, DNS, HESIOD maps, and has enabled TCPWrappers, IPv6, LockFile, SMTP AUTH(SASL), STARTTLS(SSL). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Sendmail is a popular e-mail server package. By most estimates, well over half of all e-mail flowing through the Internet goes through a Sendmail system. Sendmail is open-source software. Key point: Sendmail is an MTA (Message Transfer Agent). This means that Sendmail only transfers e-mail to other MTAs. Client programs (like Outlook, Eudora, Pine) will use SMTP to hand e-mail to Sendmail for transmission over the Internet, but they can't use SMTP to read e-mail. Instead, when Sendmail receives e-mail destined for the local machine, it must hand it off to some other software package. In the most common situation, Sendmail will save incoming messages in mbox format to /var/spool/mail for each user, and other programs will allow users to retrieve e-mail from those files. History: In 1989, Morris Worm exploited Sendmail bugs as one technique to spread itself. Sendmail is an ancient software package on the Internet, which results in a high-degree of complexity for backwards compatibility. From Hacking-Lexicon


Sendmail sends a message to one or more recipients, routing the message over whatever networks are necessary. Sendmail does inter-network forwarding as necessary to deliver the message to the correct place. Sendmail is not intended as a user interface routine; other programs provide user-friendly front ends; sendmail is used only to deliver pre-formatted messages. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


The Sendmail program is a very widely used Mail Transport Agent (MTA). MTAs send mail from one machine to another. Sendmail is not a client program, which you use to read your email. Sendmail is a behind-the-scenes program which actually moves your email over networks or the Internet to where you want it to go. If you ever need to reconfigure Sendmail, you will also need to have the sendmail.cf package installed. If you need documentation on Sendmail, you can install the sendmail-doc package. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


An easy-to-use Unix tool for sending pages. Sendpage is a front end to the PET protocol used by many paging systems. PET is also knows as IXO or TAP. It can dial up your paging service and send alphanumeric pages. Other software (such as mon) can be set up to automatically send pages, email can be forwarded to your pager, etc. Sendpage is licensed under the GPL. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


sensible editing and paging From whatis


sensible editing and paging From whatis


GNOME applet displaying system's health status Sensor Sweep is a GNOME panel applet that monitors your computers sensors through the lm_sensors kernel modules. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Hardware sensor information logging daemon Lm-sensors is a hardware health monitoring package for Linux. It allows you to access information from temperature, voltage, and fan speed sensors. It works with most newer systems. This package contains a daemon that logs hardware health status to the system log with optional warnings on potential system problems. You will need lm-sensors and i2c kernel modules to use this package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


prints a sequence of numbers From whatis


Allows network connections to serial ports This daemon allows telnet and tcp sessions to be established with a unit's serial ports. Combined with a terminal emulation like xterm or the Linux console, this can be a very simple means of communicating with routers, other systems' serial consoles and other equipment with a serial port. This is remarkably similar to some Cisco router's reverse telnet function. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The series package is a general iteration library for Lisps. It can do anything loop can, but in a more functional way. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


dict server with full unicode support serpento is a dict server written in python. If you want to run the server, you need also dictionary files. You can use those provided as debian packages (dict, dict-gcide, dict-wn, dict-jargon, dict-foldoc etc.) See /usr/share/doc/serpento/README.debian for info. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A program which provides some service to other (client) programs. The connection between client and server is normally by means of message passing, often over a network, and uses some protocol to encode the client's requests and the server's responses. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


n. A kind of daemon that performs a service for the requester and which often runs on a computer other than the one on which the requestor/client runs. A particularly common term on the Internet, which is rife with `web servers', `name servers', `domain servers', `news servers', `finger servers', and the like. From Jargon Dictionary


One complete interaction between a user and the Linux system, from login to logout. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


manage utmp/wtmp entries for non-init clients From whatis


Cyrix/IBM 5x86/6x86 CPU configuration tool Allows one to modify the internal configuration registers in the 5x86 and 6x86 CPU. These include specifying non-cacheable memory areas (important for e.g. graphics cards), I/O delays, cache write policy (WB/WT), write-gathering, and also enable an automatic standby mode where a CPU "halt" instruction cuts down power by a factor of 70 (from 20 Watts to 0.3 Watts for the 6x86 P133+) when the CPU is idle. Especially the CPU power reduction cuts down on most temperature-related problems on many motherboards. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Control the behaviour of your cdrom device This program allows you to control the behaviour of your Linux cdrom player. You'll need a cdrom device that complies to the new interface defined in linux/Documentation/cdrom/cdrom-standard.tex. For kernel 2.0 this is only the cm206 drive, for kernel 2.1 this includes IDE and SCSI drives. You can control: auto close, auto eject, medium type checking and tray locking. You can get information on the volume name of cdroms and other data, and you can set the speed of your drive and choose a disc from a jukebox. In order to fully exploit the possibilities, you'll need libc6 and a recent version of the the linux kernel, but you will get decent error behaviour in return. Expect a message "No medium found" if you attempt to mount an empty drive or "Wrong medium type" if you try to mount an audio disc, instead of a whole load of kernel error messages. The source of this package may be an example for cdrom player program developers that wish to exploit the features of the new cdrom interface. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


sets user-provided floppy disk parameters TQ From whatis


SETI@Home Client (install package) SETI@home is a scientific experiment that harnesses the power of hundreds of thousands of Internet-connected computers in the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). You can participate by running a free program that downloads and analyzes radio telescope data. There's a small but captivating possibility that your computer will detect the faint murmur of a civilization beyond Earth. SETI@Home is only distributed in binary form and the correct unix tar ball for your architecture has to be downloaded from http://setiathome.ssl.berkeley.edu/unix.html and placed in $TMPDIR (or /tmp if $TMPDIR is not defined). This installer package will automagically wget (if wget is installed) the right tarball and install the program, if the target debian linux architecture is one of the following: x86, alpha, sparc, powerpc or hppa. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


load kernel scancode-to-keycode mapping table entries From whatis


set the keyboard leds From whatis


define the keyboard meta key handling From whatis


a command mode mixer. Got bored resetting soundcard manually after every reboot? Here is a small utility which can help you to avoid that. The whole source is setmixer.c. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


configure PCI devices From whatis


Controls configuration of serial ports. Set and/or report the configuration information associated with a serial port. This information includes what I/O port and which IRQ a particular serial port is using. This version has a completely new approach to configuration, so if you have a setup other than the standard ttyS0 and 1, you will have to get your hands dirty. By default, only COM1-4 are configured by the kernel, using IRQ 3 and 4. If you have other serial ports (such as an AST Fourport card), or if you have mapped the IRQs differently (perhaps COM3 and 4 to other IRQs to allow concurrent access with COM1 and 2) then you must have this package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


get/set Linux serial port information From whatis


creates a session and sets the process group ID From whatis


run a program in a new session From whatis


set terminal attributes From whatis


sets the effective user ID of the current process. If the effective userid of the caller is root, the real and saved user ID's are also set. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

setuid (SUID)

UNIX programs that can be run by a user, but which have root privileges. Key point: In theory, setuid programs can only be installed by root, and they are considered as part of the operating system, because they inherently bypass security checks and must verify security themselves. A typical example is the passwd command, which a user runs in order to change his/her password. It must be setuid, because it changes files only root has access to, but yet it must be runnable by users. Key point: In practice, setuid programs often have bugs that can be exploited by logged in users. Key point: As part of hardening a system, the administrator should scour the system and remove all unnecessary setuid programs. Linux find / -type f -perm +6000 -exec ls -l {} \; Solaris find / -type f \( -perm -4000 -o -perm -2000 \) -exec ls -l {} \; In order to remove the suid bit, you can use the command chmod -s filename. Removing the suid bit will disable a lot of programs. Two programs that really need to have this bit turned on are /usr/bin/passwd, which users run to change their passwords, and /bin/su, which elevates a normal user to super user (when given the correct password). Key point: Some programs are really setguid which only changes the group context rather than the user context. Key point: Windows doesn't have the concept of setuid. Instead, RPC is used whereby client programs (run by users) contact server programs to carry out the desired task. For example, in order to change the password, the client program asks the SAM to do it on behalf of the user. Thus, whereas UNIX requires a myriad of client programs to verify credentials and be written securely, Windows only requires a few server programs to do the same. Key point: A common way to backdoor a system is to place a SUID program in the /tmp directory. From Hacking-Lexicon


Setuptool is a user-friendly text mode menu utility which allows youto access all of the text mode configuration programs included in the Red Hat Linux operating system. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


set the keyboard using the X Keyboard Extension From whatis


Simple editor for X The Simple editor for X (SeX) is a relatively small, simple, not too slow editor for X. It has no text mode user interface. It doesn't have very many features. The primary attraction is the mouse language, which is almost identical to xterm's, but clicking the middle mouse button inside a selection cuts it instead of pasting it. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Full-featured native X11 communications program. Seyon is a complete full-featured modem communications package for the X Window System. Some of its features are: - dialing directory - terminal emulation (DEC VT02, Tektronix 4014 and ANSI) - script language - Zmodem From Debian 3.0r0 APT


convert between various audio formats From whatis


Partition table manipulator for Linux From whatis


Library for computing Fast Fourier Transforms This library computes Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) in one or more dimensions. It is extremely fast. This package contains the shared library version of the fftw libraries in single precision. To get the static library and the header files you need to install sfftw-dev. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


display information about audio files From whatis


Sfio is a library for managing I/O streams. It provides functionality similar to that of Stdio, the ANSI C Standard I/O library, but via a distinct interface that is more powerful, robust and efficient. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


Enhanced library for managing I/O streams. Sfio is a portable library for managing I/O streams. It provides similar functionality to the ANSI C Standard I/O functions known collectively as Stdio. However, it has a distinct interface and is generally faster and more robust than most Stdio implementations. Sfio also introduces a number of new features and concepts beyond Stdio stream I/O processing. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Enhanced library for managing I/O streams. Sfio is a portable library for managing I/O streams. It provides similar functionality to the ANSI C Standard I/O functions known collectively as Stdio. However, it has a distinct interface and is generally faster and more robust than most Stdio implementations. Sfio also introduces a number of new features and concepts beyond Stdio stream I/O processing. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


SCSI disk format and repair tool Sformat will let you low-level format and repair bad blocks on SCSI disks. It can help you get data off a failing disk and often resurrect an apparently-broken drive. Users of SunOS will recognise the features from Sun's format command. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


MPEG 4 Structured Audio files decoder. Sfront compiles MPEG 4 Structured Audio (MP4-SA) bitstreams into efficient C programs that generate audio when executed. It supports real-time, low-latency audio input/output and MIDI input from soundcards. MP4-SA is a standard for normative algorithmic sound, that combines an audio signal processing language (SAOL) with score languages (SASL, and the legacy MIDI File Format). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Self-Certifying File System common files SFS is a secure, global file system with completely decentralized control. It takes NFS shares exported from localhost and transports them securely to other hosts; NFS services do not need to be exposed to network. SFS features key management and authorization separated from filesystem with key revocation separated from key distribution. SFS requires solid NFSv3 support; Linux kernel version 2.2.18, 2.4.0 or greater is required (earlier versions need patching). SFS home page is at http://www.fs.net From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Secure file transfer program From whatis


Execute command as different group ID From whatis


Utilities for working with generic SCSI devices. This package includes a number of utilities to manipulate the linux "sg" (version 2) device driver, and to a lesser extent, the version 1 driver found in the 2.0.x kernels. The version 2 driver is only found in 2.2.x linux kernels; if you are using 2.4, please install the sg3-utils package instead. The package includes: * isosize - gives the number of bytes in an iso9660 filesystem * scsi_inquiry - same as sg_inq, only uses SCSI_IOCTL_SEND_COMMAND * sg_dd - a variant of 'dd' that works with the sg interface * sg_debug - prints debug info for all open sg file descriptors * sg_inq - a utility for poking around with the SCSI INQUIRY command * sg_map - shows the mapping between SCSI devices and sg devices * sg_rbuf - tests SCSI bus speed * sg_readcap - prints the output of a READ CAPACITY command * sg_runt_ex - an example program to test the sg driver version * sg_scan - displays the SCSI bus on stdout * sg_start - spins up (or down) disks * sg_test_rwbuf - tests the SCSI host adapter * sg_turs - execute a TEST UNIT READY command on the given device * sg_whoami - displays information about the given sg device * sginfo - a re-porting of the 'scsiinfo' program to use sg devices * sgp_dd - like sg_dd, only multithreaded It also includes sg_simple1 and sg_simple2, which demonstrate calls to the SCSI INQUIRY and TEST UNIT READY commands. They only differ in their error processing: sg_simple1 uses sg_err.[hc] for error processing while sg_simple2 does its own more primitive checks. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The Stanford GraphBase: combinatorial data and algorithms. A highly portable collection of programs and data for researchers who study combinatorial algorithms and data structures. The programs are intended to be interesting in themselves as examples of literate programming. Thus, the Stanford GraphBase can also be regarded as a collection of approximately 30 essays for programmers to enjoy reading, whether or not they are doing algorithmic research. The programs are written in CWEB, a combination of TeX and C that is easy to use by anyone who knows those languages and easy to read by anyone familiar with the rudiments of C. This package contains only the libraries and the demonstration programs; for the readable source code, which forms the documentation as well, see the sgb-doc package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The ISO standardization organization has normalized a set of characters symbolic names ("character entities") used by SGML documents of many types. There are character entities for latin languages, math symbols, greek, cyrillic, etc. This package also includes very basic utilities to allow SGML catalogs manipulation. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


common SGML DTDs and entities This package includes Document Type Definitions for HTML Level 0, 1, 2, 3, 3.2, and 4.0, DTDs representing the capabilities for popular browsers, SGML and XML declarations, and popular XML DTDs. Also included are ISO standard entities (SGML and XML), HTML standard entities, and other generally useful sets of entities. Access to these data files is facilitated by the inclusion of an SGML catalog file which defines a default SGML declaration and a default DTD for documents whose DOCTYPE is 'html', and which links system identifiers to public identifiers for other SGML DTDs and entity sets. No setup is required by the user, due to the Debian SGML/XML common layer (see the sgml-base package) From Debian 3.0r0 APT


create HTML output from a LinuxDoc DTD SGML source file From whatis


create GNU info output from a LinuxDoc DTD SGML source file From whatis


create LaTeX, DVI, PostScript or PDF output from a LinuxDoc DTD SGML source file From whatis


create LyX output from a LinuxDoc DTD SGML source file From whatis


create RTF output from a LinuxDoc DTD SGML source file From whatis


create plain text output from a LinuxDoc DTD SGML source file From whatis


Generic formatter for SGML documents using DSSSL stylesheets sgml2x allows to easily format a SGML document using DSSSL stylesheets, and provides the following features: * Multiple possible stylesheets per document class * Easy integration of new stylesheets by adding a simple new definition file in a configuration directory * The caller can specify a PATH-like list of configuration directories, defaulting to a system-wide, a per-user, and a per-project configuration directories * Automatic selection of a default stylesheet to be used From Debian 3.0r0 APT


convert SGML to XML From whatis


check the syntax of an LinuxDoc DTD sgml source file From whatis


Find differences in the markup of two SGML files From whatis


normalize SGML documents From whatis


handle SGML conditionalization for SGML-tools From whatis


translate output of sgmls using ASP replacement files From whatis


SGMLS-based example Perl script for processing SGML parser output This is an example of a Perl script to post-process SGML parser output using the SGMLS Perl modules. To make sensible use of this package you will need to install a suitable SGML parser as well. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


a simple post-processor for nsgmls From whatis


SGML typesetting system able to create Texinfo documents. Sgmltexi is a DTD with tools to get Texinfo. The idea is to have another way to write Texinfo documents, intended to be a little bit easier. Sgmltexi manages Texinfo nodes automatically, generating an Info menu at the Top node, and other menus if required. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


process sgml files. From whatis


Replaced by sgmltools-lite (dummy package for upgrade) sgmltools-2 is now obsoleted and replaced by sgmltools-lite. This is dummy package for automatic migration. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


convert DocBook SGML source into HTML using DSSSL A text-formatting package based on SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language), which allows you to produce TeX/DVI/PS/PDF, HTML, RTF, and plain ASCII (currently via w3m by default) from a single source with other recommended and suggested packages; due to the flexible nature of SGML, many other target formats are possible. This tool can not handle DocBook XML yet. For DocBook SGML only. HTML can be generated without any other Debian text processing package, but for the other formats the appropriate packages have to be installed. You need to install lynx or w3m for ASCII text output (w3m is the default txt backend). Also jadetex is required for PS and PDF, and linuxdoc-tools for ld2db conversion. This system is tailored for writing technical software documentation, an example of which are the Linux HOWTO documents. However, there is nothing Linux-specific about this package; it can be used for many other types of documentation on many other systems. It should be useful for all kinds of printed and online documentation. The package was formerly called linuxdoc-sgml because it originates from the Linux Documentation Project (LDP). The name has been changed into sgmltools to make it clearer that there is no Linux-specific stuff included in this package. This is the latest version of the sgmltools series and the successor of sgmltools v2. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


outputs system SGML catalog path From whatis


a tool to search a file for structured pattern Sgrep (structured grep) is a tool for searching text files and filtering text streams for structured criteria. Sgrep implements a query language based on so called region expressions. Like grep, sgrep can be used for any kind of text files. However it is most useful for text files containing some kind of structured text. A file containing structured text could be defined as a file, which obeys some syntax. Examples of structured text files are SGML, HTML, C, Tex and mail files. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


GNU Bourne-Again SHell From whatis


The GNU shell utilities are a set of useful system utilities that are often used in shell scripts. The sh-utils package includes basename (to remove the path prefix from a specified pathname), chroot (to change the root directory), date (to print/set the system time anddate), dirname (to remove the last level or the filename from a givenpath), echo (to print a line of text), env (to display/modify theenvironment), expr (to evaluate expressions), factor (to print primefactors), false (to return an unsuccessful exit status), groups (toprint the groups a specified user is a member of), id (to print the real/effective uid/gid), logname (to print the current login name),nice (to modify a scheduling priority), nohup (to allow a command to continue running after logging out), pathchk (to check a file name's portability), printenv (to print environment variables), printf (to format and print data), pwd (to print the current directory), seq (to print numeric sequences), sleep (to suspend execution for a specified time), stty (to print/change terminal settings), su (to become another user or the superuser), tee (to send output to multiple files), test(to evaluate an expression), true (to return a successful exit status), tty (to print the terminal name), uname (to print system information), users (to print current users' names), who (to print a list of the users who are currently logged in), whoami (to print the effective user id), and yes (to print a string indefinitely). From Redhat 8.0 RPM


The shadow-utils package includes the necessary programs for converting UNIX password files to the shadow password format, plus programs for managing user and group accounts. The pwconv command converts passwords to the shadow password format. The pwunconv command unconverts shadow passwords and generates an npasswd file (a standard UNIX password file). The pwck command checks the integrity of password and shadow files. The lastlog command prints out the last login times for all users. The useradd, userdel and usermod commands are used for managing user accounts. The groupadd, groupdel andgroupmod commands are used for managing group accounts. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


toggle shadow passwords on and off From whatis

shadowed passwords (/etc/shadow)

UNIX was designed around the concept of making the encrypted form of passwords readable by everyone. These passwords were stored in the /etc/passwd file, along with the full account information. It was thought to be secure because the passwords were stored in an encrypted format within this file. However, this is not secure in practice because users tend to choose easily guessable passwords. A program called crack was developed that would guess dictionary words (/usr/dict) and then attempt to brute force the passwords. On an average UNIX system, 90% of all passwords could be cracked with a few days worth of computing time. In order to solve this problem, a "shadow" password file was developed. The encrypted passwords are removed from the normal /etc/passwd and placed in a special file (usually /etc/shadow) that is only readable by root. The remaining account information is left in the original password file for backwards compatibility. Example: The following is a table of typical locations for the shadowed passwords: AIX 3 /etc/security/passwd or /tcb/auth/files// A/UX 3.0s /tcb/files/auth/?/ BSD4.3-Reno /etc/master.passwd ConvexOS 10 /etc/shadpw ConvexOS 11 /etc/shadow DG/UX /etc/tcb/aa/user/ EP/IX /etc/shadow HP-UX /.secure/etc/passwd IRIX 5 /etc/shadow Linux /etc/shadow OSF/1 /etc/passwd[.dir|.pag] SCO Unix #.2.x /tcb/auth/files// SunOS4.1+c2 /etc/security/passwd.adjunct SunOS 5.0 /etc/shadow System V Release 4.0 /etc/shadow System V Release 4.2 /etc/security/* database Ultrix 4 /etc/auth.dir or /etc/auth.pag UNICOS /etc/udb Key point: In the old days, most remote attacks against UNIX were directed at the /etc/passwd file. For example, the most common form of the phf would be to grab the password file. As password shadowing becomes more common, such attacks are increasingly being pointed at the shadow password file instead. From Hacking-Lexicon


The Shapecfg program configures and adjusts traffic shaper bandwidth limiters. Traffic shaping is setting parameters or limits on bandwidth consumption, to which network traffic should conform. To use Shapecfg,you must have also installed the kernel which supports the shaper module (kernel versions 2.0.36 or later and late 2.1.x kernels). From Redhat 8.0 RPM


Traffic Shaper for Linux The traffic shaper for Linux configures and adjusts traffic shaper bandwidth limiters. Traffic shaping means setting parameters or limits to which network traffic should conform - that is, setting limitations on bandwidth consumption. See README.shaper for more details. An init script which sets up traffic shaping using class-based queueing is also provided. This can be used to build smart bandwidth shapers which know about TCP/IP. See README.cbq for more details. The kernel support needed to use either of these facilities is described in README.Debian. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A user-mode traffic shaper for tcp-ip networks. Shaperd is a user-mode program that can shape traffic passing through a Linux box. As it runs as a normal daemon, some kind of packet-forwarding mechanism is needed. This can be done with the BSD divert sockets patch for Linux 2.2, or with netfilter's built-in libipq under Linux 2.4. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Configuration and Release management using AtFS. ShapeTools is a collection of programs to support software configuration management in an UNIX environment. It consists of a set of version and attribute control commands, and a configuration interpreter and build tool ("shape"). The toolkit is integrated on top of the Attributed File System (AtFS). ShapeTools is designed to live meaningfully together with any other UNIX tool operating on regular files. This distribution also contains a prototype for a comprehensive change control and release management system designed to manage the evolution of system releases in multi programmer software development efforts. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


create shell archives From whatis


/shar'ki:v/ n. [Unix and Usenet; from /bin/sh archive] A flattened representation of a set of one or more files, with the unique property that it can be unflattened (the original files restored) by feeding it through a standard Unix shell; thus, a sharchive can be distributed to anyone running Unix, and no special unpacking software is required. Sharchives are also intriguing in that they are typically created by shell scripts; the script that produces sharchives is thus a script which produces self-unpacking scripts, which may themselves contain scripts. (The downsides of sharchives are that they are an ideal venue for Trojan horse attacks and that, for recipients not running Unix, no simple un-sharchiving program is possible; sharchives can and do make use of arbitrarily-powerful shell features.) Sharchives are also commonly referred to as `shar files' after the name of the most common program for generating them. From Jargon Dictionary

shared library

A library where the linker leaves a note in the output that says "when this is run, it will first have to load this library". Shared libraries tend to make for smaller executables than static library. On Linux they have names like libname.so.x.y.z From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

shared media

Networks like Ethernet whereby multiple computers connect to the same wire. Key point: In such systems, any computer on the wire can eavesdrop on its neighbors. Contrast: Most corporations are replacing their shared media nets with switched connections. From Hacking-Lexicon

shared memory

memory which can be access by more than one process in a multitasking operating system with memory protection From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

shared secret

The idea that many people share the same password or key. Shared secrets are widely use because they are easy: there is simply one password to give out. On the other hand, the more widely secrets are shared, the more likely it will become compromised. In fact, many people believe that even sharing a secret among two people is extremely risky, where the proper solution is using public keys to distribute a randomly generated key only valid for the particular message. Example: DVD movies are encrypted with a randomly generated key. This key is then is then encrypted multiple times with hundreds of different keys. Every DVD player vendor owns one of these keys and imbeds it in their device, thus allows that player to decrypt the movie. (Presumably, if one of the keys is compromised, future movies can be generated without the offending key, causing players based upon that key to become obsolete). However, there is no good way to protect these keys, even though they are in hardware. In late 1999, students in Europe where able to break one of these keys (the Xing software DVD player), and from there they were able to break the majority of the other keys. (These keys only used 40-bit encryption, so breaking one key in the software player allowed a known-plaintext attack). From Hacking-Lexicon


/sheir'weir/ n. A kind of freeware (sense 1) for which the author requests some payment, usually in the accompanying documentation files or in an announcement made by the software itself. Such payment may or may not buy additional support or functionality. See also careware, charityware, crippleware, FRS, guiltware, postcardware, and -ware; compare payware. From Jargon Dictionary


The sharutils package contains the GNU shar utilities, a set of tools for encoding and decoding packages of files (in binary or text format) in a special plain text format called shell archives (shar). This format can be sent through email (which can be problematic for regular binary files). The shar utility supports a wide range of capabilities (compressing, uuencoding, splitting long files for multi-part mailings, providing checksums), which make it very flexible at creating shar files. After the files have been sent, the unshartool scans mail messages looking for shar files. Unshar automatically strips off mail headers and introductory text and then unpacks the sharfiles. Install sharutils if you send binary files through email very often. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


shar, unshar, uuencode, uudecode `shar' makes so-called shell archives out of many files, preparing them for transmission by electronic mail services. `unshar' helps unpacking shell archives after reception. Other related utility programs help with other tasks. `uuencode' prepares a file for transmission over an electronic channel which ignores or otherwise mangles the eight bit (high order bit) of bytes. `uudecode' does the converse transformation. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The default command-line interface on UNIX systems. Key point: This is similar to the "Command Prompt" or incorrectly named "DOS Prompt" on Windows systems. Key point: Many systems pass filenames along with commands directly to the shell. Hackers can exploit this by sending special shell characters (like the pipe | character) as part of filenames in order to execute their own commands. This is an example of an input validation exploit. Examples of this are web-servers, PERL scripts, and CGI scripts. Key point: The most popular shell among hackers is probably "bash", the shell from GNU that ships with Linux. (Culture: The original shell on UNIX is known as the "Bourne Shell", named for its creator. The acronym "bash" means "Bourne Again SHell", reflecting that fact that it is a rewrite of that shell). Key point: Retrieving someone's .bash_history file is a common attack against UNIX machines. Several embedded systems have shipped such that the file http://raq.robertgraham.com/~root/.bash_history could be retrieved via the web. Key point: The holy grail of UNIX hacking is to somehow obtain (or re-obtain) a root shell. In other words, the hacker wants to get a command-line on the victim system in order to carry out any task. For this reason, buffer overflow exploits often contain what is called "shell code". When the victim process is running with root privileges, the buffer-overflow will cause that process to begin running a shell. For example, an exploit might send a long password containing the shell code to an FTP server, converting the TCP connection to the FTP server into a full command-prompt from which any program can be launched. From Hacking-Lexicon


[orig. Multics n. techspeak, widely propagated via Unix] 1. [techspeak] The command interpreter used to pass commands to an operating system; so called because it is the part of the operating system that interfaces with the outside world. 2. More generally, any interface program that mediates access to a special resource or server for convenience, efficiency, or security reasons; for this meaning, the usage is usually `a shell around' whatever. This sort of program is also called a `wrapper'. 3. A skeleton program, created by hand or by another program (like, say, a parser generator), which provides the necessary incantations to set up some task and the control flow to drive it (the term driver is sometimes used synonymously). The user is meant to fill in whatever code is needed to get real work done. This usage is common in the AI and Microsoft Windows worlds, and confuses Unix hackers. Historical note: Apparently, the original Multics shell (sense 1) was so called because it was a shell (sense 3); it ran user programs not by starting up separate processes, but by dynamically linking the programs into its own code, calling them as subroutines, and then dynamically de-linking them on return. The VMS command interpreter still does something very like this. From Jargon Dictionary


a utility program that enables the user to interact with the UNIX operating system. Commands entered by the user are passed by the shell to the operating system which carries them out. The results are then passed back by the shell and displayed on the user's display. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

shell out

vi. [Unix] To spawn an interactive subshell from within a program (e.g., a mailer or editor). "Bang foo runs foo in a subshell, while bang alone shells out." From Jargon Dictionary

shell prompt

a character at the start of the command line which indicates that the shell is ready to receive your commands. The character is usually a '%' (percent sign) or a $ (dollar sign). It may be different on your system. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

shell script

A program written to be interpreted by the shell of an operating system such as Linux. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


When a hackers successfully exploit vulnerabilities like buffer overflows, they will typically open a shell at the end of the exploit. With a command-line shell, the hacker will then be able to carry out any task they desire. However, opening shells within buffer overflow exploits can be difficult. Therefore, hackers often maintain libraries of "shellcode": code fragments for various operating systems that can be pasted into buffer overflow exploits. Key point: One of the difficulties in writing shellcode is that need to pass through filters. For example, when exploiting a bug in an SMTP server, you may find that the server strips the high-order bit from all bytes (i.e. will pass text but not binary). Therefore, all bytes between 0x00-07F will pass through, but not 0x80-0xFF. Alternately, a big limitation is systems that won't pass nul characters (0x00) because they terminate strings in functions like strcpy(). Therefore, when a hacker picks shellcode to append to their script, they must be fully aware of the limitations of the system they are dealing with. Key point: When creating new shellcode, create a C program that calls something like "system("/bin/sh");" or "execve("/bin/sh",0,0);" and grab the assembly output. At that point, pare it down to what you need. This requires extensive knowledge of assembly, needless to say. Key point: Sometimes you won't be able to grab a shell, so you have to create the exploit script to run a command. Typical choices of commands would be those that change passwords, add accounts, or in some fashion open up some other hole on the system. Key point: The vast majority of buffer overflow attacks will execute /bin/sh. Therefore, by simply removing this program (or replacing it with something that double-checks what's being done), you can protect yourself against many 0-day exploits. From Hacking-Lexicon


The GNU shell programming utilities. The utilities: basename chroot date dirname echo env expr factor false groups hostid id logname nice nohup pathchk pinky printenv printf pwd seq sleep stty tee test true tty uname users who whoami yes. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


library for displaying messages - runtime This is Sverre H. Huseby's library for displaying messages in terminal based programs. It can treat the verbosity level and prepend the program name if necessary. This package contains what you need to run programs that use this library. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Command line option parser - runtime This is Sverre H. Huseby's library for parsing command line options. Both traditional one-character options and GNU-style --long-options are supported. This library does a little more than standard getopt. This package contains what you need to run programs that use this library. upstream webpage: http://shh.thathost.com/ From Debian 3.0r0 APT

shift left (or right) logical

[from any of various machines' instruction sets] 1. vi. To move oneself to the left (right). To move out of the way. 2. imper. "Get out of that (my) seat! You can shift to that empty one to the left (right)." Often used without the `logical', or as `left shift' instead of `shift left'. Sometimes heard as LSH /lish/, from the PDP-10 instruction set. See Programmer's Cheer. From Jargon Dictionary


The SHell Object Oriented Programming library Every language under the sun these days is Object Oriented. In an effort to make POSIX shell more buzzword compliant, and to show that it's really not a big deal for a language to lack built-in OO support, we have added object orientation to plain old shell script. Specifically, we have implemented classless OO with introspection, finalization, serialization, and multiple inheritance. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A collection of shoop modules This package includes various modules for shoop, such as introspect, prettyprint, serialize, and some others. It is a good idea to have these at hand! From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Shoreline Firewall (Shorewall) The Shoreline Firewall (Shorewall) is an iptables based firewall that can be used on a dedicated firewall system, a multi-function masquerade gateway/server or on a standalone Linux system. Shorewall supports these features: * Customizable using configuration files. * Supports status monitoring with an audible alarm when an "interesting" packet is detected. * Include a fallback script that backs out the installation of the most recent version of Shoreline Firewall and an uninstall script for completely uninstalling the firewall. * Static NAT is supported. * Proxy ARP is supported. * Provides DMZ functionality. * Support for IPSEC, GRE and IPIP Tunnels. * Limited support for Traffic Control/Shaping From Debian 3.0r0 APT

shoulder surfing

Slang for watching somebody type their password on their keyboard. In much the same way that hackers teach themselves to read upside-down (in order to read documents when seated in front of a desk), hackers can also practice watching people type on the keyboard. Analogy: Crooks often steal credit card numbers in the same way. They stand behind people in line and read their credit cards as they sit on the countertop during handling. From Hacking-Lexicon


displays all characters in the current screen-font. From whatis


displays all characters in the current screen-font. From whatis


font dumper for X font server From whatis


A feature-rich image viewer ShowImg is a feature-rich image viewer which can display numerous formats, including JPEG, PNG, GIF (animated) and MNG. It consists of a tree view frame, a directory/preview frame, and a view frame. The (larger) view frame can be exchanged with the (smaller) directory/preview frame. It can preview and display images from multiple directories and search for identical images. ShowImg also features a full-screen mode, zooming, sorting, drag'n'drop with Konqueror, and support for images in compressed archives (.zip). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


examine the scan codes and keycodes sent by the keyboard From whatis


A tool for scanning a UNIX NFS servers to see what directories it is sharing/exporting and to whom. There are two basic forms of this command: showmount victim Shows which machines are logged onto the victim NFS server. showmount -e victim Shows which directories are being exported, and which groups can log on. Entries marked as (everyone) allow anybody to log on. Key point: This command used the rpc.mountd protocol (RPC program number 100005). On most systems, these commands do not require authentication, which means that anybody can run them. The showmount command with no arguments equates the MOUNTPROG_DUMP procedure, whereas the -e option equates to the MOUNTPROG_EXPORT procedure. This protocol is extremely light-weight, only two packets in each direction are needed: one for the portmap, and one for the procedure call. Contrast: Similar capabilities exist on Windows for Microsoft's SMB protocols. The net view \\victim command on Windows will view the shares that the victim is exporting. From Hacking-Lexicon


show mount information for an NFS server From whatis


uncompile an rgb color-name database From whatis


delete a file securely, first overwriting it to hide its contents From whatis


GNU Portable shell tool GNU shtool is a tool for developers of software programs. It is a compilation of small but very stable and portable shell scripts into a single shell tool. All ingredients were in successful use over many years in various free software projects. The compiled shtool program is intended to be used inside the source tree of other free software packages. There it can overtake various (usually non-portable) tasks related to the building and installation of such a package. It especially can replace the old mkdir.sh, install.sh and related scripts. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


bring the system down From whatis


brings the system down in a secure way. All logged in users are notified that the system is going down, and login(1) is blocked. It is possible to shut the system down immideately, or after a delay. All processes are first notified that the system is going down by the signal SIGTERM. This gives programs like vi(1) the time to save the file being editted, mail and news processing programs a chance to exit cleanly, etc. Shutdown does its job by signalling the init process, asking it to change the runlevel. Runlevel 0 is used to halt the system, runlevel 6 is used to reboot the system and runlevel 1 is used to put to system into a state where administrative tasks can be performed. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


shut down part of a full-duplex connection From whatis


a console hotline client Used to connect to Hotline servers. See http://www.BigRedH.com/ for more information about Hotline. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


/proc system information viewer si (System Information Viewer) is a Linux application that displays information about the local computer from data gathered from the /proc filesystem, a readable interface to kernel memory. si displays information related to the CPU, hardware, memory, kernel, filesystems, network and running processes. Information is presented in a plain-text dump, colorized-pages, or process-information interface. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Common files for all versions of the Siag spreadsheet. These are the scheme library files for siag, and examples sheets. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Common files for Siag Office Siag Office is a bundle of the following programs: * siag [Scheme In A Grid], a spreadsheet * pw [Pathetic Writer], a word-processor * egon, an animation program * xfiler, a file manager From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Plugins for Siag Office These are the standard plugins for use with Siag Office. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Music player for tunes from C64 and C128 (console) This is a simple music player for C64 and C128 tunes, also known as SID tunes. The package includes a program (sid2wav) for creating .wav files. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Http regression testing and benchmarking utility Siege is an regression test and benchmark utility. It can stress test a single URL with a user defined number of simulated users, or it can read many URLs into memory and stress them simultaneously. The program reports the total number of hits recorded, bytes transferred, response time, concurrency, and return status. Siege supports HTTP/1.0 and 1.1 protocols, the GET and POST directives, cookies, transaction logging, and basic authentication. Its features are configurable on a per user basis. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Http/https regression testing and benchmarking utility Siege is an regression test and benchmark utility. It can stress test a single URL with a user defined number of simulated users, or it can read many URLs into memory and stress them simultaneously. The program reports the total number of hits recorded, bytes transferred, response time, concurrency, and return status. Siege supports HTTP/1.0 and 1.1 protocols, the GET and POST directives, cookies, transaction logging, and basic authentication. Its features are configurable on a per user basis. This version of siege package includes HTTPS support. From Debian 3.0r0 APT

sig block

/sig blok/ n. [Unix; often written `.sig' there] Short for `signature', used specifically to refer to the electronic signature block that most Unix mail- and news-posting software will automagically append to outgoing mail and news. The composition of one's sig can be quite an art form, including an ASCII logo or one's choice of witty sayings (see sig quote, fool file); but many consider large sigs a waste of bandwidth, and it has been observed that the size of one's sig block is usually inversely proportional to one's longevity and level of prestige on the net. See also doubled sig. From Jargon Dictionary


Software interrupts sent to a program to indicate that an important event has occurred. The events can vary from user requests to illegal memory access errors. Some signals, like the interrupt signal, indicate that a user has asked the program to do something that is not in the usual flow of control.


In anti-virus and intrusion detection systems, a signature is a pattern that the system will look for when scanning files or network traffic. (Note: this term is unrelated to digital signatures). Key point: Marketing forces often mean that companies have to fill their products with useless signatures. Don't be impressed because one product has more signatures than another. Key point: One of the key goals of hacking is to evade signature detection. Virus writers attempt to encrypt their viruses, whereas remote hackers attempt to alter the networking protocol so that it has the same effect, but a different pattern on the wire. From Hacking-Lexicon


Automatic, semi-random ".signature" rotator/generator Signify is a neat little program that allows a random signature to be generated from a set of rules. Each "section" can be one of an unlimited number of possibilities, each with its own weighting so those really cool quotes can appear more often than others. Sections can also be placed next to each other vertically to create columns. Each section can be formatted independently as left/right/center and top/bottom/vcenter. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Scripts and docs useful for keysigning parties To improve the web of trust, so-called signing parties are held at various occasions From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Signature file rotation program. Rotates your .signature file every time the sigrot is run. Includes an option for a non-rotating header and/or footer with a rotating middle. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A poker game silly Poker is an advanced poker game with support for a single player against 1-4 computer opponents in five card draw, five card stud, and seven card stud poker games. The program in this package contains support for the standard text interface and the curses interface. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Simulator Construction Gear -- shared libraries SimGear is a collection of libraries useful for constructing simulation and visualization applications such as FlightGear or TerraGear. This package contains the shared libraries. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Simple example from the OpenH323 project The OpenH323 project aims to create a full featured, interoperable, Open Source implementation of the ITU H.323 teleconferencing protocol that can be used freely by everybody. This protocol is most used for Voice over IP (VoIP) conferencing. For more information on the OpenH323 project visit them at http://www.openh323.org/ From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Microchip PIC device simulator This software allows to simulate the execution of any program on a Microchip family microcontroller device. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A tail(1) work-alike that saves and uses state information. since is a tail(1) work-alike that remembers how much of a file you have viewed and displays only what's new when you next view that file. Ideal for viewing log files (it'll only show what's new in the file since the last time it was run). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


GTK+ video/audio player, an alternative frontend to xine Sinek is a GTK+ video/audio player, capable of supporting all formats xine supports. At the moment, this includes: * Audio MPEG layers 1, 2, and 3, * Vorbis (.ogg), * pcm, * Video MPEG 1 and 2, * MPEG 4 (aka OpenDivX), * MS MPEG 4 (aka DivX), * motion jpeg. One of the main differences between Sinek and other popular multimedia players is that it doesn't use skins; instead, it has a standard GTK+ interface. In other words, it doesn't clash with your GTK+ theme. :) From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A fully programmable ping replacement. Sing is a little tool that sends ICMP packets fully customized from command line. The main purpose is to replace/complement the niceful ping command with certain enhancements as: - Send fragmented packets (Linux and BSD). - Send monster packets > 65534 (Linux and BSD). - Send/read spoofed packets.(Libpcap included in distribution). - Send many ICMP Information types in addition to the ECHO REQUEST type sent by default as Address Mask Request, Timestamp, Information Request, - Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement. - Send many ICMP error types: Redirect, Source Quench, Time Exceeded, Destination Unreach and Parameter Problem. - Send to host with Loose or Strict Source Routing. - Use little fingerprinting techniques to discover Window$ or Solaris boxes. - Send ICMP packets emulating certain OS: Cisco, Solaris, Linux, Shiva, Unix and Window$ at the moment. From Debian 3.0r0 APT

single user mode

a system mode created for administrative and maintenance activities demand complete control of the system. When the system is in this state whoever is logged in becomes root. This is however, a minimal system startup state. Only the root partition is mounted so only commands that reside in the root filesystem are available. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


Python/C++ Bindings Generator SIP is a tool for generating bindings for C++ classes with some ideas borrowed from SWIG, but capable of tighter bindings, because it's specific to C++ and Python. SIP was originally designed to generate Python bindings for KDE and so has explicit support for the signal slot mechanism used by the Qt/KDE class libraries. Features: - connecting Qt signals to Python functions and class methods - connecting Python signals to Qt slots - overloading virtual member functions with Python class methods - protected member functions - abstract classes - enumerated types - global class instances - static member functions. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


create and render 3-d scenes This is SIPP, the SImple Polygon Processor, version 3.1. SIPP is a library for creating 3-dimensional scenes and rendering them using a scan-line z-buffer algorithm. A scene is built up of objects which can be transformed with rotation, translation and scaling. The objects form hierarchies where each object can have arbitrarily many subobjects and subsurfaces. A surface is a number of connected polygons which are rendered with either Phong, Gouraud or flat shading. An image can also be rendered as a line drawing of the polygon edges without any shading at all. The library supports texture mapping with textures in up to 3-dimensions and automatic interpolation of texture coordinates. Simple anti-aliasing can be performed through oversampling. A scene can be illuminated by an arbitrary number of light sources and a number of different light sources are availaible. The light from some of them are capable of casting shadows of objects. A basic shading algorithm is provided with the library, but the user can also use his own shading algorithms for each surface to produce special effects. Objects can have varying degree of transparency, controlled by the shader. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The full-featured Perl IRC client sirc, the Perl IRC client, is a full-featured package to let you chat with anyone, anywhere in the world. sirc has all the features you need in an IRC client -- DCC, logging, and a huge ability to be customized are all part of the package. With Perl, it's quite simple to extend sirc's capabilities -- the programming interface is well-documented and well-developed. Several example scripts are included in /usr/lib/sirc. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A program for managing a WWW site via FTP, DAV or HTTP sitecopy is for copying locally stored websites to remote ftp servers. With a single command, the program will synchronize a set of local files to a remote server by performing uploads and remote deletes as required. The aim is to remove the hassle of uploading and deleting individual files using an FTP client. sitecopy will also optionally try to spot files you move locally, and move them remotely. sitecopy is designed to not care about what is actually on the remote server - it simply keeps a record of what it THINKS is in on the remote server, and works from that. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


retrieves stories from websites for your Palm Pilot Sitescooper automatically retrieves the stories from several news websites, trims off extraneous HTML, and converts them into formats you can read on your Palm computing device for later reading on-the-move. It maintains a cache, and will avoid stories you've already read. It can handle 1-page sites, 1-page with diffing, 2-level and 3-level sites, and it's very easy to add a new site to its list. Even if you don't have a Palm handheld, it's still handy for simple website-to-text conversion. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


retrieves stories from websites for your Palm Pilot Sitescooper automatically retrieves the stories from several news websites, trims off extraneous HTML, and converts them into formats you can read on your Palm computing device for later reading on-the-move. It maintains a cache, and will avoid stories you've already read. It can handle 1-page sites, 1-page with diffing, 2-level and 3-level sites, and it's very easy to add a new site to its list. Even if you don't have a Palm handheld, it's still handy for simple website-to-text conversion. This package contains sample sites files. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


list section sizes and total size. From whatis


A program to use the "Jog Dial" on Sony Vaio Laptops S-Jog is a program that uses the Sony Vaio laptops Jog Wheel to do various things: * Launch applications * Adjust screen brightness * Adjust volume * Act like a mousewheel S-Jog pops up when you click the Jog Wheel then disappears after 3 seconds of idle time. The mousewheel feature is turned on when S-Jog is hidden. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Interactive vector drawing program for X11 Sketch is an interactive vector drawing program, comparable to CorelDraw. It currently support drawing primitives like rectangles, ellipses, Bezier curves, bitmap and EPS images and text. All objects can be rotated, scaled and sheared. Primitives can have fill and line properties. A number of special effects like blend groups, text to Bezier and text along a path are provided. Sketch supports an unlimited undo history. Import of XFig, AI, WMF, CMX and SVG files. Exports to EPS, AI and SVG. Sketch is written in Python with an Tkinter GUI. User scripts can be written in Python. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


report process status From whatis


Simple Kana to Kanji conversion program SKK is a very fast and efficient Japanese input system written entirely in emacs lisp. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


SKK Dictionary (SKK-JISYO.L) This package contains SKK-JISYO.L. SKK-JISYO.[SM] and other dictionaries are provided in skkdic-extra. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


skk Japanese input method front end skk Japanese input method front end. It's usable on console. (not XIM) From Debian 3.0r0 APT


X input method for Japanese for SKK method. skkinput is application to input Japanese for X application using protocols such as kinput2/XIM/Ximp protocol. skkinput communicates with skkserv using Berkeley Socket. Without skkserv, local dictionary files is used. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A SKK dictionary server handling multiple dictionaries. Skksearch is an alternative to skkserv. Unlike skkserv, it can deal with more than one dictionary. In addition, it supports three types of dictionaries, that is, plain, Berkeley DB 2.x, and cdb format. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


SKK Dictionary server Skkserv is a dictionary server for SKK. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


SKK dictionary maintenance tools This package provides tools to maintain SKK dictionaries. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Many useful functions for the web like smssend This library contains functions about chained lists, string manipulation, socket and HTTP protocol. It's used in gsmssend and smssend. This package contains the files needed for running such applications. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Correct you if you type `sl' by mistake Sl is a program that can display animations aimed to correct you if you type 'sl' by mistake. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


simple latex to HTML converter From whatis


S-lang is a C-like programming language, designed to be embedded in programs. It provides standard screen handling functions and can provide access to program internals, allowing program users to create customized procedures. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


The S-Lang programming library - runtime version. S-Lang is a C programmer's library that includes routines for the rapid development of sophisticated, user friendly, multi-platform applications. This package contains only the shared library libslang.so.* and copyright information. It is only necessary for programs that use this library (such as jed and slrn). If you plan on doing development with S-Lang, you will need the companion -dev package as well. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The S-Lang programming library with Japanese patch, runtime version. S-Lang is a C programmer's library that includes routines for the rapid development of sophisticated, user friendly, multi-platform applications. This package contains only the shared library libslang-ja.so.* and copyright information. It is only necessary for programs that use this library (such as jed and slrn). If you plan on doing development with S-Lang, you will need the companion -dev package as well. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The S-Lang programming library, shared library subset kit. This is used to develop subsets of the S-Lang shared libraries for use on custom installation floppies and in embedded systems. Unless you're making one of those, you won't need this package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The S-Lang programming library, shared library subset with utf8 support. This is used to develop subsets of the S-Lang shared libraries for use on custom installation floppies and in embedded systems. Unless you're making one of those, you won't need this package. This packages has wide character support. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The S-Lang programming library with utf8 support S-Lang is a C programmer's library that includes routines for the rapid development of sophisticated, user friendly, multi-platform applications. This package contains only the shared library libslang.so.* and copyright information. It is only necessary for programs that use this library (such as jed and slrn). If you plan on doing development with S-Lang, you will need the companion -dev package as well. This packages has wide character support. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


OpenLDAP server (slapd). This is the OpenLDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) standalone server (slapd). The server can be used to provide a standalone directory service and also includes the slurpd replication server and centipede. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The / character Linux uses in path names. A / by itself, or at the beginning of a pathname, means the root directory of the file system. Slashes are used also between one directory name and the next, and between the directory name and the filename in long path names. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


A variant of Nethack Super Lotsa Added Stuff Hack - Extended Magic (SLASH'EM) is a role-playing game where you control a single character. The interface and gameplay are similar in style to Rogue, ADOM, Angband and, of course, Nethack. You control the actions through the keyboard and view the world from an overhead perspective. The problem: The Amulet of Yendor has been stolen. Not only that but it appears that the Wizard of Yendor (not a nice person), who took the amulet, is hiding in the Dungeons of Doom (not a friendly place). Enhancements over Nethack includes: - New roles - New skill system - Riding pets - New special levels From Debian 3.0r0 APT


numerical computation library slatec is a fortran library of over 1400 routines for numerical tasks. Some of the subjects covered are: Arithmetic, error analysis, Elementary and special functions, Linear Algebra, Interpolation, Solution of nonlinear equations, Optimization, Differentiation, integration, Differential and integral equations, Integral transforms, Statistics, probability, and Data handling. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


attach a network interface to a serial line From whatis


kills all of the user's processes Slay provides you with a way to quickly get rid of all processes selected user owns. Very useful if you want to harm somebody. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Pertaining to a UNIX process, to suspend execution until some event takes place or for a specific period of time. Processes automatically sleep while waiting for results from peripherals. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


Sleep for the specified number of seconds From whatis


delay for a specified amount of time From whatis


puts a laptop to sleep during inactivity This is a daemon to force laptops to enter apm sleep after some period of inactivity. This is useful if your laptop does not automatically go to sleep when you aren't using it, and, like me, you often forget to shut it off. The daemon can also be configured to put a laptop to sleep if its battery nearly runs out of power. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Portable Scheme library. SLIB is a portable scheme library meant to provide compatibility and utility functions for all standard scheme implementations. SLIB includes initialization files for Chez, ELK 2.1, GAMBIT, MacScheme, MITScheme, scheme->C, Scheme48, T3.1, and VSCM. SCM also supports SLIB. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Extract out pre-defined slices of an ASCII file The slice program reads an input file and divide its prepared ASCII contents into possibly overlapping slices. These slices are determined by enclosing blocks which are defined by begin and end delimiters which have to be already in the file. The final output gets calculated by a slice term consisting of slice names, set theory operators and optional round brackets. For more information, please visit http://www.engelschall.com/sw/slice/ From Debian 3.0r0 APT


SLIP/PPP emulator using a dial up shell account Slirp is a TCP/IP emulator which turns an ordinary shell account into a (C)SLIP/PPP account. This allows shell users to use all the funky Internet applications like Netscape, Mosaic, CUSeeMe, etc. Please note that maybe your ISP really doesn't like you using slirp, because they want to charge more for a ppp connection, so use it at your own risk. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A simple S-Lang based system performance monitor SLmon is a tool for monitoring system's performance. It displays results using a nice and readable text-based UI, providing either figures or a graph. It currently monitors: - CPU load (SMP is supported) - memory and swap load - uptime, date and time - number of logged in users From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Slocate is a security-enhanced version of locate. Just like locate, slocate searches through a central database (which is updated nightly) for files that match a given pattern. Slocate allows you to quickly find files anywhere on your system. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


a secure locate replacement This locate should show only the files on your system that you have access to. Note: If your computer is not up 24/7 you should consider installing anacron since the database is only updated once a night. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Programs for counting physical source lines of code (SLOC) SLOCCount (pronounced "sloc-count") is a suite of programs for counting physical source lines of code (SLOC) in potentially large software systems (thus, SLOCCount is a "software metrics tool" or "software measurement tool"). SLOCCount can count physical SLOC for a wide number of languages; listed alphabetically, they are: Ada, Assembly, awk, Bourne shell, C, C++, C shell, Expect, Fortran, Java, lex/flex, LISP (including Scheme), Modula3, Objective-C, Pascal, Perl, PHP, Python, sed, TCL, and Yacc. SLOCCount can automatically determine if a file is a source code file or not, and if so, which language it's written in. As a result, you can analyze large systems completely automatically. SLOCCount also includes some report-generating tools to collect the data generated and present it in several different formats. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


OpenSSH SSH client (remote login program) From whatis


OpenSLP Server (slpd) SLPv2 (RFC 2608) is a IETF standard protocol that is used to discover/advertise services on the network. You can use SLP for anything from locating a suitable printer on your floor to discovering what LDAP directories are available in your organization. This package provides slpd, the OpenSLP daemon, which provides an SLPv2 compliant Service Agent and Directory Agent. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Personal Information Manager for the console slpim is a Personal Information Manager. It can keep an addressbook with pre-defined fields. slpim can export the addressbook database to many formats, like mutt-alias file, html file, pine format, plain-text, etc. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


threaded news reader (fast for slow links) Slrn is a threaded news reader with color support that is designed to read news fast over slow links. Slrn can read news via NNTP or directly from a local news spool. Slrn can be heavily customized from its rc file, and even includes a built in macro language. There is also support for killfiles and article scoring. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


threaded news reader (fast for slow links), Japanese version Slrn is a threaded news reader with color support that is designed to read news fast over slow links. Slrn can read news via NNTP or directly from a local news spool. Slrn also has GroupLens support. Slrn can be heavily customized from its rc file, and even includes a built in macro language. There is also support for killfiles and article scoring. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Shows X-Faces from slrn in an X11 terminal emulator The slrnface helper utility can be used from the slrn news reader to show X-Faces in Usenet articles when slrn is run from an X11 terminal emulator. It is not intended to be run directly from the command line. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


pulls a small newsfeed from an NNTP server Slrnpull pulls a small newsfeed from an NNTP server, to a local news spool directory. The news spool can be used by news readers (such as slrn), which can read a local news spool without a NNTP server. Slrnpull also has the ability to killfile articles so that they will not be downloaded from the server. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


S-Language port of the classic SC spreadsheet The slsc spreadsheet is a much modified version of the public domain spreadsheet sc, posted several years ago by Mark Weiser as vc and originally by James Gosling. slsc is based on Robert Bond's sc 6.1 whereas the latest version of sc is 6.21. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Electronic mail transport system. Smail is a mail transport agent (MTA). An MTA is the innards of the mail system - it takes messages from user-friendly mailer programs and arranges for them to be delivered locally or passed on to other systems as required. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Stripped down version of Cooledit. Only a few of cooledit's commandline options are supported by smalledit. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The GNU Eiffel Compiler SmallEiffel is a compiler for the Eiffel language, which is a pure object-oriented language providing strong type-checking and based on the concept of 'design by contract'. It allows multiple inheritance and does it well. Design-by-contract means that a class guarantees that certain conditions will always hold, and that a routine guarantees certain results given certain specified inputs. The rules for inheritance mean that contracts can be relied on even when classes are reused through inheritance. The Eiffel language is described and defined in the book "Eiffel: The Language" by Bertrand Meyer. From Debian 3.0r0 APT

smart card

A smart-card looks like a credit-card but contains an embedded microprocessor. The gold contact pad with roughly 8 contact points is visible on the outside of the card. As of the year 2000, typical circuits consisted of an 8-bit microprocessor running at 5MHz, 1K of RAM, and 16K of ROM with a 9.6-kbps half-duplex interface. (Much of the design of AES focused on being able to run within these stringent requirements). Key point: Whereas the data on the magnetic strip of a credit-card can be easily read or changed, smart-cards are designed to be tamper proof. Example: All Germans have a smart-card for health insurance. As of 2001, smart-cards have been popular in Europe for about a decade, but are still mostly unknown in the United States. Example: The tamper-proof features make it popular for authentication in both physical security and infosec uses. From Hacking-Lexicon

smart terminal

n. 1. A terminal that has enough computing capability to render graphics or to offload some kind of front-end processing from the computer it talks to. The development of workstations and personal computers has made this term and the product it describes semi-obsolescent, but one may still hear variants of the phrase `act like a smart terminal' used to describe the behavior of workstations or PCs with respect to programs that execute almost entirely out of a remote server's storage, using local devices as displays. 2. obs. Any terminal with an addressable cursor; the opposite of a glass tty. Today, a terminal with merely an addressable cursor, but with none of the more-powerful features mentioned in sense 1, is called a dumb terminal. There is a classic quote from Rob Pike (inventor of the blit terminal): "A smart terminal is not a smartass terminal, but rather a terminal you can educate." This illustrates a common design problem: The attempt to make peripherals (or anything else) intelligent sometimes results in finicky, rigid `special features' that become just so much dead weight if you try to use the device in any way the designer didn't anticipate. Flexibility and programmability, on the other hand, are really smart. Compare hook. From Jargon Dictionary


A smartcard utility for Linux `smartcard' allows you to control a smart card reader from the command line. Currently, it supports just a few basic commands which only work on plain I2C memory cards. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Versatile and Intelligent List Processor SmartList is a mailing list manager built on top of the procmail mail processing package. Some features: * Enough intelligence to overcome the ignorance of some subscribers (will direct subscribe and unsubscribe requests away from the regular list and automatically onto the -request address). * No hardwired format for (un)subscribe requests (i.e. new subscribers need not be educated, unsubscribing users do not need to remember any particular syntax). *Intelligent* automatic removal of addresses from the list that cause too many bounces. * Duplicate submissions are eliminated automatically. * You can set up a mailing list to function as a standalone mail archive server. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


SMART suite - SMART utility suite for Linux SMART suite controls and monitors storage devices running the Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology System (S.M.A.R.T.) build into ATA and SCSI Hard Drives. This is used to check the reliability of the hard drive and predict drive failures. The suite contains two utilities: smartctl is a command line utility designed to perform simple smart tasks; smartd is a daemon that periodically monitors smart status and reports errors to syslog. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A Windows Network client that is accessible through a web browser. With this package you will be able to browse a Windows Network using a standard web browser. It is based upon the samba package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Set or get ACLs on an NT file or directory names From whatis


A LanManager like simple client for Unix. The Samba software suite is a collection of programs that implements the SMB protocol for unix systems, allowing you to serve files and printers to Windows, NT, OS/2 and DOS clients. This protocol is sometimes also referred to as the LanManager or NetBIOS protocol. This package contains some client components of the Samba suite. In particular it includes the command line utilities smbclient, smbtar, and smbspool. If you want to mount shares exported from Microsoft Windows machines or a Samba server you must install the smbfs package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


ftp-like client to access SMB/CIFS resources on servers From whatis


send messages to smbd or nmbd processes From whatis


server to provide SMB/CIFS services to clients From whatis


mount and umount commands for the smbfs (for kernels >= than 2.2.x) Smbfs is a filesystem which understands the SMB protocol. This is the protocol Windows for Workgroups, Windows NT or LAN Manager use to talk to each other. It was inspired by samba, the program by Andrew Tridgell that turns any unix site into a file server for DOS or Windows clients. If you want to use command-line utilities like smbclient, smbtar and/or smbspool just need to install the smbclient package. Starting with the Debian Samba packages version 2.2.0-1, the old smbfs utilities for 2.0.x have been removed. There are no wrapper scripts that call a specific smbmount/smbumount depending on the kernel version. If you are using a 2.0.x kernel please upgrade or use the latest Samba 2.0.7 Debian package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


helper utility for mounting SMB filesystems From whatis


mount an smbfs filesystem From whatis


The Samba encrypted password file From whatis


change a user's SMB password From whatis


send print file to an SMB printer From whatis


report on current Samba connections From whatis


shell script for backing up SMB/CIFS shares directly to UNIX tape drives From whatis


smbfs umount for normal users From whatis


A major Emacs mode for editing Standard ML. It provides syntax highlighting and automatic indentation and comes with sml-proc which allows interaction with an inferior SML interactive loop. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A latency logging and graphing system. SmokePing is a latency logging and graphing system. It consists of a daemon process which organizes the latency measurements and a CGI which presents the graphs. With SmokePing you can measure latency and packet loss in your network. SmokePing uses RRDtool to maintain a longterm datastore and to draw pretty graphs giving up to the minute information on the state of each network connection. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


script to get information about the installed version of SMPEG From whatis


SMPEG GTK+ MPEG audio/video player SMPEG (SDL MPEG Player Library) is a free MPEG1 video player library with sound support. Video playback is based on the ubiquitous Berkeley MPEG player, mpeg_play v2.2. Audio is played through a slightly modified mpegsound library, part of splay v0.8.2. SMPEG supports MPEG audio (MP3), MPEG-1 video, and MPEG system streams. This package contains a GTK+ player called gtv. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


SMPEG command line MPEG audio/video player SMPEG (SDL MPEG Player Library) is a free MPEG1 video player library with sound support. Video playback is based on the ubiquitous Berkeley MPEG player, mpeg_play v2.2. Audio is played through a slightly modified mpegsound library, part of splay v0.8.2. SMPEG supports MPEG audio (MP3), MPEG-1 video, and MPEG system streams. This package contains a command line player called plaympeg. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


SDL MPEG Player Library - XMMS plugin SMPEG (SDL MPEG Player Library) is a free MPEG1 video player library with sound support. This package contains an XMMS plugin for playing MPEG movies. It supports hardware acceleration, seeking in movies, fullscreen mode, a resizeable window and VideoCD support. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Session Manager Proxy From whatis


SendMail Restricted SHell: the shell that Sendmail uses to execute programs. smrsh puts restrictions on the programs that can be run to make it safer than using a regular shell such as the Bourne Shell. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


Send SMs via Polish GSM operators This program allows you to send SMs (Short Messages - incorrectly being called SMSes) to mobile phones operated by three Polish GSM operators: Era, Plus and Idea. It sends the messages via web-to-SMS gateways by spoofing a web browser. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A program for sending short messages (SM / SMS) smsclient is a tool for sending short messages (SM - often false named SMS). SM can be sent to mobile phones. Additional some paging systems are supported by this tool. smsclient supports the common protocols UCP, TAP and some other. Out of the box there is preconfigured support for many local services, but smsclient can be easily extended to support other systems. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Utility to send SMS messages to GSM mobile phones smssend is a small command line utility to send SMS messages to GSM mobile phones via a web to SMS gateway. Web to SMS gateways are scriptable. this package includes scripts for many common sms web gateways. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


SMS Server Tools for GSM modems The SMS Server Tools make your server into a central SMS gateway. You can send and receive SM using a simple file-based interface. This Software was made for users who send less than 20 000 messages each month. There is an event-handler option that allows you to call your own programs or scripts after sent or received SM. The SMS Server Tools use one or more (max. 32) GSM modems to send and receive SM. You can equip some modems with Vodafone SIM cards and other with Telmi SIM cards (for example), to save money. All SM are sorted in queues by provider. If one modem fails it will be deactivated for one hour before the software retries. The other modems run without any restriction. You can log status information and alarms using the syslog daemon of your operating system. Upstream URL: http://www.isis.de/members/~s.frings/smstools/ From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Show Me The Money is a configurable Perl/Tk stock ticker program smtm, which is a not overly clever acronym for Show Me The Money, is a simple stock ticker application. It creates and automatically updates a window with stock quotes from Yahoo! Finance. When called with one or several stock symbols, it displays these selected stocks, and also records the symbols for later use. When smtm is called without arguments, it reads the symbols tickers from a (default or specified) file. This file can be created explicitly by calling the Save option from the File menu, or implicitly whenever smtm is called with one or more symbols. smtm is fully configurable -- it can display the stock symbol and the full name of the company, the price change, the percentage change, the volume traded, the profit or loss, the value of the holding, the length of the holding period as well as annualised percentage returns. The display can be sort on almost any of the columns. Losers are flagged in red. smtm can be used for North American equities, as well as European and Australian/NZ ones. It should work for other markets supported by Yahoo! Finance. The quotes are delayed, typically 15 minutes for NASDAQ and 20 minutes otherwise, see Yahoo! Finance for details. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Simple spam-block with refusal message Smtp-refuser can be configured to reject mail from specific hosts (or that satisfy other tcpd hosts.allow or similar rules), returning a meaningful message including the reason it was bounced and a local phone number. Because spam often has a bad envelope-from, (and because this is more efficient), we bounce it with an error message during the SMTP transaction, rather than send bounce mail later. This SMTP refuser is used along with "tcpd" or (another TCP security daemon) to bounce messages from the IP addresses of known spammers. The advantage of this over just blocking the connection is that the remote SMTP server will not retry, and a legitimate e-mail sender will get a polite message telling them why their mail was blocked and whom to call to get around the blocking. Mail that is not blocked by smtp-refuser is delivered to your standard mail transport agent. Other, more automated solutions such as RBL and ORBS (supported by most of the mail transfer agents), have become available since smtp-refuser was written, but this may still be of interest to you. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Mail proxy for firewalls with anti-spam and anti-relay features Smtpd uses two programs, smtpd which listens for incoming mail and places it in a private queue, and smtpfwdd, which invokes sendmail to deliver messages from the queue. The configuration file for smtpd has powerful features for controlling the acceptance of incoming mail. It is particularly useful for firewall sites, where the policy aspects of which mail should be accepted (in smtpd's configuration file) are clearly separated from the routing and other aspects of the mail configuration (which remain in the sendmail configuration file) It can be used with any mail-transport-agent which can be invoked as sendmail but is intended to integrate with the Debian sendmail package, which recognises when smtpd has been installed. If you are attempting to use it with an MTA other than sendmail then you will need to be prepared to modify the MTA configuration. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


SMTP feed -- SMTP Fast Exploding External Deliver for Sendmail Smtpfeed is a SMTP delivery agent which is called by sendmail, and it improves required time to complete delivery of copies of a message to recipients of huge number. Note that smtpfeed still in ALPHA testing release. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A SoundFont editor for Linux / *nix Smurf is a sound font editor. Sound font files are a collection of audio samples and other data that describe instruments for wavetable sound cards. Smurf currently supports the AWE 32/64 and has limited support for the GUS/SoftOSS driver which can use any OSS supported 16 bit sound card. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


An exploit that sends a ping to a broadcast address using a spoofed source address. Everyone on the target segment responds to the source address, thereby flooding it with traffic. From Hacking-Lexicon


Small NNTP server for leaf sites sn is a small news system for small sites serving perhaps a few dozen newsgroups, and with a slow connection to the internet. It is similar to leafnode (ftp.troll.no, by Arnt Gulbrandsen). The target user is a home or SOHO with a single modem connection to the Internet, maybe running IP masq or similar, and serving a few workstations. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A relatively complete algebraic calculator for GNOME. SNAC is a calculator for X using the GNOME libraries. It provides a decent set of functions, similar to what you would find on a low-end scientific calculator. While not very complex it's quite useful and is the best simple calculator I've found for X using the GNOME libraries. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


ASN.1 to C or C++ or IDL compiler Snacc is short for "Sample Neufeld ASN.1 to C Compiler" and ASN.1 stands for Abstract Syntax Notation One (ITU-T X.208/ISO 8824). Snacc supports a subset of ASN.1 1988. If you need features of ASN.1 1992 or later, snacc is not for you. Given an ASN.1 source file(s) snacc can produce: 1. C routines for BER encoding, decoding, printing and freeing. 2. C++ routines for BER encoding, decoding, and printing. 3. A type table that can be used with C driver routines for BER encoding, decoding, printing and freeing. If you want to build snacc based applications, you want to install the libsnacc-dev package, too. Your application will then depend on the snacc libraries, you find in the libsnacc0 package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Snake game This is a basic but nice implementation of the snake game. The objective is to "snake around" and eat fruit, while avoiding the evil headbanger and not crashing into your tail. Features five levels of difficulty and a site-wide high score list. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A Perl-based console Napster client Snap is a small, Perl-based, command-line Napster client written with the Perl Curses bindings. It is designed to be small yet fully functional, while providing a powerful scripting environment through the use of Perl. Snap supports full song searching/browsing with regular expression filtering, multiple simultaneous uploads and downloads with upload speed throttling, resume support, chatting, hotlists, all Napster admin commands including Opennap extensions, alternate server and metaserver support, and much more. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A program for creating and studying hyperbolic 3-manifolds. SnapPea is Jeff Weeks' computational tool for mathematicians working in low-dimensional topology. It is used for creating and studying hyperbolic 3-manifolds, and is accessible via Python scripts as well as through a traditional graphical user interface. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A command-line URL grabber Snarf is a utility retrieve files via the http and ftp protocols. It supports http redirect, http and ftp resume, http and ftp authentication, and other neat things. Its functionality is similar to that of wget, but with a much smaller binary. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Sound file editor Snd is a powerful sound file editor that can be customized and extended using the Scheme programming language. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Easy soundcard configuration Sndconfig is a utility that lets you configure your soundcard easily. It was written originally for RedHat Linux, but now it is available for Debian GNU/Linux, too. Sndconfig uses isapnp to detect common soundcards and writes a isapnp configuration to and module control lines for use with your sound card. It requires a kernel with OSS sound modules to be present. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


report process status From whatis


v.,n. 1. To watch IP packets traversing a local network. Most often in the phrase `packet sniffer', a program for doing same. 2.Synonym for poll. From Jargon Dictionary

sniffer (sniffing, packet sniffer)

A wiretap that eavesdrops on computer networks. Key point: You have be between the sender and the receiver in order to sniff traffic. This is easy in corporations using shared media, but practically impossible with an ISP unless you break into their building or be an employee. Key point: Sniffers are frequently used as part of automated programs to sift information off the wire, such as clear-text passwords, and sometimes password hashes (to be crack). Further reading: http://www.robertgraham.com/pubs/sniffing-faq.html. From Hacking-Lexicon


packet sniffer and monitoring tool sniffit is a packet sniffer for TCP/UDP/ICMP packets. sniffit is able to give you very detailed technical info on these packets (SEC, ACK, TTL, Window, ...) but also packet contents in different formats (hex or plain text, etc. ). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


NET SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Apps. The NET SNMP applications allow querying the NET and other SNMP agents. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


NET SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) Agents. The NET SNMP agent allows remote monitoring of various network and system information. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A configurable snmp trap handler daemon for snmpd. This package contains a configurable snmp trap handler daemon for snmpd. The output of this trap handler daemon may be specified via a configuration file and written to a logfile or to the syslog daemon. During installation of this package, the configuration file for the snmptrapd daemon is changed (old version is saved) to activate the trap handler. The snmpd and snmptrapd daemons are restarted. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Captures communication between two external serial devices Snooper passes data transparently between two serial (RS232C) devices, capturing and logging the data and occasional comments you want to insert into the logs. It is useful for debugging or analyzing the communications protocol between two devices that would normally be connected directly to each other, e.g. a digital camera and a personal computer. By sitting "in the middle" (after you connect the two devices to serial ports on your Linux machine) snooper is able to capture data traveling in either direction while also passing it unmodified to the other device. It is also possible to operate with a single serial device, using your console and keyboard as the second device. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


An execve() wrapper and logger snoopy is merely a shared library that is used as a wrapper to the execve() function provided by libc as to log every call to syslog (authpriv). system administrators may find snoopy useful in tasks such as light/heavy system monitoring, tracking other administrator's actions as well as getting a good 'feel' of what's going on in the system (for example apache running cgi scripts). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Flexible NIDS (Network Intrusion Detection System) Snort is a libpcap-based packet sniffer/logger which can be used as a lightweight network intrusion detection system. It features rules based logging and can perform content searching/matching in addition to being used to detect a variety of other attacks and probes, such as buffer overflows, stealth port scans, CGI attacks, SMB probes, and much more. Snort has a real-time alerting capability, with alerts being sent to syslog, a separate "alert" file, or even to a Windows computer via Samba. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


An interactive snowflake generator. In addition to generating pretty snowflake patterns, the code for this program, as originally conceived by Raph Levien was an exercise in cryptography. The bit pattern from an ordinary ASCII string or a hexadecimal key can be used to generate a unique snowflake. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A curses-based utility that polls hosts to determine connectivity. Simple network top (sntop) is a curses-based console utility, in the spirit of top, that polls network hosts at a regular interval to determine their connectivity and displays the results in a pretty format. Advanced features, such as automatic HTML generation of results, secure terminal mode, execution of external file on connectivity change, and user/system configure files, are supported. From Debian 3.0r0 APT

social engineering (con, human engineering)

Social engineering is a form of hacking that targets people's minds rather than their computers. A typical example is sending out snail mail marketing materials with the words "You may already have won" emblazoned across the outside of the letter. As you can see, social engineering is not unique to hackers; it's main practitioners are the marketing departments of corporations. Key point: The classic example is to pretend to be from a company's computer department and call up a user asking for their password. Sophisticated hacks will first try to make the victim uncomfortable (i.e. "We've detected improper use of your account..."), then offer them the opportunity to be very helpful ("I'm sure we can check this out now and not involve your boss."). The technique often works well in reverse: call up the computer support department and tell them you've lost your password. This works especially well in companies that have policies requiring you to change your password -- people forgetting passwords on really old accounts are frequent, so support departments are deluged with such requests, so it's easy to slip one past them. Key point: Know as much about your victim as possible. If you are emulating something, try to find the answers to typical questions you will be asked. Key point: If all else fails, try stupidity. If you are a foreigner, pretend not to speak the language well. Likewise, females have certain advantages in male-dominated cultures. Example: For members-only access, please create an account: Username: Password: Confirm: People often choose the same password for everything. For example, put in your website the prompt shown to the right. A lot of users will use the same username/password for this that they use for websites like Hotmail, Yahoo mail, or Netscape mail. This will therefore sift valid e-mail accounts from people who visit your site. In a similar manner, these passwords might be useful within the companies they work for as well. Key point: Newbies are favorite victims of social-engineering attacks in chat rooms. Hackers go after people who appear to be unsure of themselves online. Key point: Many hackers do not consider social-engineering a "real" attack because it doesn't require extensive technical knowledge in order to pull off. From Hacking-Lexicon


Multi purpose socket tool The socket program is a simple tool for socket based connections. It can be used to create simple daemons (in both standalone and inetd mode), to connect to other daemons or to redirect ports. From Debian 3.0r0 APT

sockets / WinSock

In programming, the "sockets" interface is the most common way that coders use to access the network. Sockets works by creating a "file handle" that when written to, sends data over the network rather than to a file on the hard-disk. Contrast: Other interfaces programmers could use are higher-level abstractions like RPC, or lower-level "raw" interfaces like libnet. Contrast: Sockets originally came from UNIX, but has been ported to other platforms. In particular, the "WinSock" variant for Windows includes both the UNIX-style functions as well as the Windows-style functions. It is possible to write sockets-based programs that compile for both platforms. Key point: The name "sockets" comes from the TCP/IP term "socket". A socket is minimum information necessary needed to communication on the network: the source/destination IP address, the source/destination port, and the transport protocol (UDP or TCP). From Hacking-Lexicon


Socks4 enabled clients as rtelnet, rftp, ... This is version 4.3 of SOCKS, a package that allows Unix hosts behind a firewall to gain full access to the internet without requiring direct IP reachability. It does require a SOCKS server program being run on a hosts that can communicate directly to hosts behind the firewall as well as hosts on the Internet at large. It is based on the original SOCKS written by David Koblas <[email protected]>. This package includes SOCKSified client programs of finger, ftp, telnet, and whois. A few other SOCKSified clients may be found on ftp.nec.com, in directory /pub/security/socks.cstc. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


SOCKS4 server for proxying IP-based services over a firewall This is version 4.3 of SOCKS, a package that allows Unix hosts behind a firewall to gain full access to the internet without requiring direct IP reachability. It does require a SOCKS server program being run on a hosts that can communicate directly to hosts behind the firewall as well as hosts on the Internet at large. It is based on the original SOCKS written by David Koblas <[email protected]>. This package includes the SOCKS server. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Vector based drawing program. It loads and saves subset of SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) format, a standard maintained by the WWW consortium. Sodipodi user interface should be familiar from CorelDraw and similar drawing programs. There are rectangles, ellipses, text items, bitmap images and freehand curves. As an added bonus both vector and bitmap objects can have alpha transparency and can be arbitrarily transformed. Sodipodi supports multiple opened files and multiple views per file. Graphics can be printed and exported to png bitmaps. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


interpret .so requests in groff input From whatis

software bloat

n. The results of second-system effect or creeping featuritis. Commonly cited examples include ls(1), X, BSD, Missed'em-five, and OS/2. From Jargon Dictionary


Collect the boxes and don't become mad Solarwolf is an action/arcade game written entirely in Python, featuring amazing graphics and cool music. It is is originally based on the SolarFox game on the Atari 2600. All this, yet the best feature of all is; it is a hecka lotta fun! The point of the game is to scramble through 48 levels of patterns, collecting all the boxes. The part that makes it tricky is avoiding the relentless hailstorm of fire coming at you from all directions. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Ear training program for GNOME GNU Solfege is an ear training program for X Window written in python, using the GTK+ and GNOME libraries. Ear training is a big subject with many connections to music theory and performance of music, so I won't even try to make "a complete computer-based eartraining course". But I hope someone find this software useful. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


POP3 server supporting Maildir, PAM, vhosting The Solid POP3 Server is an implementation of a Post Office Protocol version 3 server that has flexibility as its main goal. The server is easily configurable and has support for features such as: - APOP authentication scheme - virtual hosting - maildir and mailbox handling - bulletins - expiration of messages From Debian 3.0r0 APT


email notifier GNOME applet Sonicmail is a POP3 email notifier GNOME applet. It will notify you when you receive new emails by displaying a selectable icon in the applet. Also, optionally, a sound may be played. Sonicmail is fully configurable. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


sort lines of text files From whatis


a simple mail sorter sortmail is a simple mail sorter you can use in your .forward to sort your mail into folders automatically, delete unwanted mail, etc. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Direct-to-disk recording and play-back programs. sound-recorder is a direct-to-disk recording program. It uses the recording input from the mixer on your soundcard and records it to a file cdsound-recorder is an enhancement to sound-recorder which makes it easy to record tracks or samples from a cdrom to a file. With the play-sample program you can play the recorded audio or play all other non-compressed and compressed wave-files. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


play a raw audio file and interactively select and save pieces From the perl department of the Maximegalon museum of diseased imaginings. soundgrab is a script that lets you interactively select and save your favorite parts of a raw audio file to other files via a command line interface. It does this by providing you with the basic commands you would expect from an audio cassette deck (play, stop, ff, rw) plus some additions: mark, which places a marker at the current position of the head, and export, which saves the audio data between the mark and the current head position to a file you specify in wav, cdr (cd mastering), raw data, flac, or ogg format. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Sound Card Amateur Packet Radio Modems This package contains the driver and diagnostic utility for the userspace SoundModem suite by Thomas Sailer. This package allows you to use any soundcard supported by the kernel as an Amateur Packet Radio modem. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Sound module editor/player. Supports .xm modules, .xi instruments. Soundtracker is a module tracker for the X Window System and Gnome similar to the DOS program `FastTracker', i.e. the user creates music by rearranging sound samples into `tracks'. For more information about tracking, see http://www.united-trackers.org/ From Debian 3.0r0 APT


n. [very common] In reference to software, `source' is invariably shorthand for `source code', the preferred human-readable and human-modifiable form of the program. This is as opposed to object code, the derived binary executable form of a program. This shorthand readily takes derivative forms; one may speak of "the sources of a system" or of "having source". From Jargon Dictionary

source code

The form in which a computer program is written by the programmer. Source code is written in some formal programming language which can be compiled automatically into object code or machine code or executed by an interpreter. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

source route

In network network protocols, source routing is the capability whereby the sender can specify the route a packet should take. Analogy: Somebody asks you how to get to the freeway. You can give them two responses: You tell them to drive a little further on, and there will be signs pointing to the freeway. You tell them just to follow the signs. This is normal routing: you simply hand the packet off to the routers, and let them worry about which direction the packet takes. You tell them to drive up 3 blocks, turn left, then go 2 blocks, then turn right, then go one more block and bear left onto the onramp. This is source routing: you tell the packet every hop it should take through the network. Key point: The hacker can give the packets routes that go around firewalls. From Hacking-Lexicon


Integrated development project framework This package provides many services a development project can use, such as bug-tracking, task management, mailing-lists, CVS repository, forums, support request helper, web page / FTP hosting, release management, etc. All these services are integrated into one web site. They are managed via a nice web interface. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Source code analysis, editor, browser and build tool. Source-Navigator is a source code analysis tool which lets users to edit, browse and build their projects. With it, you can edit your source code, display relationships between classes and functions and members, and display call trees. You can also build your projects, either with your own makefile, or by using Source-Navigator's build system to automatically generate a makefile. Source-Navigator works with the Insight GUI interface for GDB. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A universal sound sample translator. SOX (SOund eXchange) is a generic utility for translating sound files from one format to another, possibly performing a sound effect at the same time. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


SoX (Sound eXchange) is a sound file format converter for Linux, UNIX and DOS PCs. The self-described 'Swiss Army knife of soundtools,' SoX can convert between many different digitized sound formats and perform simple sound manipulation functions, including sound effects. Install the sox package if you'd like to convert sound file formats or manipulate some sounds. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


James Clark's SGML parsing tools This package is a collection of SGML/XML tools called SP. These tools are used to parse, validate, and normalize SGML and XML files. The central programs included in this package are 'nsgmls', which replaces sgmls, 'spam', 'spent', 'sgmlnorm', and 'sgml2xml'. Author: James Clark <[email protected]> Homepage: http://www.jclark.com/sp/ From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A 3D space combat simulator Orbit is a 3D space combat simulator. It features realistic Newtonian physics and actual images of the planets. In Orbit, you can fly your space ship to explore the planets and moons of the solar system, or if you're feeling like some action, you can hunt down and destroy alien invaders. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Star map viewer and navigator SpaceChart is a program to display 3d maps of stars and move freely around it. It is capable of showing only a subset of the stars in a given data file, and only those within a given distance of the center of the display. Also, it shows lines between stars that are closer than a given distance. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A popular canned meat product. Also, sending unwanted messages to a public forum, possibly a reference to the famous Spam sketch Spam Sketch by Monty Python. From KADOWKEV


Most spam comes through open SMTP relays. Spam is generally sent through the SMTP mail transfer protocol, though spammers are increasingly making use of web-based e-mail. A big source of spam comes from people who spider websites looking for web-pages that contain e-mail addresses. Since a lot of a web-sites will archive mailing lists and USENET groups, posting to a "private" list will often still expose your e-mail address. The SirCam worm of 2001 spidered the HTML files on the local web-browser cache to forward e-mail, creating a hugely effective manner for discovering new e-mail addresses. Spammers will usually spoof their e-mail address -- you can virtually never reply to the "sender" e-mail address. Netiquette: Use Bcc to send to multiple recipients rather than Cc: or To: fields in order to avoid exposing friends e-mail addresses to potential spammers. Firewalls don't block spam. The @Home cable modem ISP now regularly scans its customers for open USENET relays that spammers often hijack in order to forward spam on newsgroups. Some people are so emotionally against spam that they will will completely shun all access from networks known to be sources of spam. Websites will sometimes scan clients with SNMP or NetBIOS in order to discover their login name. Likewise, some websites sift HTTP fields for usernames (though virtually all web-browsers have disabled this feature). A Rumpelstiltskin attack is where a spammer sends e-mail to all possible names ([email protected], [email protected], [email protected], ...) at a domain. This is similar to a brute-force attack. From Hacking-Lexicon


an SGML markup stream editor From whatis


vt.,vi.,n. [from "Monty Python's Flying Circus"] 1. To crash a program by overrunning a fixed-size buffer with excessively large input data. See also buffer overflow, overrun screw, smash the stack. 2. To cause a newsgroup to be flooded with irrelevant or inappropriate messages. You can spam a newsgroup with as little as one well- (or ill-) planned message (e.g. asking "What do you think of abortion?" on soc.women). This is often done with cross-posting (e.g. any message which is crossposted to alt.rush-limbaugh and alt.politics.homosexuality will almost inevitably spam both groups). This overlaps with troll behavior; the latter more specific term has become more common. 3. To send many identical or nearly-identical messages separately to a large number of Usenet newsgroups. This is more specifically called `ECP', Excessive Cross-Posting. This is one sure way to infuriate nearly everyone on the Net. See also velveeta and jello. 4. To bombard a newsgroup with multiple copies of a message. This is more specifically called `EMP', Excessive Multi-Posting. 5. To mass-mail unrequested identical or nearly-identical email messages, particularly those containing advertising. Especially used when the mail addresses have been culled from network traffic or databases without the consent of the recipients. Synonyms include UCE, UBE. 6. Any large, annoying, quantity of output. For instance, someone on IRC who walks away from their screen and comes back to find 200 lines of text might say "Oh no, spam". The later definitions have become much more prevalent as the Internet has opened up to non-techies, and to most people senses 3 4 and 5 are now primary. All three behaviors are considered abuse of the net, and are almost universally grounds for termination of the originator's email account or network connection. In these senses the term `spam' has gone mainstream, though without its original sense or folkloric freight - there is apparently a widespread myth among lusers that "spamming" is what happens when you dump cans of Spam into a revolving fan. Hormel, the makers of Spam, have published a surprisingly enlightened position statement on the Internet usage. From Jargon Dictionary


Perl-based spam filter using text analysis This package contains a script that is designed to be called from a user's .forward or .procmailrc file, and acts to filter out all junk or spam e-mail. It also contains a daemon and client (written in C) designed for high load servers, reducing loading overhead. It includes automatic white-listing, RBL testing, and header and body testing for common spam contents. With librazor-perl, it also checks messages against an online collaborative database. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Filter spam from incoming mail This package contains a framework to make it easy to filter spam (i.e. junk email) from your incoming mail. It is intended as a user-controlled filter instead of being attached to the MTA as would otherwise be required. All a user has to do is run "spamfilter" and edit one file to set personal information (email addresses, etc.) to have a fully functional spam filter on their incoming mail. Once installed, the filter is infinitely customizable by the user via the rules of procmail. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


a simple TeX DVI previewer with a simple GTK+ UI spawg is a simple TeX DVI(DeVice Independent) file previewer for the X Window System. It has no color support, but anti-aliasing is still supported. Unlike spawx11, it has a humble but comfortable GTK+ frontend. No-anti-aliasing version (spwg) is also included, too. This is a part of the TeX-Guy distribution. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


to create a child process in a multitasking operating system. Eg. Linux's fork system call. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


a simple TeX DVI previewer for X11 spawx11 is a simple TeX DVI(DeVice Independent) file previewer for the X Window System. It has no color support, but anti-aliasing is still supported. No-anti-aliasing versions (spwx11 and spx11) are also included, too. This is a part of the TeX-Guy distribution. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Tcl/Tk speaker-phone application speaker is a speaker-phone application for US Robotics and Rockwell voice modems. If your modem has a speaker-phone feature implemented in hardware, then you can use speaker to control your modem. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Tools to ease the creation of rpm packages for the Mandrake Linux distribution. Compress man pages using bzip2, strip executables, convert links... From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


The specspo package contains the portable object catalogues used to internationalize Red Hat packages. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


Fast 48k ZX Spectrum Emulator (common files) Spectemu emulates the 48k ZX Spectrum, which uses the Z80 microprocessor. This package contains common configuration files and utilities which are or can be used by either the X11 or the SVGAlib frontend. It emulates the Z80 processor as well as the 48k Spectrum's other hardware: keyboard, screen, sound, tape I/O. The emulation is very close to the real thing, but it is still quite fast (It was reported to be working well on a laptop with 486 at 25MHz!). On the other hand, the user interface is not the best. Features include: - Sound support through Linux kernel sound-card driver. - Snapshot saving and loading (.Z80 and .SNA format) - Tape emulation: loading from tape files (.TAP and .TZX format) - Optional quick loading of tapes. - Saving to tape files. - Separate utility to save tape files to real tape - Configurable with config files and from command line From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Edinburgh Speech Tools - user binaries This package contains the various highly useful (to speech scientists, at least) utility programs that use and accompany the Edinburgh Speech Tools Library. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Dired on steroids Speedbar is an Emacs Lisp program which allows you to create a special skinny frame with a specialized directory listing in it. This listing will have both directories and filtered files in it. You can then load files into your emacs frame, or expand the files to display all the tags that are in them and jump to those tags. You can also expand multiple directories into your speedbar frame. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


speed up perl scripts by making them persistent. SpeedyCGI is a way to run perl scripts persistently, which usually makes them run much more quickly because it avoids the overhead of starting up a new perl interpreter and compiling the perl code. It is most often used for CGI scripts but it can be used to speed up most perl programs. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


GNU Spell, a clone of Unix `spell' GNU Spell is a spell checking program which prints each misspelled word on a line of its own. It is designed as a clone of the standard Unix `spell' program, and implemented as a wrapper for Ispell. Spell accepts as its arguments a list of files to read from. Within that list, the magical file name `-' causes Spell to read from standard input. In addition, when called with no file name arguments, Spell assumes that it should process standard input. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The classic hand-waving multi-player X game of spellcasting. Spellcast is a classic game of might and magic for the X Windowing System. Two or more wizards duke it out with spells, summons, and plain old poking with fingers. Good for hour[s] of fun. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Utilities to spell-check selectively Spellutils is a suite of programs which are used to isolate some parts from various types of files and hand them over to another program which may change the texts; it is typically a spell checker. Afterwards the possibly changed text parts are copied back in place in the original file. The newsbody program is intended for use on mail and news messages; it can e.g. ignore headers, quoted material and signatures. The pospell program is for use on translated strings in .po files. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


print SGML entity on the standard output From whatis


speech recognition utilities Sphinx 2 is a real-time, speaker-independent speech recognition system. This package contains examples and utilities that use Sphinx. It also includes a sample language model that is capable of recognizing simple commands like "go forward ten meters" and other commands one might use to tell a robot where to move. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


speech recognition library - default acoustic model Sphinx 2 is a real-time, speaker-independent speech recognition system. This package contains an acoustic model for Sphinx-II trained for close-talking microphones. It is the default acoustic model used by the demos, and should provide adequate performance for most desktop applications. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Sony Vaio controller program to set LCD backlight brightness spicctrl is a small program that can use the Sony Programmable I/O Control device (SPIC), which is part of Sony Vaio's, to do a few simple things. Currently, it can only be used to control the brightness on the LCD backlight, and print out some information about the battery. You need a kernel with the sonypi module (and a Vaio laptop..) to use this program. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A two deck solitaire game for the X Window System. Spider is delivered in two forms: small.spider is for systems without high resolution screens so the board will fit on the screen; round.spider has prettier card backs but takes up more room on the screen. The default is round.spider. If you wish to use small.spider, either call it directly, or change the link /usr/X11R6/bin/spider to point to small.spider instead of round.spider. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


An automated program that reads webpages from a website, then follows the hypertext links to other pages. If the Internet is a "web", then a spider is something that follows the strands of the web. Key point: A website can use the file "robots.txt" to give hints to spiders what they should, or should not, index. A big problem with websites is that spiders are really good at finding webpages, even those that website operators don't care to be exposed. However, users can still find these pages due to hits from search engines. Website operators can therefore "hide" pages by listing them in "robots.txt". However, hackers will therefore read "robots.txt" in order to find webpages that website operators want hidden. Example: Spammers use spiders to sift through web pages looking for e-mail addresses. For example, if you have a link that looks like <A HREF="mailto:[email protected]">me</A> then the spam spider will find the address and funnel spam to you. A partial defense against this is to URL-encode your e-mail address, which hides it from most spam spiders, but works in most browsers. See the page at http://www.robertgraham.com/tools/mailtoencoder.html for an example. Contrast: A spider pulls information inward; a worm pushes itself outward to other systems. A spider is a type of 'bot, rather than infectious malware like viruses, trojans, or worm. From Hacking-Lexicon


a splash screen renderer From whatis


standalone program to do the same thing From whatis


a splash screen renderer From whatis


Sound player for MPEG-1,2 layer 1,2,3 Based on maplay, this package decodes layer I, II, and III MPEG audio streams and plays them from the command line using a CD-quality audio device. It uses far less computing power than one commercial equivalent, "l3dec". From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Akima spline interpolation. spline(1) interpolates an Akima-spline trough a series of given points. The Akima-spline interpolation approximates a manually drawn curve better than the ordinary splines, but the second derivation is not continuous. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Splint scans C code for mistakes and bad style. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


Creates one or more output files (as many as necessary) containing consecutive sections of the infile, or the standard input if none is given or the name `-' is given. By default, split puts 1000 lines of the input file, or whatever is left if it is less than that, into each output file. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


A program that splits mail-digests. It takes a digest from a file specified on the command line or STDIN and writes a mbox-format (Elm, Pine, VM, mailx, etc) folder with the digest. I have it preconfigured for Debian-User and Debian-Changes, but it is easily configured for any type of digest. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


run two programs in a split screen A utility to split a vt100 compatible screen into two halves, upper and lower, and run a different program simultaneously in each half. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A systems and network monitoring system -- client programs This package includes the spong applications for monitoring systems and network services, and text based programs for requesting information or acknowledging problems from the spong server Spong is a simple systems and network monitoring package. It does not compete with Tivoli, OpenView, UniCenter, or any other commercial packages. It is not SNMP based, it communicates via simple TCP based messages. It is written in perl and easily modifiable. Its features include: * client based monitoring (CPU, disk, processes, logs, etc.) * monitoring of network services (smtp, http, ping, pop, dns, etc.) * grouping of hosts (routers, servers, workstations, PCs) * rules based messaging when problems occur * configurable on a host by host basis * results displayed via text or web based interface * history of problems * verbose information to help diagnosis problems * modular programs to makes it easy to add or replace check functions or features * Big Brother BBSERVER emulation to allow Big Brother Clients to be used From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A systems and network monitoring system -- common libraries This package includes the spong perl libraries, which all spong applications depend on. Spong is a simple systems and network monitoring package. It does not compete with Tivoli, OpenView, UniCenter, or any other commercial packages. It is not SNMP based, it communicates via simple TCP based messages. It is written in perl and easily modifiable. Its features include: * client based monitoring (CPU, disk, processes, logs, etc.) * monitoring of network services (smtp, http, ping, pop, dns, etc.) * grouping of hosts (routers, servers, workstations, PCs) * rules based messaging when problems occur * configurable on a host by host basis * results displayed via text or web based interface * history of problems * verbose information to help diagnosis problems * modular programs to makes it easy to add or replace check functions or features * Big Brother BBSERVER emulation to allow Big Brother Clients to be used From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A systems and network monitoring system -- server programs This package includes the spong daemon, which collects and stores information from the spong client programs, and the program for sending out messages when problems occur. Spong is a simple systems and network monitoring package. It does not compete with Tivoli, OpenView, UniCenter, or any other commercial packages. It is not SNMP based, it communicates via simple TCP based messages. It is written in perl and easily modifiable. Its features include: * client based monitoring (CPU, disk, processes, logs, etc.) * monitoring of network services (smtp, http, ping, pop, dns, etc.) * grouping of hosts (routers, servers, workstations, PCs) * rules based messaging when problems occur * configurable on a host by host basis * results displayed via text or web based interface * history of problems * verbose information to help diagnosis problems * modular programs to makes it easy to add or replace check functions or features * Big Brother BBSERVER emulation to allow Big Brother Clients to be used From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A systems and network monitoring system -- web interface This package includes the programs for displaying the current status and history of the systems and network services, as well as charts of based on logged information when used together with rrdtool, on the World Wide Web. Spong is a simple systems and network monitoring package. It does not compete with Tivoli, OpenView, UniCenter, or any other commercial packages. It is not SNMP based, it communicates via simple TCP based messages. It is written in perl and easily modifiable. Its features include: * client based monitoring (CPU, disk, processes, logs, etc.) * monitoring of network services (smtp, http, ping, pop, dns, etc.) * grouping of hosts (routers, servers, workstations, PCs) * rules based messaging when problems occur * configurable on a host by host basis * results displayed via text or web based interface * history of problems * verbose information to help diagnosis problems * modular programs to makes it easy to add or replace check functions or features * Big Brother BBSERVER emulation to allow Big Brother Clients to be used From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The word "spoof" generally means the act of forging your identity. More specifically, it means forging the sender's IP address (IP spoofing). Analogy: When you send a letter via normal post (snail mail), you write the recipient's name and address on the envelope. You typically also write the sender's name and address as well, so that if there is an error forwarding you letter (e.g. a stamp falls off), they know who sent the letter and can return it. However, you can easily spoof it. For example, someone I know absolutely had to send a letter, but had no stamps. So he simply put the actual recipient's name as the return address section of the envelope and dropped it into the mail box. The letter was returned to sender, which of course arrived at the intended recipient. Misunderstanding: Most people are interested in spoofing because they think it will allow them to hack a machine in a completely anonymous manner. It doesn't work this way. For example, Mitnick used IP spoofing in order to attack Shimomura's computers, but was caught anyway because spoofing does not truly hide the attacker. The problem is that all responses go back to the sender, so if you've spoofed the sender, you'll never see the responses. Therefore, the spoofing is useless for any normal activity. On the other hand, spoofing can still be useful in situations where seeing the response is not necessary. In the Mitnick instance, two machines trusted each other. Therefore, Mitnick was able to emulate and entire connection between the two machines by "predicting" what all the responses would be. He used this connection to open up something on the victim machine that he could then connect to normally. It was precursor scanning the and the post-spoof connection that Shimomura used to catch Mitnick. Example: A particularly nasty form of a spoofing is TCP sequence number prediction. Theoretically, you cannot spoof any protocol based upon TCP connections. This is because both sides of a TCP connection choose their own Initial Sequence Number (ISN). In theory, this is a completely random number that cannot be guessed. In practice, it can sometimes be easily guessed. Mitnick used this technique when hacking Shimomura. As of the end of 1999, operating systems such as Linux, WinNT, and Win2k have implemented truly random ISNs in order to defeat this type of attack. Example: In terms of volume of traffic, the most common use of spoofing today is smurf and fraggle attacks. These attacks spoofed packets against amplifiers in order to overload the victim's connection. This is done by sending a single packet to a broadcast address with the victim as the source address. All the machines within the broadcast domain then respond back to the victim, overloading the victim's Internet connection. Since smurfing accounts for more than half the traffic on some backbones, ISPs are starting to take spoofing seriously and have started implementing measures within their routers that verify valid source addresses before passing the packets. As a consequence, spoofing will become increasingly more difficult as time goes on. Key point: Most of the discussion of spoofing centers around clients masquerading as somebody else. On the other hand, the reverse problem is equally worrisome: hackers can often spoof servers. For example, I post on my website that there is a serious security fix needed to protect yourself while on the web, and point you to http://www.micrsoft.com and hope that you never notice that the URL is misspelled. You would then go to that site (which would be really my server) and download the patch, which would really be a Trojan Horse that I designed in order to break into your computer. This is why server-side certificates are important: they allow someone to validate that the server isn't bogus. Key point: As the analogy with postal mail shows, many things can be forged, not just the sender's IP address. Most spammers forge their sender's e-mail address in order to avoid all the hate mail they will receive in response. Forging your own sender e-mail address is as simple as reconfiguring your e-mail client -- anybody can do it. (However, there are more secrets to this, which mean you can still be caught by any determined person). Contrast: Blind spoofing describes when you have no knowledge of the responses. Non-blind spoofing is when you are somewhere "in the line of site" as one end of the connection and can sniff some packets. For example, you may spoof a neighbor on the same cable-modem segment. Non-blind spoofing is also used in sniffers like juggernaut to either kill connections or to hijack them. From Hacking-Lexicon


vi. To capture, alter, and retransmit a communication stream in a way that misleads the recipient. As used by hackers, refers especially to altering TCP/IP packet source addresses or other packet-header data in order to masquerade as a trusted machine. This term has become very widespread and is borderline techspeak. From Jargon Dictionary


Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line - To send files to some device or program (a `spooler') that queues them up and does something useful with them later. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


vi. [from early IBM `Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line', but is widely thought to be a backronym] To send files to some device or program (a `spooler') that queues them up and does something useful with them later. Without qualification, the spooler is the `print spooler' controlling output of jobs to a printer; but the term has been used in connection with other peripherals (especially plotters and graphics devices) and occasionally even for input devices. See also demon. From Jargon Dictionary

spool file

n. Any file to which data is spooled to await the next stage of processing. Especially used in circumstances where spooling the data copes with a mismatch between speeds in two devices or pieces of software. For example, when you send mail under Unix, it's typically copied to a spool file to await a transport demon's attentions. This is borderline techspeak. From Jargon Dictionary


a powerful Web-based discussion forum. A powerful Web-based discussion forum. Its features include user registration, cookie-based login, a built-in search engine, multiple forums, the ability to customize using the built-in administration package, and much more. Sporum uses SQL server to store data, so postings and searches run on the forum are extremely fast and efficient. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Simple Panel Plot Composer This is SPPC (Simple Panel Plot Composer). It can make output to postscript, ppm and gif files, or display in an OpenGL window. It is used by tela, but can also be used standalone. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


spyLinux is (s)mall (py)thon (Linux), a single disk distribution of Linux based on tomsrtbt with mxCGIPython. From LWN Distribution List


squeeze a sorted word list unsq - unsqueeze a sorted word list From whatis


editor of SQL databases, with 'join' capability sql-editor lets the user edit the contents of the tables of a SQL database through a convenient Gtk graphical interface. The user can also select in the database, using an SQL SELECT query, and browse the results. sql-editor does not create tables, nor it does any other administrative task: you may use mysql-navigator for these. sql-editor is aware of joins (which can be specified by using reg.expressions) THIS EDITOR IS VERY YOUNG AND NOT THROUGHLY TESTED. DO NOT USE IT TO EDIT VALUABLE DATA. (though it should be safe to use it to browse data) sql-editor uses the python module dbGtk, which is included in this package; this module provides classes that automatically parse the structure of SQL tables and prepare Gtk widgets to edit the entries of the tables; these classes rely on a backend module that should be compatible to Python db-api 2.0. dbGtk has been tested on mySql databases, using the module MySQLdb; it may work on PostgreSQL databases, using the module pgSQL From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A command line interface for SQLite SQLite is is a C library that implements an SQL database engine. Programs that link with the SQLite library can have SQL database access without running a separate RDBMS process. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


commandline SQL client for MS SQL and Sybase servers sqsh is a flexible commandline utility that uses the freetds libraries to connect to Sybase or Microsoft SQL servers. It is a useful debugging tool for identifying problems with other SQL applications, and it can be used as a productivity tool in its own right: unlike most SQL CLIs, sqsh's interactive shell lets you pipe the output of SQL queries directly to other Unix commands for further processing. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Internet Object Cache (WWW proxy cache) This is the Squid Internet Object Cache developed by the National Laboratory for Applied Networking Research (NLANR) and Internet volunteers. This software is freely available for anyone to use. The Squid home page is http://www.squid-cache.org/ From Debian 3.0r0 APT


filter, redirector and access controller plug for Squid squidGuard is a free (GPL), flexible and ultra fast filter, redirector and access controller plugin for squid. It lets you define multiple access rules with different restrictions for different user groups on a squid cache. squidGuard uses squid's standard redirector interface. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Squid log monitoring program Squidtaild is a very fast, highly configurable Perl program that will dynamicly create html pages that display the violations that people made one or more of the filters you have applied to the squid proxy logging system. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Webmail for nuts SquirrelMail is a standards-based webmail package written in PHP4. It includes built-in pure PHP support for the IMAP and SMTP protocols, and all pages render in pure HTML 4.0 (with no Javascript) for maximum compatibility across browsers. It has very few requirements and is very easy to configure and install. SquirrelMail has all the functionality you would want from an email client, including strong MIME support, address books, and folder manipulation. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Web-based News/Discussion System SquishDot is a web-based news publishing and discussion product for the Z Object Publishing Environment(ZOPE). It allows you to build a web-based news site along with the capability to handle threaded discussions with a minimum of configuration and day-to-day management. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Webmail Server This package contains the SqWebMail webmail server. This CGI is used by the Courier mail server to provide webmail access to local mailboxes. SqWebMail is provided here as a separate package that can be used with other mail servers as well. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A converter from source program files to TeX format files src2tex [resp. src2latex] is a sort of text converter from BASIC, C, C++, OBJECTIVE-C, COBOL, FORTRAN, HTML, JAVA, LISP, MAKE, PASCAL, PERL, SCHEME, SHELL, TCL/TK and ASIR, MACSYMA, MAPLE, MATHEMATICA, MATLAB, MAXIMA, MuPAD, OCTAVE, REDUCE to TeX [resp. LaTeX]. However, it is not a simple pretty-printer; actually, it is designed to fulfill the following desires: (1) We want to write mathematical formulae in comment area of source program. (2) We would like to patch PS or EPS figures upon source program. (3) We need a simple and easy-to-use tool which enables to combine documentation and manual with source program. (4) We often have to translate our program from text format to TeX format when we want to quote our own program in research report, lecture note, etc. That is quite time consuming, so it should be automated. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The super sed stream editor. Super sed reads the specified files or the standard input if no files are specified, makes editing changes according to a list of commands, and writes the results to the standard output. Super sed is an enhanced version of GNU sed 3.02. Relative to 3.02, there are several new features (including in-place editing of files, extended regular expression syntax and a few new commands) and some bug fixes. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A standard for cryptographic connections over a TCP connection. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


Secure rlogin/rsh/rcp replacement (OpenSSH) This is the portable version of OpenSSH, a free implementation of the Secure Shell protocol as specified by the IETF secsh working group. Ssh (Secure Shell) is a program for logging into a remote machine and for executing commands on a remote machine. It provides secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network. X11 connections and arbitrary TCP/IP ports can also be forwarded over the secure channel. It is intended as a replacement for rlogin, rsh and rcp, and can be used to provide applications with a secure communication channel. In some countries, particularly Iraq, and Pakistan, it may be illegal to use any encryption at all without a special permit. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


adds RSA or DSA identities to the authentication agent From whatis


authentication agent From whatis


under X, asks user for a passphrase for ssh-add This is Jim Knoble's free implementation of the ssh-askpass program. Jim calls this x11-ssh-askpass, but I've decided to call it ssh-askpass to make it easier to find, because this is almost certainly the version you want. The other two versions from the OpenSSH source are also available if you're interested (as ssh-askpass-ptk and ssh-askpass-gnome). The non-free implementation is no longer being packaged. Its source is still available, as part of ssh-nonfree's source. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


under X, asks user for a passphrase for ssh-add This has been split out of the main ssh package, so that the ssh will not need to depend upon the Gnome libraries. You probably want the ssh-askpass package instead, but this is provided to add to your choice and/or confusion. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


install your identity.pub in a remote machine's authorized_keys From whatis


authentication key generation, management and conversion From whatis


gather ssh public keys From whatis


Secure rlogin/rsh/rcp replacement (OpenSSH with Kerberos) This is the portable version of OpenSSH, a free implementation of the Secure Shell protocol as specified by the IETF secsh working group. Ssh (Secure Shell) is a program for logging into a remote machine and for executing commands on a remote machine. It provides secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network. X11 connections and arbitrary TCP/IP ports can also be forwarded over the secure channel. It is intended as a replacement for rlogin, rsh and rcp, and can be used to provide applications with a secure communication channel. This version of OpenSSH has been compiled with patches enabling Kerberos authentication for protocol versions 1 and 2. -------------------------------------------------------------------- In some countries, particularly Iraq, and Pakistan, it may be illegal to use any encryption at all without a special permit. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


OpenSSH SSH daemon From whatis


Convenience package to replace ssleay with openssl ssleay was replaced by openssl This package provides, that you get openssl installed when you update ssleay. You can remove this package after the upgrade with: dpkg --remove ssleay From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Simple TCP service encryption using TLS/SSL sslwrap is a simple Unix service that sits over any simple TCP service such as POP3, IMAP, SMTP and encrypts all of the data on the connection using TLS/SSL. It uses openssl to support SSL version 2 and 3. It can be run out of inetd. It can also encrypt data for services located on another computer. It works with the servers you already have and does not require any modifications to your existing servers. More information can be found at the sslwrap web site http://www.rickk.com/sslwrap/ . From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Extremely simple MTA to get mail off the system to a mail hub A secure, effective and simple way of getting mail off a system to your mail hub. It contains no suid-binaries or other dangerous things - no mail spool to poke around in, and no daemons running in the background. Mail is simply forwarded to the configured mailhost. Extremely easy configuration. WARNING: the above is all it does; it does not receive mail, expand aliases or manage a queue. That belongs on a mail hub with a system administrator. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


solar system flight simulator An OpenGL Solar System simulator which includes the sun, the nine planets, a few major satellites, and background stars. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


n. The set of things a person has to do in the future. One speaks of the next project to be attacked as having risen to the top of the stack. "I'm afraid I've got real work to do, so this'll have to be pushed way down on my stack." "I haven't done it yet because every time I pop my stack something new gets pushed." If you are interrupted several times in the middle of a conversation, "My stack overflowed" means "I forget what we were talking about." The implication is that more items were pushed onto the stack than could be remembered, so the least recent items were lost. The usual physical example of a stack is to be found in a cafeteria: a pile of plates or trays sitting on a spring in a well, so that when you put one on the top they all sink down, and when you take one off the top the rest spring up a bit. See also push and pop. At MIT, PDL used to be a more common synonym for stack in all these contexts, and this may still be true. Everywhere else stack seems to be the preferred term. Knuth ("The Art of Computer Programming", second edition, vol. 1, p. 236) says: Many people who realized the importance of stacks and queues independently have given other names to these structures: stacks have been called push-down lists, reversion storages, cellars, nesting stores, piles, last-in-first-out ("LIFO") lists, and even yo-yo lists! From Jargon Dictionary

stack frame

A "stack" in an underlying feature of programming languages like C/C++/Java. Normally, most programmers aren't even aware of the stack. It is important to infosec because subverting this hidden detail is one of the primary ways that hackers break into systems. Example: The following C code fragment shows an example of a stack overflowing: int validate_user() { char username[100];


An extremely aggressive Scheme compiler. stalin is an aggressive self-hosting Scheme compiler, designed to generate resource efficient stand-alone executables with very high computational performance. It is a batch mode compiler like gcc, not an interpreter, and is designed to be used only after your code has stabilized. It places a few limitations on the content of the source code. For example, you may not not LOAD or EVAL new expressions or procedure definitions at runtime, but in exchange, it is able to perform various global analyses which may allow it to transparently map Scheme types to C types and to use native C arithmetic operations on a per-expression basis, whenever such operations are proven safe. Further stalin can often reduce or eliminate run-time type checking and dispatching, and omit garbage collection for data of limited scope or accessability, while omitting unreachable data altogether. stalin also has a foreign procedure interface to both Xlib and OpenGL. From Debian 3.0r0 APT

standard input

the source of information for a command. This is assumed to be the keyboard unless input is redirected or piped from a file or another command. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

standard output

the destination for information from a command. This is assumed to be the terminal display unless ouput is redirected or piped to a file or another command. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


A fast posix-compliant tape archiver Star supports several tar archive formats (including ustar, GNU tar and new POSIX format). It's faster than other tar implementations due to advanced buffering. Star is also capable of archiving Access Control Lists, however this package is compiled without ACL support. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Star saves many files together into a single tape or disk archive, and can restore individual files from the archive. Star supports ACL. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


an English-Chinese dictionary software for Unix stardic is an English-Chinese dictionary software for Unix. It contains a vocabulary of about 50000 words, some with pronunciation in IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet). Features include rule match and fetching word from screen. It can display either simplified or traditional Chinese font. Home Page: http://www.cnshare.com/linux/tuijianindex.htm Author: Ma Su An <[email protected]> From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A 3-dimensional perspective star map viewer StarPlot is a GTK+ based program that can be used interactively to view three-dimensional perspective charts of stars. Charts can be re-centered, rotated, or zoomed in or out with a mouse click (this can also, of course, be done via dialog boxes for more precision). Stars may be viewed (or ignored) by spectral class and absolute magnitude. StarPlot is packaged with starconvert, a utility that converts line-oriented stellar data records to StarPlot format. Most star data files available on the Internet can be converted this way if a short file describing the original file format is provided to starconvert. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


start and stop system daemon programs From whatis


Read/Write Motorola StarTac Phone Book Entries via Serial A program with which you read and write entries in your Motorola StarTac PCS (CDMA) phone book For more info see: http://www.suspectclass.com/~sgifford/startalk/ From Debian 3.0r0 APT


initialize an X session From whatis


wrapper for stat() and statfs calls Display all information about a file that the stat() call provides and all information about a filesystem that statfs() provides. From Debian 3.0r0 APT

statd (rpc.statd, NFS status daemon)

The rpc.statd service is a relatively obscure subsystem of the NFS protocol used primarily on UNIX. It is used so that if an NFS server crashes and comes back alive, it can notify clients that this event happened. Many important vulnerabilities have been found in rpc.statd. This means that while it is not so important to system administrators, it is very important to hackers. History: In 1998, Solaris systems across the Internet were broken into via rpc.statd due to a buffer overflow vulnerability (see Solar Sunrise). In 2000, Linux systems throughout the Internet were broken into via a format string vulnerability. From Hacking-Lexicon


n. 1. Condition, situation. "What's the state of your latest hack?" "It's winning away." "The system tried to read and write the disk simultaneously and got into a totally wedged state." The standard question "What's your state?" means "What are you doing?" or "What are you about to do?" Typical answers are "about to gronk out", or "hungry". Another standard question is "What's the state of the world?", meaning "What's new?" or "What's going on?". The more terse and humorous way of asking these questions would be "State-p?". Another way of phrasing the first question under sense 1 would be "state-p latest hack?". 2. Information being maintained in non-permanent memory (electronic or human). From Jargon Dictionary

stateful inspection

A firewall marketing buzzword, stateful inspection implies that the firewall is remembering stuff from previous packets when making the decision whether or not to forward/block the current packet. Stateful inspection is needed to pass classic FTP as well as newer multimedia protocols (NetMeeting, RealAudio, etc.). Example: Class FTP has a separate control connection and data connection. When you connect to an FTP server and request a file, you tell the server to connect back to you. Since most firewalls allow outgoing connections to servers but block incoming connections, you will be able to connect to the FTP server, but you won't be able to retrieve the desired file. Stateful inspection looks at the outgoing connection and notices that you've requested the incoming connection. The firewall opens up a tiny hole allowing just that inbound connection, thus fixing the entire situation. From Hacking-Lexicon

static library

A library where the code needed by the program modules are copied directly into the executable output file. On Linux, static libraries have names like libname.a. They make for larger executables than a shared library. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


Extracts some useful statistics out of a newsgroup. This program may be useful to analyze newsgroups with respect to authors, messages length and frequency, and so on. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Displays serial port modem status lines Statserial displays a table of the signals on a standard 9-pin or 25-pin serial port, and indicates the status of the handshaking lines. It can be useful for debugging problems with serial ports or modems. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The statserial utility displays a table of the signals on a standard 9-pin or 25-pin serial port and indicates the status of the handshaking lines. Statserial is useful for debugging serial portand/or modem problems. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


collection of puzzle games similar to Tetris Attack. Another way of playing Tetris and some other cool puzzle games. Multiplayer feature and themes. Have fun ;) From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Small/Stupid Text Editor. sted, which is an abbreviation for Small/Stupid (you choose) Text Editor, is a small and/or stupid text editor. So far it doesn't do much. You can edit files, load them and save them. sted has a lot of limitations that you'll probably find quite annoying. It doesn't work very well in an xterm. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


a fast, functional MIDI sequencer STed2 is an open-source MIDI sequencer for Un*x/X platforms. Originally written by the late Takayuki "TURBO" Toda for SHARP X680x0 personal workstation series, it's now ported to GNU/Linux and fully works on ncurses and X! The most distinctive feature of STed2 is its inputting method. STed2 supports "step" inputting, which enables you to input MIDI data incredibly fast. Also supports real-time recording via /dev/midi. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The practice of hiding one piece of information inside of another. The most common example is watermarking. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux

steganography (stegano, TRANSEC)

In cryptography, steganography refers of not only obfuscating (encrypting) data, but hiding the fact that it even exists. In communications, stegano describes hiding the fact that an attempt has been made to communicate in the first place. History: In ancient times, a messenger would be shaved, then the message would be tattooed onto the skull. The hair would be allowed to grow back in, then the messenger was sent on his way. The recipient would then shave the messenger again in order to retrieve the message. From Hacking-Lexicon


A steganography tool Steghide is steganography program which hides bits of a data file in some of the least significant bits of another file in such a way that the existence of the data file is not visible and cannot be proven. Steghide is designed to be portable and configurable and features hiding data in bmp, wav and au files, blowfish encryption, MD5 hashing of passphrases to blowfish keys, and pseudo-random distribution of hidden bits in the container data. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


stereogram generator Stereograph is a stereogram generator. In detail it is a single image stereogram (SIS) generator. That is a program that produces two-dimensional images that seem to be three-dimensional (surely you know the famous works of "The Magic Eye", Stereograph produces the same output). You do _not_ need any pair of colored spectacles to regard them - everyone can learn it. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


An efficient Scheme System providing a powerful Object System Based on an ad-hoc Virtual Machine, STklos can also be compiled as a library, so that one can easily embed it in an application. The salient points of STklos are: * efficient and powerful object system based on CLOS providing - Multiple Inheritance, - Generic Functions, - Multi-methods - an efficient MOP (Meta Object Protocol) * a simple to use module system * implements the full tower of numbers defined in R5RS * easy connection to the GTK+ toolkit From Debian 3.0r0 APT


TCP/IP packet repeater in the application layer. TCP/IP packet repeater in the application layer. It repeats TCP and UDP packets from inside to outside of a firewall, or from outside to inside. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


TCP/IP packet repeater in the application layer.(SSL) TCP/IP packet repeater in the application layer. It repeats TCP and UDP packets from inside to outside of a firewall, or from outside to inside. This package was built with SSL support. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Interface for remotely powering down a node in the cluster. The STONITH module (a.k.a. STOMITH) provides an extensible interface for remotely powering down a node in the cluster. The idea is quite simple: When the software running on one machine wants to make sure another machine in the cluster is not using a resource, pull the plug on the other machine. It's simple and reliable, albeit admittedly brutal. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


kill commands after a given time Run the given command, killing it with a SIGHUP or other signal after a specified amount of time. It forks a child process to kill the parent process and any children if still present. Package also includes the pushafter utility, which waits for a specified time before running the given command. Useful when managing global IRC networks via ssh, as in: pushafter 30s stopafter 600 hup ssh -n -l dancer $host uname -a From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Storm Package Manager Storm Package Manager is a GNOME-based user-friendly replacement for the console-based package manager "dselect". Many useful features are available, such as full dependency management, APT source list editing, and package list filtering. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Organiser for /usr/local/ hierarchy GNU Stow helps the system administrator organise files under /usr/local/ by allowing each piece of software to be installed in its own tree under /usr/local/stow/, and then using symlinks to create the illusion that all the software is installed in the same place. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A system call tracer. strace is a system call tracer, i.e. a debugging tool which prints out a trace of all the system calls made by a another process/program. The program to be traced need not be recompiled for this, so you can use it on binaries for which you don't have source. System calls and signals are events that happen at the user/kernel interface. A close examination of this boundary is very useful for bug isolation, sanity checking and attempting to capture race conditions. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The strace program intercepts and records the system calls called and received by a running process. Strace can print a record ofeach system call, its arguments and its return value. Strace is useful for diagnosing problems and debugging, as well as for instructional purposes. Install strace if you need a tool to track the system calls made and received by a process. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


trace system calls and signals From whatis


capture tool (images / movies) A tool to capture single/multiple images or record movies from a video4linux device. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


In computer usage in general, a sequence of characters. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


print the strings of printable characters in files. From whatis


Discard symbols from object files. From whatis


2D strip chart for plotting x and y coordinate data. From whatis


n. Common name for the slant (`/', ASCII 0101111) character. See ASCII for other synonyms. From Jargon Dictionary

structured programming

A set of quality standards that make programs more verbose but more readable, reliable, and easily maintained. The goal of structured programming is to avoid spaghetti code caused by overreliance on GOTO statements, a problem often found in BASIC and FORTRAN programs. Structured programming-such as that promoted by C, Pascal Modula-2, and the dBASE software command language - insists that the overall program structure reflect what the program is supposed to do, beginning with the first task and proceeding logically. Indentations help make the logic clear, and the programmer is encouraged to use loops and branch control structures and named procedures rather than GOTO statements. From QUECID


change and print terminal line settings From whatis


unimplemented system calls From whatis


Stunnel is a socket wrapper which can provide SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) support to ordinary applications. For example, it can be used in conjunction with imapd to create an SSL secure IMAP server. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


Universal SSL tunnel for network daemons The stunnel program is designed to work as SSL encryption wrapper between remote client and local (inetd-startable) or remote server. The concept is that having non-SSL aware daemons running on your system you can easily setup them to communicate with clients over secure SSL channel. stunnel can be used to add SSL functionality to commonly used inetd daemons like POP-2, POP-3 and IMAP servers without any changes in the programs' code. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Change user ID or become super-user From whatis


A simple script to give an `interactive' front end to su. It can be used in menu entry commands to ask for the root password From whatis


Tool for subverting programs--"strace meets expect" SUBTERFUGUE is a framework for observing and playing with the reality of software; it's a foundation for building tools to do tracing, sandboxing, and many other things. You could think of it as "strace meets expect." [requires 2.4 kernel] From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Small newsfeed from an NNTP server with standard NNTP commands. This package contains software for copying news from an NNTP server to your local machine, and copying replies back up to an NNTP server. The suck/rpost combination allows you to run your own INN/CNEWS site, controlling where you get your news, and where you post outgoing articles. Suck/rpost use only standard NNTP commands that are used by your favorite news reader (like tin, knews, trn) such as POST and ARTICLE. If you can use tin or knews against a NNTP site, than you can use Suck/Rpost and have multiple site feeds. NOTE: Suck will not work with obsolete NNTP servers that can't handle the xhdr command. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Provides limited super user privileges to specific users. Sudo is a program designed to allow a sysadmin to give limited root privileges to users and log root activity. The basic philosophy is to give as few privileges as possible but still allow people to get their work done. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Sudo (superuser do) allows a system administrator to give certain users (or groups of users) the ability to run some (or all) commands as root while logging all commands and arguments. Sudo operates on a per-command basis. It is not a replacement for the shell. Features include: the ability to restrict what commands a user may run on aper-host basis, copious logging of each command (providing a clear audit trail of who did what), a configurable timeout of the sudo command, and the ability to use the same configuration file (sudoers) on many different machines. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


Full-text searching tools using suffix array. SUFARY is a very powerful indexing and query system using suffix array. SUFARY can handle one file at a time, and so not suited for searching a word from many files. CAUTION: Documentation for sufary is written in Japanese. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Tcl/Tk interface for SUFARY. This packages provides kwicview, a Tcl/TK based GUI for array which is a searching program of the SUFARY system. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Manage File Permissions This package previously managed permissions of files. However, the dpkg-statoverride command is the new way to do that. This package now exists only as a transition package. When it is installed, it will import the old suidmanager database into dpkg-statoverride's database. After that, it may be freely removed. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Single-user login From whatis


checksum and count the blocks in a file From whatis


Fancy clock showing time and geographical data sunclock is an X11 application that displays a map of the Earth and indicates the illuminated portion of the globe by drawing sunlit areas dark on light, night areas as light on dark. In addition to providing local time for the default timezone, it also displays GMT time, legal and solar time of major cities, their latitude and longitude, and the mutual distances of arbitrary locations on Earth. Sunclock can display meridians, parallels, tropics and arctic circles. It has builtin functions that accelerate the speed of time and show the evolution of seasons. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Software Upgrade Protocol implementation The SUP System is a set of programs developed by Carnegie Mellon University that provide for collections of files to be maintained in identical versions across a number of machines. These programs are: SUP: The "client" program, run by users or system maintainers, which initiates the upgrade activity on a machine requesting the latest version of a collection of files. SUP will normally be run as a daemon, firing up once each night (week, etc.) to upgrade the specified file collections. SUPFILESRV: The "file server" program, a daemon that is run by the system maintainer to service requests for files initiated by client SUP programs. The file server runs on every machine used as a "repository" of distributable versions of files. It runs continuously and listens for network connection requests by individual client processes; for each individual client request, a process is forked to service that request. SUPSCAN: The "file scanner" program, that may optionally be run periodically to speed up execution of the file server. It pre-compiles a list of files on the file system that match the specifications for a given file collection so that the file server need not do this during each upgrade of that collection. The file scanner is normally used daily for very large file collections that are upgraded by many clients each day; it is not so useful for small file collections or for those that are upgraded by only a few client machines per day. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Execute commands setuid root Super allows specified users to execute scripts (or other commands) as if they were root; or it can set the uid and/or gid on a per-command basis before executing the command. It is intended to be a secure alternative to making scripts setuid root. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Single-port inetd with pre-forking, suited for high-speed servers. superd turns any program that normally talks to stdin and stdout into a high speed server. It's similar in functionality to inetd but it handles only one port per invocation. It uses pre-forking and file descriptor passing to achieve high performance. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


format floppies TQ From whatis


An informal name for root. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


n. [Unix] Syn. root, avatar. This usage has spread to non-Unix environments; the superuser is any account with all wheel bits on. A more specific term than wheel. From Jargon Dictionary


n. After-sale handholding; something many software vendors promise but few deliver. To hackers, most support people are useless -- because by the time a hacker calls support he or she will usually know the software and the relevant manuals better than the support people (sadly, this is not a joke or exaggeration). A hacker's idea of `support' is a tjte-`-tjte with the software's designer. From Jargon Dictionary


v. [from the `surf' idiom for rapidly flipping TV channels] To traverse the Internet in search of interesting stuff, used esp. if one is doing so with a World Wide Web browser. It is also common to speak of `surfing in' to a particular resource. Hackers adopted this term early, but many have stopped using it since it went completely mainstream around 1995. The passive, couch-potato connotations that go with TV channel surfing were never pleasant, and hearing non-hackers wax enthusiastic about "surfing the net" tends to make hackers feel a bit as though their home is being overrun by ignorami. From Jargon Dictionary


a fast unix command line interface to WWW Surfraw - Shell Users' Revolutionary Front Rage Against the World Wide Web Surfraw provides a fast unix command line interface to a variety of popular WWW search engines and other artifacts of power. It reclaims google, altavista, dejanews, freshmeat, research index, slashdot and many others from the false-prophet, pox-infested heathen lands of html-forms, placing these wonders where they belong, deep in unix heartland, as god loving extensions to the shell. Surfraw abstracts the browser away from input. Doing so lets it get on with what it's good at. Browsing. Interpretation of linguistic forms is handed back to the shell, which is what it, and human beings are good at. Combined with incremental text browsers, such as links, w3m (or even lynx), and screen(1), or netscape-remote a Surfraw liberateur is capable of research speeds that leave GUI tainted idolaters agape with fear and wonder. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Cave surveying and mapping software A software suite to process, view, and print cave survey data. Survex is cross-platform (Linux/Unix, MS Windows, DOS, RISC OS). It includes English, French, German, Portuguese, Catalan, and Spanish internationalisations. It can deal with extremely large and complex datasets and can read survey data from many sources. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Sophisticated cave survey viewer for Survex Advanced cave viewer for Survex, written using the wxWindows library. Aven supersedes the xcaverot viewer in the main survex package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Suspend-Script is launched by apm or acpid on resume and suspend, it start or stop your network/sound etc... to make sure that everything work after hybernation of your computer. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


Console SVGA display utilities svgalib provides graphics capabilities to programs running on the system console, without going through the X Window System. It uses direct access to the video hardware to provide low-level access to the standard VGA and SVGA graphics modes. Only works with some video hardware; use with caution. This package contains the Svgalib utility programs. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


SVGA display utilities [libc5 compat] svgalib provides graphics capabilities to programs running on the system console, without going through the X Window System. It uses direct access to the video hardware to provide low-level access to the standard VGA and SVGA graphics modes. Only works with some video hardware; use with caution. This package contains the libc5 compatibility shared libraries. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Console SVGA display utilities svgalib provides graphics capabilities to programs running on the system console, without going through the X Window System. It uses direct access to the video hardware to provide low-level access to the standard VGA and SVGA graphics modes. Only works with some video hardware; use with caution. This package contains the (libc6) shared libraries and config files. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Run higher resolution text modes. This program is designed to greatly improve the normal (EGA-based) textmodes on your Linux machine. It uses an Xconfig-like configuration file to set up better looking textmodes. (=higher resolution, larger font size, higher display refresh...) This is already a big boon on normal 14" displays, and it is an immense difference on larger and better (15" and up) screens. It stems from the idea that it is a real waste of hardware to use EGA textmodes on an SVGA-card, which was designed to do much better than that. This package is mainly of use to people with older hardware that is not adequately supported by the Linux framebuffer drivers. If you abhor 80x25 text modes as much as I do but have a modern cpu and video hardware, then building a kernel with framebuffer support is probably a better option. Some newer video cards are not supported by this package at all (but are supported by the kernel fb drivers) WARNING: This program will not work on non-VGA based systems. Installing it will not do any harm, but activating the program can. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Virtual network computing client software for SVGA. VNC stands for Virtual Network Computing. It is, in essence, a remote display system which allows you to view a computing `Desktop' environment not only on the machine where it is running, but from anywhere on the Internet and from a wide variety of machine architectures. It is implemented in a client/server model. This package provides a client for SVGA, with this you can connect to a vncserver somewhere in the network and display its content on a graphic capable console. There are vncserver available for X and for Win95/NT, although the Win95/NT server may not work with svgalib viewer due to missing palette handling. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


An important aspect of all operating systems is a feature called "virtual memory". This allows the OS to take unused pieces of memory and write them to disk, then free up the block of memory just written so that another active application can use it. Whenever somebody needs that block again, the operating system will automatically restore it from the disk. Of course, it will then have to free up another block to do so by writing that block to the disk. This technique is generally called "swapping" or "paging". The word "swap" reflects the fact that inactive blocks of memory are being switched with active blocks from the disk. The word "paging" reflects the fact that a common name for a block of memory is "page". The name of the file on the disk that an OS uses for swapping is called the "swapfile" or "pagefile". Key point: A lot of security depends upon the fact that memory is secure: the OS protects applications from reading other application's memory, and that when the computer is turned off, the memory is erased. Therefore, applications can safely store passwords in clear-text in memory. Swapping defeats this, because the memory pages that store the passwords may have been swapped to the disk. Someone with physical access to the machine can turn it off, steal the disk, and run the pagefile through analysis programs in order possibly retrieve passwords. From Hacking-Lexicon


to move information from a fast-access memory to a slow-access memory (`swap out'), or vice versa (`swap in'). Often refers specifically to the use of disks as `virtual memory'. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


vt. 1. [techspeak] To move information from a fast-access memory to a slow-access memory (`swap out'), or vice versa (`swap in'). Often refers specifically to the use of disks as `virtual memory'. As pieces of data or program are needed, they are swapped into core for processing; when they are no longer needed they may be swapped out again. 2. The jargon use of these terms analogizes people's short-term memories with core. Cramming for an exam might be spoken of as swapping in. If you temporarily forget someone's name, but then remember it, your excuse is that it was swapped out. To `keep something swapped in' means to keep it fresh in your memory: "I reread the TECO manual every few months to keep it swapped in." If someone interrupts you just as you got a good idea, you might say "Wait a moment while I swap this out", implying that a piece of paper is your extra-somatic memory and that if you don't swap the idea out by writing it down it will get overwritten and lost as you talk. Compare page in, page out. From Jargon Dictionary

swap space

n. Storage space, especially temporary storage space used during a move or reconfiguration. "I'm just using that corner of the machine room for swap space." From Jargon Dictionary


Swap demon for dynamic swap file creation Swapd is a dynamic swapping manager for Linux. It provides the system with as much swap space (virtual memory) as is required at a particular time by dynamically creating swap files. This is more convenient than using fixed swap files and/or partitions because they (a) are unused most of the time and are just taking up disk space; and (b) provide a limited amount of virtual memory. On systems that have constant need for virtual memory it would still be wise to use a swap partition in parallel with dynamic swapping, since swap partitions provide much faster access than swap files. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


enable/disable devices and files for paging and swapping From whatis


start/stop swapping to file/device From whatis


enable/disable devices and files for paging and swapping From whatis


start/stop swapping to file/device From whatis

swapped in

n. See swap. See also page in. From Jargon Dictionary

swapped out

n. See swap. See also page out. From Jargon Dictionary


Samba Web Administration Tool The Samba software suite is a collection of programs that implements the SMB protocol for unix systems, allowing you to serve files and printers to Windows, NT, OS/2 and DOS clients. This protocol is sometimes also referred to as the LanManager or NetBIOS protocol. This package contains the components of the Samba suite that are needed for Web administration of the Samba server. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


log file viewer with regexp matching, highlighting, & hooks Swatch is designed to monitor system activity. It reads a configuration file which contains pattern(s) to look for and action(s) to perform when each pattern is found. A typical action is echoing the matched line in a variety of colours and formats including reverse video, bold, underline, and normal, which swatch knows how to do internally. Other actions include sending mail or executing an arbitrary program on the line. Swatch is written in Perl and uses Perl regular expressions for line matching. This Debian version of swatch includes two directives not yet found in the "official" swatch -- "PERLCODE" and "threshold". From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Thai word segmentation program This is a free word segmentation program from NECTEC. You need this program for thailatex and for creating proper Thai html pages. It is a better choice than cttex. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


An editor for sound samples An editor for sound samples. It operates on various PCM style files such as .wav, .aiff and .au. Sweep contains filters and effects you can apply to sound. One of its best features is multi-level undo and redo. It also allows discontinuous selections, multiple views of a sound sample and piano-style playback. Further information can be had at http://sweep.sourceforge.net/. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Steve Harris's LADSPA plugins Steve Harris has written a large number of plugins for LADSPA compatible hosts (e.g. GLAME, Sweep and ecasound). The plugins available are: amp, fast overdrive, overdrive (with colourisation), comb filter, waveshaper, ringmod, divider, diode, decliper, pitch scaler, 16 band equaliser, sinus wavewrapper, hermes filter, chorus, flanger, decimater, oscilator, gverb, phasers, harmonic generators and surround encoders. Further information about his plugins is available at <URL: http://plugin.org.uk/> From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Prolog interpreter. ISO/Edinburgh-style Prolog compiler. Compliant with Part 1 of the ISO standard for Prolog. Covers all traditional Edinburgh Prolog features and shares many features with Quintus and SICStus Prolog, including a compatible module system. Very fast compiler, garbage collection (also on atoms), fast and powerful C/C++ interface, autoloading, GNU-readline interface. SWI-Prolog has been designed and implemented such that it can easily be modified for experiments with logic programming and the relation between logic programming and other programming paradigms (such as the object oriented XPCE environment). SWI-Prolog has a rich set of built-in predicates and reasonable performance, which makes it possible to develop substantial applications in it. The current version offers a module system, garbage collection and an interface to the C language. Home page: http://www.swi-prolog.org From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Simplified Wrapper and Interface Generator (SWIG) is a software development tool for connecting C, C++ and Objective C programs with a variety of high-level programming languages. SWIG is primarily used with Perl, Python and Tcl/TK, but it has also been extended to Java,Eiffel and Guile. SWIG is normally used to create high-level interpreted programming environments, systems integration, and as a tool for building user interfaces. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


SWI-Prolog 5.0.0 From whatis


deprecated name of SWI-Prolog From whatis


Simple Web Indexing System for Humans: C++ version SWISH++ is a Unix-based file indexing and searching engine (typically used to index and search files on web sites). It was based on SWISH-E although SWISH++ is a complete rewrite. SWISH++ was developed to circumvent author's difficulties with using the SWISH-E package. SWISH++ features: * Lightning-fast indexing * Indexes META elements, ALT, and other attributes * Selectively not index text within HTML or XHTML elements * Intelligently index mail and news files * Index Unix manual page files * Apply filters to files on-the-fly prior to indexing * Index non-text files such as Microsoft Office documents * Modular indexing architecture * Index new files incrementally * Index remote web sites * Handles large collections of files * Lightning-fast searching * Optional word stemming (suffix stripping) * Ability to run as a search server * Easy-to-parse results format * Generously commented source code From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Simple Web Indexing System for Humans SWISH-Enhanced is a fast, powerful, flexible, and easy to use system for indexing collections of Web pages or other text files. Key features include the ability to limit searches to certain HTML tags (META, TITLE, comments, etc.). The SWISH-E software is free, and we include a package of Perl programs that enable anyone who is authorized to create and maintain their own indexes (AutoSwish). SWISH-E is an enhanced version of SWISH, which was originally written by Kevin Hughes and modified and released with his permission. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


the mother of all X Toolkit clocks Swisswatch is a reimplementation of der Mouse's mclock program using lightweight X Toolkit objects ("gadgets"). It relies heavily on resources for configuration, and can assume a wide range of looks. The application defaults files distributed with swisswatch currently support an oclock emulation, a Swiss railway clock emulation, and a fancy default appearance. You are encouraged to play with the resources and create your personalized version. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The Desktop Switcher is a tool which enables users to easily switch between various desktop environments that they have installed. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


The switchdesk-gnome package provides a GNOME look and feel for the Desktop Switcher program provided in the switchdesk package. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


The switchdesk-kde package provides the Desktop Switcher with a KDE look and feel. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


Matthew Henry Concise Commentary for SWORD An abridged version of Matthew Henry's commentary on the whole bible. Matthew Henry (1662-1714) was a Presbyterian minister in Chester. His work was long celebrated as the best of English commentaries for devotional purposes. Such as Whitefield and Spurgeon have used the work and commended it heartily. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


World English Bible (WEB) for SWORD The World English Bible is a 1997 revision of the American Standard Version of the Holy Bible, first published in 1901. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


suid, sgid file and directory checking This program is runs as a cronjob. Basically it tracks any changes in your s[ug]id files and folders. If there are any new ones, ones that aren't set any more, or they have changed bits or other modes then it reports the changes. You can also run this manually for spot checking. It tracks s[ug]id files by md5 checksums. This helps detect if your files have been tampered with, would not show under normal name and permissions checking. Directories are tracked by inodes. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Show an XPM (X PixMap) file and/or convert XPM 1 or 2 files to XPM 3. From whatis


Light weight e-mail client with GTK+ Light weight e-mail client with GTK+ running on X Window System. And aiming for * Quick response * Graceful, and sophisticated interface * Easy configuration, intuitive operation * Abundant features The appearance and interface are similar to some popular e-mail clients for Windows, such as Outlook Express or so. The interface is also designed to emulate the mailers on Emacsen, and almost all commands are accessible with the keyboard. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Bleeding edge version of the Sylpheed mail client Sylpheed Claws is a bleeding edge version of the Sylpheed mail client which has the most advanced features designed to be included in Sylpheed. It features the same features Sylpheed does: * Very good performance * Easy configuration and operation * Multiple accounts * High flexibility And more: * Better mail/news composing handling; * More advanced ways of handling headers and attachments; * More powerful handling of MIME types. * Per-folder default reply-to address and threading mode configuration; * Pixmap theming If you care for stability rather than more flexibility, use 'sylpheed' instead. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The part of an object table that gives the value of each symbol (usually as a section name and an offset) is called the symbol table. Executables may also have a symbol table, with this one giving the final values of the symbols. Debuggers use the symbol table to present addresses to the user in a symbolic, rather than a numeric form. It is possible to strip the symbol table from executables resulting in a smaller sized executable but this prevents meaningful debugging. From 252

symbolic-link or soft-link

A special filetype, which is a small pointer, file allowing multiple names for the same file. Unlilke hard links, symbolic links can be made for directories and can be made across filesystems. Commands that access the file being pointed to are said to follow the symbolic link. Commands that access the link itself do not follow the symbolic link. From Rute-Users-Guide

symlink (symbolic link)

On UNIX, a symbolic link is where a file in one directory acts as a pointer to a file in another directory. For example, you could create a link so that all accesses to the file /tmp/foo really act upon the file /etc/passwd. This feature can often be exploited. While a non-root user does not have permission to write to administrative files like /etc/passwd, they can certainly create links to them in the /tmp directory or their local directory. SUID can then be exploited whereby they believe they are acting upon a user file, which which are instead acting upon the original administrative file. This is the leading way that local users can escalate their privileges on a system. Example: finger A user could link their .plan file to any other file on the system. A finger daemon running with root privileges would then follow the link to that file and read it upon execution of a finger lookup. From Hacking-Lexicon


The symlinks utility performs maintenance on symbolic links. Symlinks checks for symlink problems, including dangling symlinks which point to nonexistent files. Symlinks can also automatically convert absolute symlinks to relative symlinks. Install the symlinks package if you need a program for maintaining symlinks on your system. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


scan/change symbolic links Symlinks scans directories for symbolic links and lists them on stdout. Each link is prefixed with a classification of relative, absolute, dangling, messy, lengthy or other_fs. Symlinks can also convert absolute links (within the same filesystem) to relative links and can delete messy and dangling links. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


In encryption, the word symmetric means those cases where the same key both encrypts and decrypts. This has been historically the "normal" encryption, but new public-key cryptography is changing things. Analogy: In your house, the same keys are used to lock and unlock your door. Examples: Some symmetric encryption ciphers are: DES The forerunner to most of today's popular symmetric ciphers. RC2, RC4, and RC5 Popular ciphers by RSA used in today's browsers for secure connections to websites. IDEA A cipher made popular by the fact that it was used in PGP. Blowfish A well-regarded cipher with free source code, no license required, unpatented, and royalty-free. As such, it is an extremely popular symmetric encryption algorithm. http://www.counterpane.com/blowfish.html TwoFish A new cipher with many of the same restrictions as Blowfish (i.e. none). It is even more efficient, and destined to become very popular. http://www.counterpane.com/twofish.html From Hacking-Lexicon


Modern mailing list manager Sympa is a scalable and highly customizable modern mailing list manager which can cope with big lists (200,000 subscribers). It can can handle a lots of useful features : - Moderation - Digest mode - Authentication (for subscription process) - Archive management - Multi-language support (us, fr, de, as, it, fi and Chinese locales) - Expiration process - Virtual domains (virtual robots) - Accesses to LDAP directories - Using a RDBMS for storing subscriber information (it supports both MySQL and PostgreSQL). - S/MIME encryption and HTTPS authentication Sympa provides a scripting language for extending the behaviour of commands, and a complete (user and admin) Web interface called WWSympa. SYMPA means 'Systhme de Multi-Postage Automatique' (French) or 'Automatic Mailing System' (English). It is written in Perl and uses some modules (mailtools, md5, msgcat, db). WWSympa is provided in a separate package named `wwsympa'. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


A program for representing sounds visually This is a program for representing sounds visually (from a CD, line input, or through a pipe). It goes beyond the usual oscilloscope style program by combining a FFT and stereo positioning information to give a two dimensional display. X and svgalib versions are included in this package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


GUI-frontend for APT Synaptic (previously known as raptor) is a graphical package management program for Debian. It provides the same features as the apt-get command line utility with a GUI front-end based on WINGs and can handle RPMs as well. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


/sink/ n., vi. (var. `synch') 1. To synchronize, to bring into synchronization. 2. [techspeak] To force all pending I/O to the disk; see flush, sense 2. 3. More generally, to force a number of competing processes or agents to a state that would be `safe' if the system were to crash; thus, to checkpoint (in the database-theory sense). From Jargon Dictionary


To force all pending I/O to the disk. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


commit buffer cache to disk. From whatis


flush filesystem buffers From whatis


BBDB to PalmOS Pilot Manger conduit Transfer address records between a PalmOS device like a Palm Pilot or a Visor, using a perl BBDB to PalmOS Pilot Manager conduit. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


/sis'ad-min/ n. Common contraction of `system admin'; see admin. From Jargon Dictionary


The Linux System Administrators' Guide The Linux System Administrators' Guide from the Linux Documentation Project. Aimed at novice system administrators. This package presents the guide in HTML format, you can produce other formats by getting the source package. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


configure kernel parameters at runtime From whatis


read/write system parameters From whatis


System Logging Daemon This package implements the system log daemon, which is an enhanced version of the standard Berkeley utility program. It is responsible for providing logging of messages received from programs and facilities on the local host as well as from remote hosts. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


The sysklogd package contains two system utilities (syslogd and klogd) which provide support for system logging. Syslogd and klogd run as daemons (background processes) and log system messages to different places, like sendmail logs, security logs, error logs, etc. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


Bootloader for Linux/i386 using MS-DOS floppies SYSLINUX is a boot loader for the Linux/i386 operating system which operates off an MS-DOS/Windows FAT filesystem. It is intended to simplify first-time installation of Linux, and for creation of rescue and other special-purpose boot disks. SYSLINUX is probably not suitable as a general purpose boot loader. However, SYSLINUX has shown itself to be quite useful in a number of special-purpose applications. You will need support for `msdos' filesystem in order to use this program From Debian 3.0r0 APT


SYSLINUX is a boot loader for the Linux operating system which canoperate off MS-DOS floppies. It is intended to simplify first-time installation of Linux, rescue disks, and provide other uses for boot floppies. A SYSLINUX floppy can be manipulated using standard MS-DOS(or any other OS that can access an MS-DOS filesystem) tools (once it has been created), and requires only an approximately 7K DOS program or approximately 13K Linux program to create it in the first place. It also includes PXELINUX, a program to boot off a network server using a boot PROM compatible with the Intel PXE (Pre-Execution Environment) specification. From Redhat 8.0 RPM


SYSLINUX is a boot loader for the Linux operating system which operates off an MS-DOS/Windows FAT filesystem. It is intended to simplify first-time installation of Linux, and for creation of rescue-and other special-purpose boot disks. This version include a patched SYSLINUX for handling VESA graphic mode. From Mandrake 9.0 RPM


bootloader for Linux using MS-DOS floppies From whatis


converts a syslinux-format screen to pc-ansi From whatis


On UNIX, syslog is the standard logging facility. Programs call the syslog() function, and their messages end up somewhere in the /var/log directory. The syslog facility can also be configured to forward alerts from one UNIX machine to another (using un-authenticated UDP datagrams to port 514). Key point: When analyzing a machine that was broken into, you may find interesting information in the syslog logs. In particular, buffer-overflow attempts have distinctive messages, such as messages claiming an unknown command where the command is a string of binary characters. From Hacking-Lexicon


The UNIX System Logger. From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


Setup and remove LOCALx facility for sysklogd From whatis


Next generation logging daemon Syslog-ng tries to fill the gaps original syslogd's were lacking: * powerful configurability * filtering based on message content * message integrity, message encryption (near future) * portability * better network forwarding From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Summarize the contents of a syslog log file. This program summarizes the contents of a log file written by syslog, by displaying each unique (except for the time) line once, and also the number of times such a line occurs in the input. The lines are displayed in the order they occur in the input. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


list system logfiles From whatis


Modularized system wide shell logout mechanism Simple centralized configuration mechanism for flexible maintenance of the shell specific parts for logout from a Debian Linux system. It has been designed to work with bash. Other shells have not been taken in consideration for this version. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


display system news The news command keeps you informed of news concerning the system. Each news item is contained in a separate file in the /var/lib/sysnews directory. Anyone having write permission to this directory can create a news file. NOTE: This command has nothing to do with USENET news. It's more like an enhanced motd. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


/sis'op/ n. [esp. in the BBS world] The operator (and usually the owner) of a bulletin-board system. A common neophyte mistake on FidoNet is to address a message to `sysop' in an international echo, thus sending it to hundreds of sysops around the world. From Jargon Dictionary


Modularized system wide shell configuration mechanism Simple centralized configuration mechanism for flexible maintenance of the shell specific parts for login to a Debian Linux system. It has been designed to work with bash. Other shells have not been taken in consideration for this version. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


sar, iostat and mpstat - system performance tools for Linux The sysstat package contains the sar, mpstat and iostat commands for Linux. The sar command collects and reports system activity information. The iostat command reports CPU utilization and I/O statistics for disks. The mpstat command reports global and per-processor statistics. The statistics reported by sar concern I/O transfer rates, paging activity, process-related activities, interrupts, network activity, memory and swap space utilization, CPU utilization, kernel activities and TTY statistics, among others. Both UP and SMP machines are fully supported. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


n. 1. The supervisor program or OS on a computer. 2. The entire computer system, including input/output devices, the supervisor program or OS, and possibly other software. 3. Any large-scale program. 4. Any method or algorithm. 5. `System hacker': one who hacks the system (in senses 1 and 2 only; for sense 3 one mentions the particular program: e.g., `LISP hacker') From Jargon Dictionary

system call

The mechanism used by an application program to request service from the operating system. System calls often use a special machine code instruction which causes the processor to change mode (e.g. to "supervisor mode" or "protected mode"). From Linux Guide @FirstLinux


The services provided by the kernel to application programs, and the way in which they are invoked. See section 2 of the manual pages.


Programs that implement high level functionality of an operating system, i.e., things that aren't directly dependent on the hardware. May sometimes require special privileges to run (e.g., for delivering electronic mail), but often just commonly thought of as part of the system (e.g., a compiler).


Unified Configuration API for Linux Installation Provides an API for various installation and configuration processes that are otherwise inconsistent between the many Linux distributions, and the many architectures they run on. For example, you can configure the bootloader on a system in a general way - you don't need to know anything about the particular boot loader on the system. You can update the network settings of a system, without knowing the distribution or the format of its network configuration files. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


SystemImager utilities for golden clients SystemImager is a set of utilities for installing GNU/Linux images to clients machines over the network. Images are stored in flat files on the server, making updates easy. rsync is used for transfers, making updates efficient. This package contains utilities for updating a client's image from the server, and preparing a client for having it's image fetched by the server. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Kernel tuning through the /proc filesystem. This program writes kernel parameters, previously saved in a configuration file, to the /proc filesystem. This enables kernel performance to be adjusted without recompiling the kernel. systune can be alternative to sysctl(8). It is also started after the most daemons and other init.d scripts, so it can be used as "second stage" sysctl. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


Miscellaneous small system utilities. This is a package incorporating various small utilities which are: * procinfo - Displays system information from /proc (v17). * memtest - Test system memory for errors (v2.93.1). * bogomips - Shows the current bogomips rating without rebooting (v1.2). * tofromdos - Converts DOS <-> Unix text files (v1.4). From Debian 3.0r0 APT


System-V banner clone Displays a `banner' text the same way as the System V banner does: horizontally. From Debian 3.0r0 APT


System-V like init. Init is the first program to run after your system is booted, and continues to run as process number 1 until your system halts. Init's job is to start other programs that are essential to the operation of your system. All processes are descended from init. For more information, see the manual page init(8). From Debian 3.0r0 APT